TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCE (TIJBEES)
VOL. 5 (4) MAY, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 1881-2167
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
EVALUATION OF FIRE SAFETY PREPAREDNESS IN SHIRORO HYDROPOWER STATION, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA.
Y.U1, ZUBAIRU AND PROF I.M2, JARO
1,2Center for Disaster Risk Management, Department of Geography. A.B.U Zaria, Nigeria.
Fire has been a blessing and a curse to humanity. Over time, fire has caused unimaginable destruction to lives, properties and the environment. The study evaluates fire safety preparedness in Shiroro Hydropower Station in Niger State, Nigeria. The study used both primary and secondary data, with a checklist of fire safety preparednessequipments to ascertain their availability. 178 structured questionnaires were administered using stratified random sampling of the staff in each section. Descriptive statistics using percentages and frequencies was used to present the results. The findings revealed that the fire safety preparedness level within the station is on a good stand although there is need for improvement. The result shows that the distribution of the preparedness equipments were disproportionate with the power house and administrative blocks having the automated fire safety equipments (98%) while the schools, hospital and the store complex was only provided with portable and motorable (trolley) type of the fire extinguishers (54%), the fire safety vehicles were also kept within the power house complex far away from the schools, hospital and store areas which will delay prompt response to fire emergency in those areas difficult. The study concluded by recommending the Hydropower station management to provide automated heat and smoke detectors in the schools, hospital and store complex. Fire safety truck should also be put on standby close to the school and hospital for prompt response to fire incidents.
Keywords: Preparedness, Fire safety, Fire extinguisher, Hydropower Station, Shiroro
HYDROLOGICAL WATER SIMULATION MODELLING USING HEC-RAS AND GEO-HECRAS FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ALONG RIVER KOGI AT CHALLAWA KUMBOSTO LGA KANO STATE
HENRY EBIAKPO EGBEJULE1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Science Bayero University Kano, Pmb 3011 Kano State, Nigeria
In many developing countries water has become one of the topmost priorities for resource management, and this may affect the environment and the outcome of the production and which it impact differs due to its geological and hydrological settings. In an attempt to adopted hydrologic engineering center river analysis system (HEC-RAS) and Geographical hydrologic engineering center river analysis system (Geo-HECRAS) simulation model along river Kogi at Magasawa village Kumbosto local government area Kano State North-Eastern Nigeria, to examine the rainfall and surface runoff and the peak discharge of the river. In the study area Hec-Ras model is used to describe the hydraulic behavior of this system, the river reach selected along the river threshold, from an image LANDSTAT the area, has been divided into 20 cross sections perpendicular to the flow directions numbered 1 to 20. ArcGis was used to extract the bathymetry for each cross section, this allow to creating the river geometry with Hec-Ras. The stream flow has successively fixed as upstream boundaries. For each stream flow, Hec-ras calculate the flow characteristics. The high and low characteristics areas have been located. The most of these stream parameter decreases for upstream to downstream. In general, the result shows that in the study area. Based on the findings of the study it is recommended that investor friendly environment should be created for those willing to invest to avoid environmental mismanagement.
Keywords: Water flow parameter, Landstat, ARCGIS, HEC-RAS and GEO-HECRAS software
THE EFFECT OF URBAN RENEWAL ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE IN ADO AND IKERE EKITI.
DAIRO OMOLOLA. E 1AND ADEDEJI ADEYEMI. A2
1Department of Estate Management and Evaluation, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state. Nigeria. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state. Nigeria
Urban renewal brings changes the urban environment and makes the living and working condition better for the inhabitant as well as improving the value of properties within the affected neighbourhood. It was on this basis that this work sets out to effect of urban renewal on commercial property value in Ado and Ikere Ekiti, and also to evaluate the urban renewal approach adopted in the study area. A well-structured questionnaire was administered on selected shop and office owners and estate valuer Ado and Ikere Ekiti using the Simple Random Sampling Technique. The retrieved questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive (mean value techniques). Also the weighted rent/m2 of commercial properties was also determined. The research findings reveal that there was an increase in commercial property value as result as a result urban renewal process carried out in the study area. This study therefore recommends that the shops and office owners should be enlight`ened on the importance of maintenance culture so as to conserve the facilities already put in place and also state government should embark on comprehensive rehabilitation of all infrastructures instead of concentrating on road network and drainages only in the neighbourhoods.
Keywords: Commercial, Property, Urban , Renewal, Value.
AN APPROACH TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 LOCK DOWN REGULATIONS ON LAND SURVEYING PRACTICE IN SUB- SAHARA AFRICAN REGION.
SURV. ADENIYI GBENGA:
Department of Surveying & Geo-informatics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
The Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic has caused significant adverse impact on the global economy. The spread of COVID-19 is high and its impact on Africa is serious, with the continent’s exposure to China. The Covid-19 infection rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained modest so far. The total number of Covid-19 cases reported in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is close to 200,000, with around 500 fatalities as at the time of conducting this research. Virtually, all countries in SSA have already introduced containment measures. The governments of 15 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries closed their airports, ports and land borders before any coronavirus cases had been confirmed. As at the end of March 2020, 44 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries had closed their schools, banned public gatherings and put in place other social distancing measures; 11 countries declared a state of emergency. The extent to which these measures are and can be enforced in the region remains to be seen, However, OECD-like approaches to COVID-19 containment measures are not likely to prove effective for the poor and marginalized groups because of higher dependence by most households on daily income, insufficient government resources to compensate those affected by the containment measures and the difficulty of implementing social distancing in societies where social interaction is a matter of daily survival. The coronavirus pandemic has changed the landscape right across the world. Of course, the knock-on effect of the necessary shutdown is that industries of all types are thrown for a loop. Land Surveying is no different. Surveying is a job with a lot of variety. Part of that variety includes the variety of working environments – surveyors may find themselves working on a construction site one day or in the office on another. That means that a lot of surveying work environments are off-limits for the time being, surveying professionals should properly obey social distancing regulations. This paper therefore assessed the impact of covid 19 lockdown on land surveying practice in Sub-Sahara Africa and develops policy recommendations that will likely mitigate the effects of Lock down Regulations in the short and medium term and ensure the necessary continuation and reshaping of the practice.
Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa, Sustainable development, Covid-19 Pandemic, Lock down, Land Surveying Practice.
DOMINO EFFECT OF CORONAVIRUS IN NIGERIA. AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC, RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES.
*ABINOTAMI WILLIAMS EBUETE; **OKPOEBI KENNETH BEREZI; ***LUCKY E. NDIWARI; & ****STANDFAST ISIYA
*Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University. (Environmental Health and Sanitation Department, Bayelsa State Ministry of Environment, Yenagoa). **Department of Marine Environment and Pollution Control, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State. ***Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University. ****Environmental Health and Sanitation Department, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State.
The human history has recorded that in every 100 years a new pandemic will erupt to rocked control the human race from over population, changing the courses of history and signaling the end of entire civilization. Today the world is at halt and its economic, socio-cultural, religious, political, scientific and technological myth is degenerating amidst the advent of a novel pandemic (Covid-19). This study therefore, investigated the effect of Covid-19 in terms of economic, socio-cultural, educational and religious factors which are best described using students, private sectors, public servants, religious bodies and farmers as sectoral factors. The paper also addressed geopolitical regional zones differences in the effect of Covid-19 in Nigeria using schedules as a model for data collections. Generated data were analyzed using percentages, Two-way ANOVA and Co-Variance (ANOCOVA) to test for significant differences amidst the effects of Covid-19 among domain, sectors and geopolitical regions. Findings from the study shows that 96% student’s educational process were negatively affected and about 94% economic values of privately owned business was grossly affected; 53% socio-cultural activities brought down because of the stay-at-home order; 58% religious activities (worship centre) were affected on the approval of only 20 members per 2meters distancing in a service. More so, farmer’s experiences 58% economic loss underscored with an endemic increase in the price of major food items. The interactions term between Covid-19, domain and sector is not significant as it was felt equally on Domain and on sectoral factors. On the other hand, the effect of Covid-19 is felt differently among geopolitical regions in Nigeria owing to socio-cultural, economic, political and population difference. The paper therefore, recommended for the formulations and implementations of workable health care, social and educational welfare policies that respond and recover quickly to related disease; while relying more on domesticated products and byproducts.
Keywords: Covid-19, Nigeria, Economic, Socio-Cultural, Educational, Religious and Geopolitical
ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY COMPLIANCE OF WUPA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT, FOR DOMESTIC USE IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA
ALKALI MUHAMMED1, ILIYASU M. ANZAKU2 & A.D. OVYE3
1&3Alkali Mohammed, Iliyasu M. Anzaku & A.D. Ovye, Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
This study assessed the physiochemical Water Quality Compliance of Wupa Waste Water treatment Plant for Domestic use in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. The aim were achieve through the following objectives Determine the physiochemical properties of the water in WUPA waste water treatment. To determine the suitability of water discharged from Wupa treatment plant for domestic water use. Methodology, the study was anchored on both qualitative and quantitative research design. Analysis was carried out in the laboratory and the result obtained from the test were qualitatively compare with the recommended standard. Parameter analyzed include: pH, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Chloride, Sulphate, Oil and Grease. The study revealed that the analysis of the selected physiochemical parameters when further compared to world Health Organization WHO (2007) and NESREA (2011) Standard limit for drinking water showed that all parameters for treated waste water (effluent) are within the permissible limits for drinking water, except for DO (6.81mg/l) BOD (37.3 mg/l) and Oil/Grease (13.2mg/l) compared to WHO limits of DO (2mg/l), BOD (34mg/l) oil/grease (10mg/1) indicate a slight differences in the BOD and Oil/Grease from the standard limits set by WHO. The physiochemical parameters for each sample were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics of mean, standard Deviation, and standard error of the mean. The mean score of each analyzed parameter from each sampling point. Was compared with the various permissible limits set by federal environmental protection Agency (FEPA1991) and national environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) 2011 in order to determine the rate of environmental degradation and compounded health hazards associated to the discharge of Wupa treatment Plant. Thus more effort should be put in the treatment of influent waste water generated in the F.C.T before discharge into receiving streams, people using the water downstream of the river Wupa must treat it or boil it thoroughly and filter before drinking and putting to other domestic usage.
EFFECTS OF CONVERSION OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES TO COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES ON PROPERTY VALUES IN DAMATURU
ZAKARIYYAH BOLAJI OLATUNDE; MARUPH ADEYEMI BUSARI; & JOBIN ISHAYA
Department of Estate Management, The Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.
This study identifies the effect of conversion of residential properties to commercial properties on property values in Damaturu. This was achieved by identifying reasons for conversion of residential properties, the types of residential properties converted and determining the effects of conversion of residential properties to commercial properties on property values. Data for the study was obtained through structured questionnaire and data analyzed using SPSS application software. The target population include staff of Yobe State Ministries of Land and Housing, professional estate surveyors and Valuers, landlords and tenants within the study area. The study revealed that conversion of residential property to commercial property increases the value of properties. The study recommends better monitoring of development by Town Planning Unit, provision of more housing by the government and the Estate Surveyors and Valuer should enlighten the landlords and tenants in Damaturu on the need to engage Estate Surveyors and Valuers for real estate transactions.
Keywords: Conversion, Residential Property, Commercial Property, Values.
ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY INVESTMENT IN BIRNIN KEBBI, NIGERIA
ADEBAYO, OYEKANMI OLUWOLE; USMAN, BELLO SA’AD; & ABDULAZEEZ, SHAKIRAT REMILEKUN
Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.
The performance of the property investment has immensely increased in popularity over the recent years and the return on the property investment has long fascinated the investors. However, the study aimed at appraising the trend in the performance of residential property investments in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria for the period 2010-2020 in which some objectives shall be examined and these amongst other include: identify various types of residential property in the study area, To assess the trend in annual rental value of residential properties in Birnin Kebbi for the period, 2010-2020. Both primary and secondary data source were employed in which estate agents and occupiers of residential properties in the study areas were the target population. Both purposive and systematic methods of sampling were adopted in the administration of questionnaires. The study revealed that residential types in the areas understudy are the same, the average rental value in Aliero quarters, Gesse and Badariya(one bedroom) are N66.58, N80.29 and N84.15, the average rental value in Aliero quarters, Gesse and Badariya(Two bedroom) are N87.04, N137.84 and N123.58,while the average rental value in Aliero quarters, Gesse and Badariya(one bedroom) are N143.13, N149.20 and N152.45 and the corresponding recommendation amongst other are Prospective property developers should invest more in the development of residential(Especially in one and two bedroom flat) properties and public- private partnership should be established by government to provide infrastructural facilities so as to diversify the economy. Relevant professional bodies should collaborate with the state government in order to create data bank for rental value of properties especially residential and commercial across the state
KEYWORD: Property, Investment, Performance and Residential Property
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA
*AYADU KOFFI; & **EKEMINI INYANG
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osuaru **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
This research examined the spatial distribution pattern of public and private secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene, compared the existing set United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and Universal Basic Education (UBE) standards. Multi sampling technique alongside purposive and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to determine 40 percent of 8 public schools (3 schools) and 40 percent of 34 private schools (14 schools) for the study. Simple descriptive statistics and Nearest Neighborhood Analysis were carried out to determine the distribution pattern of the secondary schools in the study area. Findings on the distribution of the public secondary schools exhibit dispersed pattern while the private secondary schools were randomly distributed. The study therefore, recommended that secondary schools should be evenly distributed within a 2km radius, considering the population of the students to accommodate all within the school-age and to reduce the distance the students have to trek to school.
Keywords: Spatial Distribution, Secondary School, Proximal Location, Traditional City, Nigeria
ACTIVATED LOCUST BEANS WASTE ASH AND ALKALINE ACTIVATED METAKAOLIN AS CEMENTIOUS MATERIALS IN PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA; NAZEEF MAHMOOD; & UMAR MUSA3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
The suitability of using activated locust beans waste ash (LBWA) and alkaline activated metakaolin as cementious materials in replacement for cement in concrete was investigated in this study. Three grades of concrete were considered; grade 20, 25 and 30. The concrete cube samples cast contained; control (0%) 5%, 10% and 15% of the cementious materials, and were cured and tested at 7days, 14days. 21days and 28days. The results of the study showed significant reduction in compressive strength of the cast concretes when LBWA and metakaolin ash were used than normal concrete, However, from the results obtained, it is recommended that LBWA and metakaolin of 5% & 10% replacement can be used for the different grades of concrete, while 15% replacement of LBWA and metakaolin can be used in road kerbs, concrete blocks, non-bearing concrete walls, Light Weight Concrete, precast units (partition walls, concrete blocks for Architectural applications and some cases of slabs on soil, culverts, sidewalks, drive ways), foundation pads for machinery, etc.
Keywords: Activated locust beans waste ash, alkaline activated metakaolin, cementious material, compressive strength, light weight concrete.
AN APPROACH TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 LOCK DOWN REGULATIONS ON REAL ESTATE IN SUB- SAHARA AFRICAN REGION.
*ESV ADELEKE, MOSES ADEGBILE; **SANI GAMBO SANI; ***ESV OTUNOLA, ABDULAKEEM OLASUNKANMI; & ****ESV OYELEKE, OYEDIRAN OLUFEMI
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. ***Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. ****Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria.
The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is currently causing significant adverse impact on the global economy. The spread of Covid-19 is high and its impact on Africa is serious, given the continent’s exposure to China. The Covid -19 infection rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained modest so far. The total number of cases reported in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is close to 20,000, with around 500 fatalities as at the time of conducting this research. Virtually, all countries in SSA have already introduced containment measures. The governments of 15 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries closed their airports, ports and land borders before any coronavirus cases had been confirmed, and by the end of March 2020, 44 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries had closed their schools, banned public gatherings and put in place other social distancing measures; 11 countries declared a state of emergency. The extent to which these measures are and can be enforced in the region remains to be seen, However, among the approaches to curb the spread of the COVID-19 is imposing lockdown in many countries of the world. These and other measures are not likely to prove effective for the poor and marginalized groups because of higher dependence by most households on daily income, insufficient government resources to compensate those affected by the containment measures and the difficulty of implementing social distancing in societies where social interaction is a matter of daily survival. As the effects of the COVID-19 are felt around the world, real estate investment are being impacted in many different ways, depending on region and asset class. In the near term, Investors are concerned with preserving value and liquidity, keeping tenants and visitors safe, and complying with the government agency requirements. In addition, tenants may be faced with liquidity pressures that result in deferring or ceasing contractual lease payments. Certain subsectors, such as hospitality, retail and developers will face more immediate impact while other subsectors, such as multifamily and non-traditional owners (cell towers, data centre) will likely face less immediate impact. Longer term, subsectors such as office and industrial could be impacted by changes in where people work and changes in supply chain. Finally, transaction volumes are expected to decrease in the near term but is expected to pick up during recovery and later phases. This paper assessed the impact of Lock down Regulations on Real Estate in Sub-Sahara Africa and develops policy recommendations that will likely mitigate the effects of Lock down Regulations in the short and medium term and ensure the necessary continuation and reshaping of real estate investment couple with the region’s dependence on foreign markets.
Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa, Sustainable development, Sustainable development Goals, Real Estate Investment, Covid-19 Pandemic.
THE REAL ESTATE IN 21ST CENTURY: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW ON MASS APPRAISAL MODELS (MAM)
*ESV. L.T. SALAU; & **SHUAIBU SAAD
*Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Salaudeen Tunde & Co., No. 18, Sunday Awoniyi Street, New GRA, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
With the current rises in volume and active transaction of real estate properties, mass appraisal model has been widely adopted in many countries for different purposes, including assessment of property tax. This paper conducts a systematic literature review on 113 papers which selected for the mass appraisal models and methods from 1999 to 2020. The review focuses on the application trend and classification of mass appraisal and highlights a 3I-trend, namely AI-Based model, GIS-Based model and MIX-Based model. The characteristics of different mass appraisal models are analyzed and compared. Finally, the future trend of mass appraisal based on model perspective is defined as “mass appraisal”: mass appraisal is the appraisal procedure of model establishment, analysis and test of group of properties as of a given date, combined with artificial intelligence, geo-information systems, and mixed methods, to better model the real estate value of non-spatial and spatial data.
Keywords: Mass Appraisal, Real Estate; 21st Century; Estate Value, geo-information systems.
LEVEL OF RESIDENTS’ SATISFACTION IN UNIVERSITY OF JOS SENIOR STAFF QUARTERS
1IJEOMA G.U.AYUBA, 2YAKUBU A. UBANGARI
1Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustafa Awai Polytechnic, Lafia
The study determined the level of residents’ satisfaction in the University of Jos Senior Staff Quarters. The target population comprised of the households of each of the houses occupied by staff of University of Jos in Senior Staff Quarters, Bauchi Road and the Permanent site only. The total research population of 226 household heads were used, the permanent site comprised of 177 and 49 household heads of Bauchi Road Quarters and Permanent Site Quarters respectively. Stratified sampling technique was used. This is made up of 5 strata which represent the 5 different housing types existing in the study area, namely; professorial, Bungalow, Block of 4 flats, 3 in 1 dwellings and Transit houses. The level of residents’ satisfaction was determined by the use of a 5 point Likert scale named after Rensis Likert. The result of the study revealed that 41.5 percent were dissatisfied with facilities and utilities available in the house 53.8 percent were dissatisfied with the distribution of shops in the quarters, 50.3 percent were dissatisfied with the physical condition of the house, 60.2 percent were satisfied with the mode of transportation to work, and 65.5 percent were dissatisfied with available refuse disposal facilities. Finally, residents expressed their level of satisfaction with the University of Jos Senior Staff Quarters, such that, 28.1% were satisfied, 34.7% were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and 37.2% were dissatisfied. The study concluded that the number of rooms in a house influences resident’s satisfaction. This confirmed the need for physical facilities improvement in the staff residential areas and capacity building of staff of the Physical Facilities Department of University of Jos who are the custodians of the study area.
Keywords: level, residents, satisfaction, university of Jos.