MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
VOL. 13 NO. 3 (MIJMBPS) MARCH, 2021
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org PHONE: +234-708-717-324
AGRANULOCYTIC RESPONSES TO PARASITAEMIA OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM SPECIES IN CHILDREN (6-59 MONTHS) ATTENDING BULUMKUTU COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTRE, MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE – NIGERIA
YAHAYA, INUWA1, MOHAMMED ISA TADA2, YUSUF SHETTIMA3, MUSA ALI MUHAMAD4
1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri Nigeria. (Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria). 2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri Nigeria. 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri Nigeria. 4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
This study was conducted to assess the influence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia on some selected hemalogical parameters in children (6-59months), at Bulumkutu Health Centre, Maiduguri, Bono State, between November 2015 to February 2016. A total of 210 children were enrolled in the study which consisted of 88 (41.90%) patients with positive P. falciparum malaria and 122 (58.10%) negative malaria. Hematological parameters were analyzed using sysmex haematology auto-analyser (2011), while the Giemsa stained slides thick and thin blood films were prepared from the stock solution, and tested for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and count of malaria parasite density. the agranulocytes (lymphocytes, and monocytes) were also found to be positively correlated with mean parasite densities among the malaria positive children (6-59 months) (r2 = 0.521, p = 0.005), (r2 = 0.520, p = 0.005) as well as among females infected subjects (r2 = 0.539, p = 0.005), (r2 = 0.607, p = 0.005) and male infected ‘lymphocytes (r2 0.623, p 0.005), but a non significant and negative correlation was observed between parasite densities and monocytes of male positive children (r2 = 0.410, p = 0.006) respectively.
KEYWORDS: Responses, Falciparum Species, Agranulocytic, Comprehensive, Health Centre, Parasitaemia
THE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECT OF N-HEXANE AND AQUEOUS ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE SCHLEROTIUM OF PLEUROTUS TUBER-REGIUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE INDUCED ALBINO RATS
*DR CHINWEDUM STEPHANIE ALARIBE; **RASHIDAT EJURA MOMOH; & ***KENDESON CHRISTIANA;
*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos State. **Department of Chemical Sciences Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State ***Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Its therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The sclerotium of pleurotus tuber-regium is used in folkloric medicine in the treatment of high blood pressure. This study was designed to determine the in vivo antihypertensive effect of nhexane and 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of the sclerotium of pleurotus tuber-regium in high-salt (NaCl) diet-induced hypertensive rats. The effect of the extracts showed a non dose-dependent antihypertensive effect at (1000µg/kg, 4000µg/kg, 5000µg/kg). The Systolic/Diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure of the n-hexane extract and 50% aqueous ethanolic extracts were 118.31mmHg/100.34 mmHg with the pulse pressure of 12.94 and 125.11/110.25mmHg with PP of 14.86 at 1000µg/kg, 120.25/107.31mmHg with PP of 17.97 and 130.09/117.71mmHg with PP of 12.38 at 5000µg/kg and 125.99/112.61mmHg and 132.24/115.99mmHg with PP of 13.38/16.25 at 10000µg/kg respectively. The standard test drug Nifedipine gave the SBP/DBP of 105.17/87.72mmHg with the PP of 17.45, Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) gave 138.28/126.81mmHg with PP of 11.47, Telmisartan gave 174.94/141.29mmHg with the PP of 33.65 and Enalapril gave 128.99/115.08mmHg with PP of 13.91. The antihypertensive activity of n-hexane is similar to that of Nifedipine and the activity of 50% aqueous ethanol with enalapril. Thus, they can be said to have the same mechanism of action. This implies that the extract possess anti-hypertensive properties and could be employed for drug development.
KEYWORDS: Sclerotium, Pleurotus tuber-regium Cardiovascular Diseases, Hypertension, Antihypertensives, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Pulse Pressure (PP).
HAEMOGLOBIN DIGESTION: SOURCE OF AMINO ACID, IRON (Fe) AND A GOOD SURVIVAL STRATEGY FOR Plasmodium falciparum
ISMAIL MUHAMMAD & ASHER REJOICE
Gombe State University, Zoology Department
Plasmodium falciparum like any other living organisms requires nutrients and other vital minerals especially Iron (Fe) and Amino acid for it growth and development. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the state of knowledge on the haemoglobin digestion as a cheap source of amino acid and iron and its contribution to the success of Plasmodium falciparum’s survival. Haemoglobin comprises 95% of the cytosolic protein of the red blood cell, therefore Hemoglobin digestion is the major catabolic process through which Plasmodium falciparum produces the much needed nutrient .The haemoglobin digestion is carried out in Digestive Vacoule under the influence of: aspartic, cysteine and metallo proteinases. The process begins with the ingestion of the host cell haemoglobin into the digestive vacuole through cytosome. It begins with an initial proteolytic cleavage which occurs at the hinge region of the alpha globin chain and is mediated by the aspartic proteases: plasmepsins I, II, and IV. Plasmepsins and falcipain-2 and 3, carry out further degradation of the denatured globin. The resulting small globin peptides serve as the substrates for falcilysin. In addition, a Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase (DPAP) removes dipeptide from the Ntermini of the peptide generated. The amino peptidases then convert these to amino acid. Heme is also Produced but it is detoxified and expel ,while the excess heme is decomposed to release free Iron. Apart from amino acid generation, haemoglobin degradation provided other means of survival strategies for parasite. This critical step should be targeted toward blocking the spread of Plasmodium falciparum.
KEYWORDS: Plasmodium falciparum, haemoglobin digestion, Digestive Vacoule, Proteinases, Amino acid, Iron.
ASSESSMENT FOR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON THE UTILIZATION OF LONGLASTING INSECTICIDE TREATED NET AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAUCHI STATE.
*HASHIMU UMAR; **ADAMU MOHAMMED; ***ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED JAWA; ****MAAM KYARI,
*Bill and Melinda Gate College of Health Technology Ningi Dept of Community Health, Ningi LGA P.O. Box 57. **Local Government Education Authority Potiskum Yobe State. ***Ministry of Home Affairs Information and Culture Overseeing Ministry of Budget and Economic Planning Yobe State. ****Maam Kyari College of Nursing and Midwifery Maiduguri.
This study was carried out to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on the utilization of long-lasting insecticide treated net among pregnant women in Bauchi state. Aiming at to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women, their understanding on the importance of the utilization of long lasting insecticide treated net, the methodology of the study is descriptive cross sectional study of pregnant women in three randomly selected wards at two selected local governments in each senatorial zone of Bauchi state , The researcher divided the study area into three (3) strata following the division of senatorial district in the state that is North zone (Katagum).Central Zone and South zone. (Bauchi). the study conducted among pregnant women in Bauchi State only. The result shows that The study revealed that pregnant women lack Knowledge on the utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in Bauchi State.
KEYWORDS: LLITN Long lasting insecticide treated net, ANC Antenatal care, Pregnant-women, Knowledge, Utilization.
CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM MILLET CHAFF AND ITS COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIAL ACTIVATED CARBON
SHUAIBU B.S.; MADU P. C.; & AUDU S. S1
Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.
This work has examined the characteristics of activated carbon produced from millet chaff and a commercial activated carbon. The chaff is the waste generated from processing millet to produce pap (akamu) which is used as a weaning food in most families. Activated carbon was produced from millet chaff using chemical and physical methods. The chemical activation was done with 1M phosphoric acid and was carbonised in a furnace at 600oC for an hour. The formed activated carbon was removed, rinsed with 0.1MHCl, washed with distilled water and dried to obtain chemical activated carbon (ChAC). Direct heating of the chaff in the furnace at 400oC for 2 hours produced physical activated carbon (PAC). The produced activated carbons and a commercial activated carbon (CAC) were characterised for: pH, moisture content, ash content, pore volume, porosity and bulk density using standard methods. The results obtained for the characterization showed parameter value to be: pH (6.8, 7.3 & 7.1), moisture content (3, 5 & 3.5 %), ash content (8, 24 & 6.5 %), pore volume (0.5, 0.80 & 0.49 ml), porosity (0.05, 0.08 & 0.04) and bulk density (0.49, 0.72 & 0.39 g/cm3) for ChAC, PAC and CAC respectively. The results therefore showed that ChAC compared favourably with CAC except PAC which had poor qualities. The work has showed that value-added product can be created from millet chaff normally disposed as waste.
KEYWORDS: millet chaff, activated carbon, characterization, parameters, analysis
HEALTH COMMUNICATION INTERVENTION: A CATALYST FOR WOMEN’S UNDERSTANDING OF BREAST CANCER EARLY DETECTION AND PREVENTIVE PRACTICES
CHINWE COMFORT CHINANU-AKPUH; & HELEN ODUNOLA ADEKOYA (PhD)
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria.
In recent years, health communication has made significant progress in the areas of citizens’ education and behavioural change through a variety of intervention programmes, including in Nigeria. The said achievements are interpreted through improved knowledgeability level of audience members of the programmes towards the background information, origins of the health issue, its risk factors, preventive practices, early detection methods, management options and curative procedures available to the audience which generally encourages strict adherence to positive lifestyles for behaviour change. The paper conducted a desk research study to gain insight on the influence of health entertainment-education on the women’s’ understanding of breast cancer early detection methods and prevention practices. It was found that properly articulated health interventions improves knowledgeability level and elicit positive attitude toward adoption of anti-cancer behaviours. Following the established impact of health education on the women’s knowledge of breast cancer early detection methods and prevention practices, the study therefore recommended that women should constantly receive health message on breast cancer disease at all levels of the society from the change agents of public health, mass media, government and non-governmental organizations. Also, that such intervention should be appropriate, reliable and recent in content and that said health content is to be delivered through the participants’ preferred source of information, as well as the local language(s).
KEYWORDS: Breast Cancer, Early Detection Methods, Entertainment-Education, Health Communication Intervention, Prevention Practices.
ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF HYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
LAMI, GIRMACHE DARANGI1; ABDULKADIR NASIRU2; AISHATU MAIKUDI3; & DR. S. A. APARA4
College of Nursing Sciences, School of Midwifery Minna(1, 3). Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna Niger State2. Faculty of Education and Arts, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Niger State4
The study was conducted to ascertain the risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among adults in Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria. Expo-factor research design was used for the study. The population for the study was 5073 while the sample size for the study was three hundred and sixty five (365) adults. Questionnaire was used to obtain data. The instrument was validated by five experts and the reliability index of 0.86 was determined using test-retest method. Frequency counts, simple percentages mean and t-test statistics were used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that the respondents were aware of the risk factors of hypertension because the mean scores for all items were above the decision rule of 2.50 mean score. The result also showed that the respondents were aware of the preventive measures of hypertension because the mean scores for all items were above the decision rule of 2.50 mean score. The result showed that the respondents were aware of the preventive measures of hypertension because the mean scores for all items were above the decision rule of 2.50 mean score. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that adults had moderate level of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms of hypertension; they also had high level of awareness regarding the risk factors of hypertension and high level of awareness regarding the preventive measures of hypertension. Among other recommendations made were: Government and voluntary health agencies should sponsor intensive enlightenment campaign through print and electronic media in order to sustain the knowledge level of adults on hypertension and its complications.
KEYWORDS: Awareness, hypertension, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYTOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS OF SOLANUM GILO AND SOLANUM MELONGENA FRUITS
ADENIYI OLADELE JOSEPH, DR. YAKUBU YAHAYA, DR. HANNATU ABUBAKAR SANI
Department of pure and applied chemistry, Kebbi state university of science and technology, Aliero
Eggplant fruits (solanum gilo and solanum melongena) are two species that are commonly grown in the Northern Nigeria, Sokoto State. This work aimed at comparing some of the Phytochemicals and some of the minerals composition of fruits from the two species of the Eggplant using standard analytical methods. The phytochemicals analysis showed solanum gilo and solanum melongena contained the same value for both saponins, cardiac glycosides, oxalate which were 1.00 ± 0.20 %, 1.20 ± 0.12 %, and 0.07 ± 0.00 % respectively, 1.00 ± 0.20 % and 0.73± 0.12 % alkaloid, 2.03 ± 0.40 % and 0.28 ± 0.00 % flavonoid, 32.28 ± 0.22 and 64.43 ± 0.06 % tannins, 77.83 ± 1.15 % and 21.10 ± 0.36% steroid. The results from the two fruits showed that saponin, alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, and oxalate were not significantly different at P<0.05, while flavonoid, tannin, steroid were significantly different. The mineral contents of solanum gilo and solanum melongena indicated 0.68 ± 0.04 mg/kg and 0.37 ± 0.02 mg/kg phosphorous, 8.73 ± 0.07 mg/kg and 4.77 ± 0.10 mg/kg calcium, 19.33 ± 0.12 mg/kg and 13.83 ± 0.15 mg/kg magnesium, 37.66 ± 0.88 mg/kg and 46.33 ± 0.67 mg/kg sodium, 45.33 ± 0.67 mg/kg and 61.33 ± 1.20 mg/kg potassium,1.92 ± 0.01 mg/kg and 1.13 ± 0.01 mg/kg iron, 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/kg and 0.27 ± 0.01 mg/kg zinc, 0.39 ± 0.00 mg/kg and 0.34 ± 0.01 mg/kg manganese, 0.19 ± 0.01 mg/kg and 0.21 ± 0.12 mg/kg copper. The results from the two fruits were significantly different at P<0.05. These mineral elements and phytochemicals are of nutritional and therapeutic importance; their presence in both fruits indicated the beneficial effects of the Eggplant. Solanum gilo contained higher levels of the beneficial agents than Solanum melongena.
KEYWORDS: Phytochemical, Mineral Elements, Solanum Gilo, Solanum Melongena
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE CORACANA) ON SOME SELECTED CLINICAL BACTERIA
*OGBEBA, J., IRUOLAJE, F. O., BULUS, C., EBU B. AND YAKUBU D.A.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.
Finger millet in northern Nigeria was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The agar well method was used to test the antibacterial activities of methanolic and aqeous (combined) extracts of the grain on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The result of the antimicrobial activity as indicated by zone of inhibition ranged from 1-8mm for different extract concentrations. The finger millet extract showed zones of inhibition of 8mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 100mg/ml, 3mm at 50mg/ml and 2mm at 25mg/ml concentrations. The inhibition zones of Escherichia coli at extract concentrations of 100mg/ml,50mg/ml,25mg/ml, 12.25mg/ml and 6.125mg/ml were 4mm, 3mm, 3mm, 6mm and 1mm respectively, and for Staphylococcus aureus were 5mm,2mm, 1mm at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 12.25mg/ml respectively. The zones of inhibition against all the tested isolates at 100mg/ml was not significantly different from those of 50mg/ml (p=0.160), 25mg/ml (p=0.067) and 12.5mg/ml (p=0.160), but significantly higher than 6.125mg/ml (p=0.05). The results further showed that E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to the varying concentrations of the plant extract (p=0.229). Although S. aureus and S. typhi also did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to the varying concentrations of the extract (p=0.157), but susceptibility by S. typhi was significantly lower than those of E. coli (p=0.007) and P. aeruginosa (p=0.015). The qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence tannin/phenol, flavonoids, alkaloid, saponin, glycosides, terpenoid and steroids in finger millet. The proximate analysis revealed the moisture (9.98%), ash (2.81%), protein (1.45%), fat (1.67%), carbohydrate (78.08%) and energy contents (357.18kcal). The quantitative phytochemical revealed total phenolic content (6.57 mg/100g) and total flavonoid content (0.224 mg/100g). The overall results indicate that finger millet are potent antimicrobial preparations at least invitro and also have high nutritional value.
KEYWORDS: phytochemical, antimicrobial, finger millet, bacteria, zone of inhibition
OPTIMIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARATION FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE USING ZINC CHLORIDE AND PHOSPHORIC ACID
WAZIRI JIBRIN., MUSA H. ABDULKADIR, ABDUL A.
Chemical Engineering Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria.
Activated carbon preparation from sugarcane bagasse using zinc chloride and phosphoric acid was optimized using one variable at a time (OVAT) method. The sugarcane bagasse in each case was first carbonized at 500℃ at a retention time of 1 h. This was followed by treating the bagasse with 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M, 2.0M and 2.5M solutions of zinc chloride and phosphoric acid respectively. The H3PO4-AC samples of the aforementioned concentrations were named A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1; while the ZnCl2AC samples of similar concentrations were named A2, B2, C2, D2 and E2 respectively. The 1.5 M ZnCl2-AC revealed the highest micropore sized particle of 100 µm and highest surface area of 331.987 m2/g from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as well as Brunauer Emett Teller (BET) surface results respectively among the ZnCl2-AC. It also gave the most significant drop in absorbance of gum Arabic solution, implying a high absorption capacity. On the other hand, the 1.0M H3PO4 -AC showed the highest micropore sized particle of 50 µm and highest surface area of 301.263 m2/g from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emett Teller (BET) surface results among the H3PO4 -AC. It further gave the most significant drop in absorbance of the gum Arabic solution, implying a high absorption capacity. The 1.5 M ZnCl2-AC had the overall highest pore size as well as BET surface. Both sets of AC were found to best suit Langmuir isotherm indicated by the highest R2 values of 0.9941 and 0.9738 respectively. The results of proximate analysis obtained for the entire sets of AC samples conform to ASTM standards.
KEYWORDS: Sugarcane bagasse, optimization, micropore, Gum Arabic, SEM, BET.
INSECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND IMPLICATION FOR FOOD PRODUCTION AND NUTRITION
ADUBI AMOS OLADIMEJI
School of Science, Department of Biology, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate
The problem of insecurity both in human and food are the major confrontation in Nigeria. Insecurity of human led to food insecurity. The problems were created from Boko Haram and Fulani herdsmen activities. As the Fulani herders were unleashing violence across the country, so was the Boko Haram sect terrorizing the north-eastern geopolitical zone of the country. The findings from the paper revealed that land resources, mischiefs, grazing animals by under-aged children and influx of foreign herdsmen are the major causes of conflict between farmers and herdsmen. Based on the information gathered, persistent attacks on farmlands are among the reasons for low productivity of farm produce. The implications are low financial income and increase in prices of food items and socio-economic development. This situation if not addressed, could result into hunger and poverty for average households. In order to settle the problem of food insecurity, this paper encourages that, rather than create grazing routes and reserves for Fulani herders outside their states of origin, the federal and, more importantly, the state governments of Fulani states should make livestock production a sedentary occupation. They should cite ranches in Fulani states and on lands owned or leased (not seized) by the Fulani and confine cattle breeding within the enclosed areas.
KEYWORDS: Insecurity, Challenges, Food, Nutrition, Boko Haram, Fulani herdsmen
NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF GEOHELMINTH INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN: THE NEED FOR MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENT
ALADE AYODELE OLASOJI; AND OKUNLOLA DEBORAH OLUKEMI
Department of Biology, School of Secondary Education (Science Progreammes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.
This study investigated the nutritional status of geohelminth infected 120 preschool-aged children and 100 pregnant women (in their 3rd trimester) in Akinyele Local Government Area of Ibadan in Oyo State. Venous blood samples were obtained and analyzed for iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and vitamin A. T-test was Statistical analysis used and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The result from this study confirms a total of 50 (41.67%) preschool-aged children and 15 (15%) pregnant women had geohelminth infection. Majority of the children (80.00%) had Ascaris lumbricoides infection while a few of them (20%) in summative, had hookworm, Fasciola hepatica and Trichuris trichuria infections. Co-infection with different helminth species was also observed in the children. Serum levels of Fe, Zn and Se were significantly lower in helminth infected (HI) pregnant women compared with helminth negative (HN) pregnant women. In preschool aged children, serum levels of Fe, Zn and vitamin A were also significantly lower in HI compared with HN. Based on the findings of this study, it could be concluded that helminth infection alters the status of different types of micronutrients in children and pregnant women. The study therefore suggests monitored iron, zinc or vitamin A supplementation with anti-helminthic regimen.
KEYWORDS: Infection, Micronutrient, Preschool children, Pregnant women, Geohelminth, Infection
TOXICITY STUDY ON ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FISCUS PLATYPHYLLA DELLE (MORACEAE) IN ALBINO RATS
1JUSTINE M. T, 2YAKUBU S. AND 1CHIDAMA B N.
1Department of Chemistry, College Of Education, Hong, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Ficus plytaphylla Del. (Moraceae) Gamji in Hausa, is a savanna tree commonly found in northern Nigeria; Sokoto, Borno, Bauchi, Zamfara, Adamawa etc. The plant possess medicinal properties that are effective in the management of tuberculosis, cough and other ailments, and has been commonly used in traditional medicine. This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicity stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del. so as to ascertain its safety in traditional medicine. Samples of the plant were collected from Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, during fruiting and flowering season. It was air dried, powdered and extracted in ethanol. The extract was further distilled using rotary evaporator at the temperature of 450C to enhance its concentration. Different concentrations of the alcohol extract were prepared in distilled water; 1%, 2%, and 3% were administered orally to groups A, B and C respectively for 14 days. The reaction of the rats to the extract were investigated and compared with the control. The results obtained showed some degenerative changes in the brain, lungs, and intestine as well as reduction in the red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin below their normal values. The result further showed that the severity of the extract was dose dependent.
KEYWORDS: Ficus Platyphylla, stem-bark, albino rats, toxicity and dose
THE EVOLUTION OF THE ETHNOBOTANY OF ACHA (DIGITARIA EXILIS STAPH) IN SOME COMMUNITIES OF PLATEAU STATE FROM THE 1970S TO DATE
TOY BENJAMIN DANCHAL1, WANDIYAHEL TITUS1, EMMANUEL BULUS2
1Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2Biology Department, Umar Suleiman College of Education PMB 02, Gashua, Yobe State.
Acha (Digitaria exilis Staph) most times referred to as “the grain of life” in many parts of Africa is indigenous to Africa and one of the oldest cereal crops in the continent which has been cultivated for thousands of years by Africans. The genus “Digitaria” has over 300 species with just a few cultivated either as fodder or for human consumption. Despite its ease of cultivation, Acha has been listed as one of the neglected crops of Africa and also as a lost crop due to neglect by researchers, farmers etc. the work on “The evolution of the ethnobotany of Acha (Digitaria exilis staph) in some communities of Plateau State from the 1970s to date” aimed at investigating the changes in the relationship of Acha with the indigenous people in some parts of Plateau State, Nigeria where Acha is mostly cultivated, the research work also aimed at finding the specific ethnobotanical areas of neglect and its impact on the people and how the plant can be rediscovered for the benefit of humanity. The work (which is an observational study) involved the use of two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires across three (3) local government areas in Plateau State where the crop is mostly cultivated. The results revealed a great change in the ethnobotany of Acha from the 1970s to date with a reduction in production as many farmers have turned to other crops which they believe to bring more income and easy to cultivate due to mechanization. Hence, there is a great need for a turnaround and serious consideration to be made into the areas of research and making improvement in the cultivation of Acha as many pieces of research have shown Acha to be one of the greatest cereals with a lot of health benefits.
KEYWORDS: Ethnobotany, Acha, Indigenous, Lost, Neglected Crops.
ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS AND ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF 3-O-Α-D ARABINOPYRANOSIDE METHYL BETULINATE
HAMISU ABDU1; FAUJAN B. H. AHMAD2; ABDU UMAR1; ABUBAKAR HARUNA DANYAYA2
1Department of Polymer Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Lab. Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 3Natural Product Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
The weak hydro solubility of lupane-type triterpenes lupeol (1), betulin (2), and methyl betulinate (3), hampers the clinical development of its natural anticancer agent. In order to circumvent this problem and to enhance the pharmacological properties of betulinic acid and its analogues, 3-O-α-D–Arabinopyranoside of methyl betulinate was successfully synthesized via the reaction between methyl betulinate and D-arabinose using Novozyme 435 as biocatalyst in organic solvent which gave 94.21 % yield. The structure of the product obtained was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. The hydro solubility of 3-O-α-D–Arabinopyranoside methyl betulinate was greatly enhanced upon the addition of sugar moiety on the C-3 of the betulinic acid. The anti cancer activity of 3-O-α-D–Arabinopyranoside methyl betulinate was also evaluated against cultured human breast cancer (MCF-7), human T-promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), mouse embryonic fibroblast normal cell line (3T3) and human cervical carcinoma cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Interestingly, 3-O-α-D–Arabinopyranoside methyl betulinate showed strong activity against Human T-promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), Mouse embryonic fibroblast cancer (3T3) and cultured human breast cancer (MCF-7) with IC50 values of 4.7, 8.2 and 7.1 µg/ml respectively. However, it was found to have weak activity against human cervical carcinoma cancer (HeLa) cell line with IC50 value IC50 > 30 μg/ml respectively.
KEYWORDS: Enzymatic synthesis, 3-O-α-D–Arabinopyranoside methyl betulinate, Novozyme-435, cancer cells.
THE USE OF CARD FOR SCREENING OF MULTI DRUG RESISTANCE VARIANT GENES (MDR-VG) IN MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
*ADEOTI O.M1, 2, 5, ADERIBIGBE T.S1, ADEDOKUN E.O1. KOMOLAFE K.A1, 4, ADESINA D. A3, OLAOYE O.J1.
1The Oke- Ogun Polytechnic, Saki Oyo State Nigeria, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Microbiology Option 2Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Department of Pure & Applied Biology, Ogbomoso 3Department of Microbiology and Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria 4Department of Zoology, Parasitology Unit, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 5Cellular Parasitology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Thirty complete sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in FASTA formats were retrieved from the curated database of the NCBI; before being inputted into the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). All the retrieved complete genome sequences of M. tuberculosis were randomly selected based on their location and accession numbers. Into Perfect and Strict Resistomes. The highest number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complete genome sequences were retrieved from the America followed by Africa and Antarctica with 38%, 29%, 23% respectively. The continents with the least number of sequences were Asia and Europe with 6% and 4% respectively. The prevalence of genes categorized under the strict category from CARD database with APH(6)-Id, APH(3”)-Ib, sul2, tet(B), ANT(3”)-Iic, adeJ, adeL, AmvA, adeN, adeR, AbaF, KpnH, gyrB, bacA, vanI, farB, mecR1, tet(45) ,cat86, rpsL, pncA, soxR, patB, oqxA, cmH-1, FosA2, ramA, parC, KpnG, OmpK37, FosA6, smeR, iri(100%) each. mdfA, AbaQ, gyrA, thyA, kasA, AAC(6′)-Iy, emrB, Bla2, Bla1, mphL, arlR, blaZ, RbpA, mepR, marR (50%) occurrence each. The highest number of resistant mutants was found in the American continent. Some of the strict mutants in America were folC, msbA, baeR, tet(B), adeL, KpnH, gyrA, embB, GlpT, farB, blaZ and patB followed by Asia with tet(B), baeR, msbA and folC.
KEYWORDS: Resistomes; CARD-RGI; Curated; Strain-relatedness; Antarctica; WGS