TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIJARBT)
VOL. 6 (1) AUGUST, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 3438-2901
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
CERCARIAL INFECTIVITY OF FRESHWATER SNAILS
¹T. OKEREKE, ²M.D.A BUNZA, ¹Q. MAJEED AND ¹S. A FANA
1Department of Biological Science Zoology unit of Usmanu Danfodio University Sokoto, School of Medical Laboratory Science Usmanu Danfodio University Sokoto 2Department of biology Federal University Birnin Kebbi.
Study was conducted on cercarial infectivity of freshwater snails. Snails were collected from Rima River of Usmanu Danfodio University Sokoto. They were transported to the laboratory in water containers and screened for infections. 410 snails of Bulinus truncatus, Lymnea natalensis and Melanoides tubaculata were screened, out of which 320(78.04%) were positive for trematode cercariae. The percentage of infection in Lymnea sp, Bulinus sp and Melanoides sp were 260(83.87%), 60(66.6%) and 0(0.00%) respectively. Prevalence was high in Lymnea sp followed by Bulinus sp, but Melanoides sp did not show any infection. Statistics shows significant different in snails infected with cercariae (P<0.001). The present study reveals that these snails harboure infective stages of trematodes cercariae
Keywords: Snails, infective stage , Lymnea, Melanoides, Bulinus
IMPACT OF AGRO PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES: CASE OF KOGI WEST SENATORIAL DISTRICT, NIGERIA
1SIKIRU KAMARDEEN KOLADE, 2AYENI, BASHIR SAKA
1Department of Business and Management Studies, University of Abuja, 2Department Geography, Faculty of science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State.
This study was undertaken to examine the contributions of Agribusiness to the growth and economic development of Nigeria. A total of 20 villages out of 59 were selected for the research, a structured questionnaires were administered among the Agro processing investors in five local governments that make up the Kogi West senatorial District. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of bar char, pie chart, frequency and percentages. The result shows that agro processing industries has contributed to economic growth and development of the area in term of employment to the people, income generation and enhancing rural – urban interaction through marketing of agro processing products. The agro processing industries faced the challenges of small capital or inadequate capital for establishment, lack of government assistance in term loans and other facilities, poor marketing/patronage due to poor condition of roads and use of human labour majorly for processing of products. It was recommended that prospective investors in agro processing industries should form a cooperative societies to boost their productivity and the government should encourage investors by given loans and other credit facilities in order to revive agriculture from the declining productivity, to sustain food demand, reduced importation of food in Nigeria.
Keywords: Agribusiness, Food processing, Food sustainability, Economic growth and development
INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST LESSER GRAIN BORER (RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (FABRIUS) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) ON COWPEA SEED (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (LINNAEUS))
1BUKAR, A., 2KABIR, B. G. J. & 2SASTAWA, B. M.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Crop protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Abamectin against Rhyzopertha dominica on cowpea. The test was conducted under ambient laboratory conditions (28-35Oc and 65-70% r.h.). Thirty unsexed adult insects were bioassayed on 50g cowpea grain sample treated with the Abamectin insecticide at five concentrations: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 ml/kg. Mortality of exposed adults were assessed after 7, 14 and 21days exposure to treated grains. Number of progeny were assessed at 56 and 112days after removal of parent insects. Significance (p<0.05) differences in adult mortality were noted between different concentrations and exposure periods on treated grain. Increase in concentrations and exposure period resulted in higher adult mortality and progeny suppression. After 14days exposure to the highest dose rates, 100% adult mortality was achieved. Progeny production was considerably suppressed even with lowest concentrations of 1.0ml/kg. Where 1.2±0.6 and 1.0±0.5 adults recorded compared with untreated control with 91.4±2.9 and 116.0±5.1 after 56 and 112days of storage, respectively. Similarly, the percentage of insect damage kernel and weight loss decreased with increase in concentrations. At 3.0ml/kg no grain damage and weight loss were recorded as compared to 100% and 81.6%, in the untreated control, respectively. Furthermore, the result indicate that germination loss decreased with increase in concentrations of Abamectin. The present results show high insecticidal efficacy of Abamectin towards R. dominica and represent a suitable alternative to the traditional grain protectants.
Key words. Abamectin .R. dominica . Cowpea . Adult mortality . Progeny Suppression
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN MITIGATING POVERTY LEVEL AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLD HEADS IN YOLA-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE
CHRISTOPHER RAYMOND AND GODFREY ERICKSON NJIDDARI.
Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola
A study was conducted to determine the role of social capital available to farming household heads in Yola-South local government area of Adamawa state. The specific objectives were to determine the percentage of households living below the poverty line, examine the sources of social capital available to them, and ascertain the relationship between the volume of capital demanded by respondents and the volume of capital supplied to the respondents in the area. Data used for the study were obtained through a survey of 100 randomly selected farming household heads from Yola town, Ngurore, Sangere and Hosere. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used as analytical tools. The result shows that 83.89% of the respondents were poor, surviving below N921.5 daily per capita income (pci), only 16.11% of them survive above daily pci of N921.5 (which is the estimated poverty line set by world bank in 2005). 85.33% of the respondents belong to various groups and associations. The study revealed that household heads used six sources of social capital respectively in the area, and that community (mainly friends and neighbours) constituted 38.02% while family members was 38.02% of the main sources of social capital available to respondents. Friends supplied the highest social capital to the respondents with 38.86%, while family supplied 28.05%. The pearsons correlation analysis (r=0.7) revealed that there was a very strong positive relationship between the total volume of capital in naira demanded and the total volume of capital in naira supplied to respondents by the available source of social capital. Chi-square test shows that there is a significant difference (98.9850) in the observed frequencies of the sources of social capital available to different household heads in the study area. The respondents were constrained with some social capital problems; the most prominent is inadequate trust and confidence of repayment of capital. In conclusion, the study reveals that household heads were not financially constrained in the study area and a number of policy recommendations were proposed for addressing these problems.
Keywords: Role, Social capital, Mitigate, Poverty, Households.
SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITE LOCATION USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN YOLA NORTH L.G.A, ADAMAWA STATE
AISHA IBRAHIM ADAMU
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa state.
Exponential increase in population in Jimeta and the resulting urbanization has brought the need to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient solid waste Landfill site. Landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Appropriate selection of landfill site is important in order to minimize environmental damage as well as to prevent negative impact to the public health, thereby improving the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of the landfill. Current there is no proper landfill site in Jimeta and does not meet the appropriate landfill siting criteria which is not to be sited around artery road, resident area, airport water surface and high slope areas. Environmental implications of indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes on the society are enormous. In order to ensure a sustainable and clean environment, establishment of sanitary landfill for effective disposal of solid waste is very essential. A GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach was a good tool to help in finding suitable sites for the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is expected to provide the decision makers with landfill suitability index in terms of unsuitable, low suitability, moderately suitable and high suitability in order to understanding probable areas for siting environmentally good landfill sites. To achieve this, Google earth imagery and Digital elevation model were subjected to image processing algorithms to generate following GIS layers: Slope, Airport layer, CBD, Settlement and road network. The multi criteria decision analysis technique was employed as a decision tool to decipher the Five factors that would enhance the siting of landfill in Jimeta Metropolis. From the analysis, a suitability map was created of which three locations were identified as suitable site for land fill (A,B and C). these locations were further analyze using synthesis of the models which identify location C as the most suitable and accept site out of the three locations for siting Landfill site in the study area.
Keywords: Solid waste, Landfill, GIS, Analytical Network Process, weighted, suitability and hazards.
A RESEARCH ON VEGETABLES CULTIVATED IN KOFAR MARUSA WATERWAY AND AJIWA DAM GARDENS AND THEIR PARASITIC CONTAMINATION
AHMAD LAWAL NUHU1, DANJUMA MUHAMMAD1, AISHA DANJUMA MUHAMMAD2
1Department of Biology. School of Sciences, Federal College of Education, Katsina 2Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education, Katsina
This study investigated the parasitic contamination on vegetables cultivated in KofarMarusa and Ajiwa Dam Gardens in Katsina State. 50 samples each of Lettuce, Carrot, Cabbage and Amaranthus were collected from each of the two gardens and processed using wet method. Parasites such as hookworm, E. histolytica, E. vermicularis, Schistosoma, paragonimus, B. coli and ascariswere detected in the vegetables.Sixty-seven percent (67.5%)of vegetables cultivated in KofarMarusa waterway gardens tested positive for parasite contamination while 42% of the same vegetables cultivated inAjiwa Dam gardens tested positive for parasite contamination. Lettuce is the most parasite contaminated vegetable with 45(90%) and 31(62%) prevalence while the least parasite contaminated is carrot with 7(14%) and 3(6%) prevalence for both KofarMarusa and Ajiwa Dam gardens respectively. The observed parasite prevalence do not significantly differs from the expected prevalence for KofarMarusa (χ2= 28.64;p>0.05) and Ajiwa Dam (χ2 = 22.10; P>0.05).Density of parasite in Lettuce (F1, 19 = 4.851; p <0.05), Cabbage (F1, 19 = 1.714; p <0.05) and Ammaranthus(F1, 19 = 1.231; p <0.05)from the two sites significantly differs with higher parasite density in KofarMarusa than in Ajiwa Dam garden except for parasite contamination in carrot which do not significantly differ (F1, 19 =.067; p >0.05). It was concluded that, vegetables cultivated in KofarMarusa waterway are more parasite contaminated than vegetables cultivated in Ajiwa Dam as such, vegetables should be washed properly with salt or any other safety means to sanitize vegetables before eating.
Keywords: Parasite, Vegetables, KofarMarusa Waterway, Ajiwa Dam, Gardens
CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA VIRUS: AN IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE PATHOGEN OF POULTRY – A REVIEW
MOHAMMED, A.S ABBA; AND ADAMU, M. S1.
Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi. Adamawa State. Nigeria
Chicken infectious anaemia (blue wing disease) is an emerging highly contagious acute disease of poultry especially of young chicks, Characterized by anaemia ,atrophy of lymphoid organ and immunosuppression, Chicks 1-2 weeks old are more susceptible and more common in Broilers, It has a worldwide distribution and causes high economic losses due to poor growth, increased mortality, carcass condemnations and cost of antibiotics. Seroprevalence study has revealed 88.9% prevalence in Nigerian indigenous chickens and 99.3% in Nigerian commercial chicken. Chicken infectious anaemia is caused by an etiological agent known as the chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV), is the smallest known avian pathogen. CIAV is highly contagious, hardy virus that belongs to the Gyrovirus genus of the family Circoviridae and ubiquitous and can be vertically transmitted. Circular viral genome (2.3 kb) encodes three distinct viral proteins: VPl, VP2 and VP3. VPl is the major capsid protein and VP2 is a non-structural scaffold protein. VPl and VP2 are the protective proteins inducing neutralizing antibodies. VP3 is an apoptin, whose ability to induce tumour-specific apoptosis makes it a promising candidate for gene therapy of various tumours. The disease is characterized by generalized lymphoid atrophy particularly of the thymus, pale bone marrow and liver, anaemia, and severe immunosupression leading to secondary infections. Only a single viral serotype is believed to exist with high sequence identity among different isolates. Tentative diagnosis can usually be made based on flock history, clinical signs, and gross lesions in affected birds. Confirmatory diagnosis needs isolation and identification of the ClAV. Recent DNA detection techniques of PCR, alongwith RE analysis and sequencing have emerged as effective confirmatory tools for studying its molecular epizootiology. Boosting of parenteral immunity is top priority under control measures. Vaccination strategies inclusive of live-attenuated, inactivated and recombinant (r)-DNA vaccines are being explored. The disease has been reported in Nigeria, warranting the need for ascertaining epidemiological status of the disease in the entire country and devise effective control measures timely for this emerging disease.
Keywords: Infectious, Anaemia Virus, Pathogen, Poultry, Review.
A STUDY OF TECHNIQUES FOR SUSTAINING HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT THROUGH MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYETHYLENE AND PLASTIC POLLUTANTS
CHUKWUDI C. IWUOZOR, 1JOHN O. OKARA & ADERONKE A. OSHINOWO
School of Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Delta State
Polythene and Plastic wastes range in types including pure water sachets, cellophane bags, plastic packaging of confectioneries, bakery products, toiletries, laminating materials, soft drinks, pieces of plastic buckets, plates, cups, wrappings etc. They are found in household wastes, refuse dump sites, municipal drainage system, street refuse collections, where they constitute menace; where they constitute serious pollution, health hazard and endangerment to the environment. Removal of these pollutants by bioremediation using viable microorganisms is the crux of this research. The ability of Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis to biodegrade polyethylene was studied. Low density polyethylene and high density polyethylene films were exposed outdoor for 24 weeks. The two isolates were able to grow on polyethylene (PE) forming visible biofilms. The mean heterotrophic bacterial counts in the soil sample ranged between 2.311 X 105-3.20 X 108 CFU/g. The rate of degradation was determined by measurement of the residual weight of the PE films. Biodegradation in Erlenmeyer flasks by the bacteria after 60 days of incubation ranged between 8.41%-23.15%. The result showed that certain Bacillus sp. indigenous to the Niger Delta soil are capable of growing on PE films and biodegrade them, after an initial abiotic degradation. Bioremediation processes using the test bacteria is strongly recommended to be incorporated into waste disposal systems for a clean and healthy environment
Key words: Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, biodegradation, natural weathering, waste disposal, polyethylene, plastics.
ANALYSIS OF AGRO-INFORMATION USE AMONG FARMERS IN GIADE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
*BABUGA, U. S.; & **DANDAWO, H.
*Department of Agriculture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
This study was conducted to determine factors influencing effective communication of agricultural information in Giade LGA, Bauchi state. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design. The sample size was 150 respondents randomly drawn from three wards of the LGA using simple random sampling technique. Fifty respondents were selected from each of the selected wards. The study used a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The questionnaires were self-administered. Results of the study indicated the major extension communication media in the study area is radio 90% utilized by the respondents. The result further revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between choice of media, socio-economic characteristics and effective communication of agricultural information as supported by beta coefficients of 0.217 and 0.651 respectively. Choice of agro information sources and farmers attitude influences effective communication. The study recommended that the extension agency through the relevant contact persons at the community level, should develop communication structures that can effectively improve information exchange between the extension workers and the farmers.
KEYWORDS: Agro Information, Uses, Factors, Giade and Bauchi State
ASSESSMENT OF HAND HYGIENE STATUS OF SOME STUDENTS USING E. COLI AS A MAJOR INDICATOR (A CASE STUDY, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, MUBI – ADAMAWA STATE)
*ABUBAKAR, I.; *MOHAMMED, A.; & **TANKO, M. M
*Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi **Department of Chemical Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
This research work entitled “Assessment of Hand Hygiene Status of Some Students Using E. coli as a Major indicator (A Case Study, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi – Adamawa State)”. The main objectives of the study were to confirm coliform contaminants in the hands of the students of the department and to determine the sex with the highest rate of coliform contamination. The hands of thirty (30) students comprising of fifteen (15) males and fifteen (15) males were well washed using sterile water but without soap. The waste water obtained from sterile hand wash of 30 students were collected in sterile beakers and labeled accordingly. The samples were analyzed using 3 test tubes method of MPN and the result was interpreted using the three (3) test tubes MPN table. The male samples had the highest MPN with 150 CFU/mL, while females had 120 CFU/mL. Results obtained revealed that all samples were positive for coliform bacteria in presumptive test but only 12(80.0 %) male students have their hands contaminated with coliform bacteria while, 8(53.3 %) female students sampled were positive for confirmatory coliform test. The results for the completed test showed that 6(40.00 %) of the male samples yielded colonies of green metallic sheen which confirmed E. coli on EMBA and Microscopically appeared as Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacteria, while 3(20.0 %) was recorded as being the lowest rate of E. coli contamination in the female students out of the fifteen (15) samples which also had the green metallic sheen.
Keywords: Gram negative, Contamination, E. coli
EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. (1980-2019)
*SALISU BABA MANU; *MA’ULE, U; **UNGUWA JULI; & ***JIBRIN, I
*Department of Economics, School of Arts & Social sciences. A.D. Rufa’I College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau. P.M.B. 004 Misau, Bauchi State Nigeria. **School of Remedial & Continuing Education (SORCE), A.D. Rufa’I College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau. P.M.B. 004 Misau, Bauchi State Nigeria. ***Department of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational and Technical education. Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, PMB044, Bauchi State Nigeria.
This study empirically examine the impact or roles played by financial institutions in promoting economic and Agricultural development in Nigeria between 1980 and 2019. Secondary time series data on the variables were used for the period of 39 years. Unit root test both ADF & PP were used to check for the stationarity of the data though only ADF was reported in the main work. Unit root test result reveals that, all the variables were found to stationary at level I(O). OLS regression analysis was used to estimate the main model. OLS result show that all the explanatory variables impacted positively on the real GDP. We therefore conclude that financial institutions has or plays a positive and significant role on Agricultural & economic development in Nigeria. We therefore offer some recommendations. We recommend the federal government through central bank of Nigeria to encourage commercial banks to give out more loans and credit facilities to the small, medium and large scale farmers in order to expand the size of their production. Similarly the real interest rate on agricultural loans should be lowered by the monetary authorities, this encourages many farmers to go for loans in order to engage in agricultural activities.
Keywords: Agriculture, OLS, ADF, financial institutions
AN APPRAISAL OF PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN THE PROVISION OF URBAN UTILITIES IN NIGERIA
YAKUBU USMAN MOHAMMED; LAWAL KABIR TUNAU; & SULEIMAN MOHAMMED DAJI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa – Nigeria.
This paper appraises the private sector participation in the provision of urban utilities in Nigeria where the study looks at the trends of private sector participation in utility provision in developing countries, major impediments of private sector participation in utility provision, state of the water sector in Nigeria, water supply by the private sector in Nigeria and challenges for private sector participation in water supply in Nigeria. Data collection was carried out through literature review. The study concludes that Since water is a major source of life sustenance, it is pertinent not to see water supply provision as a one-way show. The private sector should be fully involved. This can be achieved by providing clear-cut agreements by the public side through appropriate legal frameworks which will make private participation more favourable. The study finally recommends that a legal framework should be put in place to ensure policy continuity for private sector participation and government should provide an enabling environment for the attraction and retention of the private sector’s interest in water supply facilities development, provision and management.
Keywords: Private sector, Water supply, Appraisal, Participation,, Utilities provision
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME SELECTED VEGETABLES SOLD IN DAMATURU METROPOLIS YOBE STATE, FLUTED PUMPKIN (TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS) AND SPINACH (AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS)
KATUZU. M. I1, HODI. A. I2, LAWAN. L3 AND AMINA. G. M4.
1Department of Science of Basic Science, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State. 2&3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State. 4Department of Midwifery Aminu Sule College of Nursing and Midwifery, Damaturu. Yobe State.
Vegetables are the fresh and edible potion of herbaceous plants which can be eaten raw or cooked .They are valued mainly for their high carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral contents. Vegetables play a vital role in the culture of people in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. This research is aimed at identifying the phytochemicals and determining the elemental composition present in flu pumpkin and spinach. Using solvent extraction method; the result showed that alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids and carbohydrate were present in both vegetables. Saponin and quinones were present only in spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) and Phenol is present only in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentals), while terpenoids were absent in both vegetables. The result for mineral composition of fluted pumpkin shows that it contained K (80.20), Fe (15.64) Mg (76.46) Zn (5.52) Na (47.81), ca (27.48) and P (13.02). Elemental analysis in mg/100g indicated that leaves of spinach contained Na (7.43), K (54.20), Ca (44.15), Mg (231.22) Fe (13.58), Zn (3.80) and p (34.91). The result indicated that the fluted pumpkin and spinach leaves are good sources of minerals. Therefore based on the result obtained, fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and (Amaranthus hybridus) could be used to improve the health status and essential in reducing a number of diseases in human. Further research should be carried out on both plants to determine their potency in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases like diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Keywords: Vegetables, phytochemicals, diseases, flavonoids, extraction.
PROFITABILITY OF POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
UMAR TABARI YERO & KABIR HARUNA DANJA (Ph.D)
The study was conducted to investigate the profitability of poultry production in Kaduna state and 9 local governments were selected using stratified random sampling. Data was collected with the used of structured questionnaire from 166 poultry producers which consist of layers, broilers and pullet producers. Frequencies, percentages and net farm income were adopted in the analysis of data. The study was interested on total revenue and total cost of poultry production. The total cost comprises fixed and variable cost, total variable cost consists of day old chicks (doc), feeds, cost of vaccine, electricity and cost of labor. Fixed cost items include poultry house, cage, vehicle and other poultry production equipment. The profitability of layer producers in the study area was 6.15, broiler producers’ was 1.91 and pullet was 1.69 as revealed by the study. The study further revealed that variable cost took 99% of the total cost of poultry production in Kaduna state.
Keywords: Profitability, Poultry Production, Layer, Broiler and Pullet Production.
A SURVEY ON IMPACT OF IRRIGATION FARMING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAKARFI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE
Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State
This study surveyed the impact of irrigation farming on rural development in Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Three (3) research objectives and questions guided the study. Descriptive survey method was employed and the population of the study was all the inhabitants of Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna state totalling one hundred and forty six thousand two hundred and fifty nine (146,259), while sample of four hundred (400) respondents comprising irrigation farmers, perishable good traders, students and civil servants selected through proportionate sampling technique. The instrument titled “ Survey on Impact of Irrigation Farming on Rural Development (SIMIFRAD)” questionnaire was used for data collection, which contained four (3) sections in relation to the study variables based on 4-point Likert scale. Cronbach alpha was used for the analysis of reliability and reliability coefficient of .91 (Section A); .82 (Section B); .89 (Section C) were obtained respectively. Mean and standard deviation were used to present the descriptive data and a mean of 2.5 and above was analyzed as agreed, while below 2.5 as disagreed. The study revealed that, irrigation farming contributes to employment opportunity and income generation by cutting down the rate of rural-urban migration, increasing per capita aggregate production, providing youths with income that they invest in businesses, increasing the demand for farm labour and use of hired labour, increasing farmers’ income regularly and agricultural productivity. irrigation farming contributes to poverty alleviation through reducing indebtedness among the people, helped families to enrol their children in both public/private schools, helped families to build their own houses, provided member with money to buy their children and wives good clothes and basic necessities, helped many youths to further their education in the home, increased families income for providing nutritious food in their homes, provided youths with income that enabled them to marry and take proper care of their families. Finally, it was found that, irrigation farming contributes to food security by increasing the availability of food items, reduced malnutrition among children, providing flexibility in decision-making with regards to food storage, improved the regular household supply of food items, enabled in-flow of people from different communities to buy food stuffs/ items as well as provide families with enough food commodities throughout the year in Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna state. Base on the findings, it was recommended that, Government, Commercial Banks and Development Partners should provide farmers with soft-loans in order to boost irrigation farming; Government at the Local Level should provide enough storage facilities for irrigation farmers, this will go a long way in achieving sustainable food security in Makarfi Local Government Area.
Keywords: Irrigation Farming, Poverty Alleviation, Employment Opportunity, Food Security and Rural Development
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND DENSIFICATION OF RICE HUSK PELLETS OF DIFFERENT BINDING LEVEL WITH CHARCOAL
UNWAHA, J.I.; ISSA, A.K; & JONES, N.D
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State
Rice husks are generated from Paddy Rice (Oryza sativa). The residue is usually dumped and flared on the farms, where it constitutes fire, environmental and health hazards. Rice husks are potential feedstock for fuel energy generation. This research work determine the physical behavior of rice husk pellets of different densities with charcoal .the characteristics of the pellets determined are proximate analysis, physical properties,, durability(or shatter index), maximum and relaxed densities. The use of different compaction pressure and % binder ratios in producing pellets resulted in different physical and energetic properties of pellets. The results from the combustion rate test of 40g shows that rice husk pellets produced with tamarind starch and cassava starch attained higher temperature (about 620°C) in less than 7 minutes than the charcoal (about 375°C) and both can give high temperature with higher quantity of fuel. The caloric values of charcoal and rice husk pellets with cassava starch tamarind starch are 30.57 MJ/kg, 18.82MJ/kg and 17.39MJ/kg respectively. These results show that the pellets are capable of generating heat that is sufficient for cooking, space heating and baking with suitable appliances. The pellets can serve as substitute for charcoal users since it shows superior combustion characteristic less emission of CO (0.3ppm) and SO2 (0.5ppm) over charcoal which has CO emission of 4.2ppm and SO2 of 1.2ppm. the pellets produced with tamarind starch( Non-edible starch) exhibited good physical and energetic properties that are better than the pellets produced with cassava starch (Edible starch). The tamarind starch (from waste seeds) can therefore be used as a replacement for cassava starch which has competitive need.
Keywords: Pellets, Rice Husk, Cassava Starch, Tamarind Starch and Binder Ratio