MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE VOL.11 (3) (MIJMBP) JUNE, 2020


MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE

VOL. 11 NO.3 (MIJMBP) JUNE, 2020


Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,

Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.

Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: mediterraneanresearchpub@gmail.com PHONE: +234-708-717-324



 

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON VISUAL ACUITY AMONG COMMERCIAL DRIVERS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

 

A.M. DANBORNO1,2,* M.J. MALLO1 AND T. MAMMAN2

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Consumption of alcohol has health and social consequences through intoxication (drunkenness), alcohol dependence and other biochemical effects of alcohol. Alcohol adversely affects performance on many tasks. This study examined the effect of alcohol on visual acuity among commercial drivers in Zaria Nigeria. A predesigned, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was filled by the commercial drivers, after which Visual acuity test and color vision test was done using standard Snellen’s chart and Ishihara chart respectively. A total of 200 drivers were randomly selected, out of which 100 drink alcohol, while 100 do not drink alcohol. The visual acuity of those who drink alcohol and drive was significantly lower (P< 0.001) than those who do not drink alcohol. Drivers that had no family history of eye defects but drink alcohol also had significantly lower visual acuity values compared to their counterparts who do not drink alcohol (P<0.001). Visual acuity also decreases as the drivers age (P<0.001). There was however no significance difference between duration of drinking and eye defect (P>0.05). From this study, alcohol decreases visual acuity in commercial drivers and as the drivers age their acuity reduces drastically. Commercial drivers should therefore be advised to reduce intake of alcohol or abstain completely, and also to quit driving commercial vehicles as they age.

KEYWORDS: Alcohol, Visual acuity, Commercial drivers, Nigeria

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MOSQUITO FAUNA IN SOME WARDS OF MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

 

MUSA ALI MUHAMMAD1, MOHAMMED KONTO2, H.T. ABDULRAHMAN1

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Veterinary Entomology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This study was carried out in the months of January and February, 2017. A total of 223 Mosquitoes were collected from Zilleri and Suleimanti wards of Damboa Road, Maiduguri, Borno State. The mosquitoes were collected using CDC light trap and identified using standard morphological keys. Out of Two hundred and twenty-three mosquitoes captured, 112 were males (44 from Zilleri and 68 from Suleimanti wards) and 111 were females (39 from Zilleri and 72 from Suleimanti). One hundred and thirty-nine (139) were Anopheles Mosquitoes (51 from Zilleri and 88 from Suleimanti) and 84 were Culex Mosquitoes (32 from Zilleri and 52 from Suleimanti). In terms of percentage, Anopheles species constituted 62.3% and Culex species 37.7%. The study shows that Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant than Culex mosquitoes. This has health implications for the study areas. Since malaria disease is transmitted among humans by female Anopheles Mosquitoes.

KEYWORDS: Mosquitoes, Culex, Anopheles, Malaria.

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EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS PLANT EXTRACT IN MICE

 

ABDULQADIR I. M, PROF. M.Y. GWARZO, TAYSIR RAMADAN.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasiotology, Bayero University Kano

 

Abstract

Hibiscus Cannabinus is a valuable fibre and medicinal plant native to India and most African countries south of the Sahara. There is paucity of information on the therapeutic usage of this plant in Hausa land. Little is known of its constituents. Key cytokines that bridge the gap between innate and acquired immunity are IL-10 and IL-12. These cytokines are produced in response to microbial infections. In recent years drug resistance to pathogenic bacteria has been commonly reported worldwide. The photo constituents were evaluated using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated using the disc diffusion method. Safety and toxicity study were carried out in mice by feeding them methanolic extracts of the plant for 14 days, serum liver enzymes were measured before and alongside liver histology performed at the end. This Research evaluated pro/inflammatory cytokines. Extracts were found safe and non-toxic in mice based on levels of liver enzymes and histology, but showed no antimicrobial activity on the tested organisms. Significant rise was recorded in the level of IL-12 in both extracts indicating pro inflammatory potentials. Overall, the methanolic extracts is safe in mice, has phytoactive compounds exhibit no antibacterial activity on test organisms, and possess pro inflammatory potentials.

KEYWORDS: Antbaterial, Hibiscus Cannabinus, Evaluation, Immunological Effects, Plant Extract

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF RHODAMINE B AND MALACHITE GREEN FROM SIMULATED WASTEWATER ONTO BENTONITE CLAY. 

 

OK. AKEREMALE1 AND S. E. OLASENI2

1Department of Science and Technology Education, Bayero University, Kano. 2Department of Chemical Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Bentonite clay, a readily available adsorbent was employed in the investigation of the removal of synthetic basic dyes from simulated wastewater. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the sorption of the basic dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B and Malachite green onto the clay. The specific surface area (Sear’s method), point of zero charge (Solid addition method) and functional groups present on the clay were determined using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of process variables such as initial dyes concentrations, ionic strength, pH and contact time were also investigated. The isotherm equilibrium data were fitted to the linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The result of the Freundlich plots showed that both dyes were adsorbed onto a heterogeneous adsorbent surface with sorption capacities of Rhodamine B and Malachite green being 0.386 mg/g and 0.805 mg/g respectively. The data from the kinetic studies were fitted into the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Boyd kinetic models. Over the study of these parameters, the pseudo-second order and film diffusion mechanism was found to predominate in the adsorption process of the dyes. Process variables such as pH and ionic strength was found to have a significant effect on the uptake of both dyes.   

KEYWORDS: Bio-Sorbent, Synthetic, Simulated, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Adsorption, Adsorbent.

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ANALYSIS OF SOME SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN TWO PARTS OF TILAPIA ZILLI FROM RIVER BENUE AT ABINSI, GUMA L.G.A. OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA.

 

DIBAL, H. I.*, DUHU B.Y. AND ABDULSALAM H.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This research work was conducted to assess the concentration of heavy metals which comprises Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) in selected parts (liver and muscle) of Tilapia zilli purchased from River Benue at Abinsi, Guma L.G.A of Benue State. These metals were chosen because at higher concentration, they are toxic to the fish and by extension humans that consume such fish as food due to biomagnification. The samples were prepared and digested and the concentration of the metals were analysed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific Model-210 VGP). Differences in heavy metals concentrations were observed between the two parts of the fish. The highest concentrations of the metals were recorded in the liver of the fish. The liver accumulated significantly higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Fe (2.034, 1.905 and 1.491). In both tissues studied, the levels of the metals were significantly low in the muscles (p>0.05). The concentration of Cu, Pb and Fe in the liver was higher than the permissible limit of WHO/FAO and EU while that of the muscles were below. Consumption of the muscle will not pose any health effect, but people that eat fish as whole should be mindful of the liver because constant consumption might lead to bioaccumulation in the body.  

KEYWORDS: Heavy metals, Tilapia zilli, River Benue (Abinsi), concentration, bioaccumulation.

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MICROBIAL DYNAMICS AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARROT WINE PRODUCED WITH Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

*T. V. BALOGU1,2,,  M. T. IKEGWU2, Y. UMAR1, C. B. AKPADOLU1, AND K. C. AKPADOLU1,

1Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai Nigeria 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

 

Abstract

Microbial dynamics and physiochemical evaluation of carrot wine produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were assessed. Fresh ripe and health carrot (6kg) were sequentially processed (washed, preheated, blended and sieved) into juice and fermented for 60 days with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Airtight glass jars composed of juice (2000g), distilled water (2000mL) and sugar (200g) at controlled temperature (20 -25 OC) was used for fermentation. Wines were clarified (siphoning), aged (45 days) and pasteurized (500C – 600C) to stop fermentation. Proximate analysis, microbial dynamics, physiochemical and wine qualities were assessed. Result showed that juice extraction process reconstitute nutritional composition of carrot, such that moisture, ash and total carbohydrates increased, while others (fat, crude fiber and crude protein) decreased. A trendy progressive microbial dynamic model of Y = -0.195x2 + 1.822x + 4.566 with coefficient (R² = 0.907) was observed. Fermentation significantly decreased pH and increased total acidity. Observed wine qualities include alcoholic content (7.88 – 9.19%v/v), attenuation (121% – 142%) and calories (0%). Clarification and ageing have diminishing effect on alcohol content. Carrot wine was judged as physically appealing moderate alcoholic beverage, with smooth consistent taste (authors’ opinion), and could be modeled with microbial dynamics.

KEYWORDS: Carrot, wine,  Saccharomyces cerevisiae, microbial dynamic, physiochemical

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SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES oF ZNO-POLYANILINE NANOCOMPOSITE

 

ZAHARADDEEN MUHAMMADI, MISBAHU SAAID AHMAD1, GEETHA BHAVANI2

1Department of Chemistry Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa 2Noida International University

 

Abstract

Chemical precipitation technique and chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline were used to synthesized ZnO nanosize (22 to 37nm) and polyaniline respectively. The ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite was made by insitu polymerization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were the techniques employed for the characterization of the nanoparticles. The frequency ranges of 500 to 2000 KHz at different temperature were used to investigate the conductivity and dielectric properties of ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite. It was observed that the conductivity of ZnO-polyaniline composite increased with temperature and frequency. The conductivity and dielectric constants decrease with higher proportions ZnO polyaniline nanocompiste it was learnt that the interface formed between ZnO particles and polyaniline causes the decrease of conductivity and dielectric constant in ZnO-polyaniline nanocomposite.    

KEYWORDS: Zinc Oxide, Polyaniline, nanocomposite, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). 

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STRAINS OF SALMONELLA SP PREVALENT IN POULTRY FARM IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY DUTSE JIGAWA STATE NIGERIA.

 

*SADIQ, A. A2., MUSTAPHA, I. 2.  AND IBRAHIM A.3

1Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Federal University University Dutse 2Department of Biological sciences, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Husa Jigawa State.

 

Abstract

This research work was conducted for the isolation and characterization of strains of Salmonella sp. prevalent in poultry farm in (FUD). A total 60 samples consisting of 20 –cloacal swabs, 20-droppings and 20–water were collected from poultry section in (FUD) farm and brought to Microbiology laboratory. Samples were propagated in nutrient broth followed by culture on Salmonella-Shigella Agar and sub-cultured on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and Xylose lysine Deoxycholate agar. Biochemical properties of the isolates were studied and reaction in TSI agar slant was observed. Gram’s staining techniques were performed. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in the poultry farm was recorded 33.33% respectively. In cloacal sample the prevalence of Salmonella was 20% whereas in droppings is 45% and water sample it was 35%. The results suggest that poultry chickens can secrete Salmonella through their droppings, which can inter into their drinking water and transmited to the other chickens. The presence of Salmonella at the recorded rate in both the dropping and water pose significant alarming for the public health issue if not maintain proper hygienic steps in place.

KEYWORDS: Poultry, Droppings, Water, Culture.

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EXTRACTION, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS FROM THE ROOT BARKS OF CASSIA SIEBERIANA

 

1MAGASHI, L.A., 2ADAMU, H.M., 2KOLO, A.M. AND 2HASSAN, U.F.

1Chemistry Department, Kaduna State College of Education Gidan waya, p.m.b.1024 Kafanchan 2Chemistry Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, p.m.b. 0248 Bauchi – Nigeria

 

Abstract

Medicinally important plant species Cassia sieberiana was extracted from roots bark, weight (150g), with soxhlet extractor using six different solvents based on polarity guided method and the respective extracts were concentrated under reduced pressure. These extracts were screened for their phytochemicals qualitatively using standard methods. Percentage yields and physico-chemical evaluation of the extracts from the various fractions were recorded with highest yields from Methyl acetate and 70% MeOH fractions. Qualitative screening of Saponins, Quinones, Phenols, Steroids, Tannins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Anthraquinones, Cardiac glycosides, Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides and Coumarins were carried out. Free radical Scavenging activities of the Methyl acetate extracts from Cassia sieberiana were carried out using two different free radicals; DPPH [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl] and ABTS [2, 2 – azinobis – ethyl benzothiozoline – 6 – Sulphonic acid] and their respective IC50 which shows significant level of dose dependent radical scavenging activities were calculated using Graph Pad Prism 6 and results recorded for these studies showed potentials free radical scavenging activities for Cassia sieberiana root bark. 

KEYWORDS: Extraction, Phytochemicals, Free radical, DPPH and ABTS

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EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES EXTRACT ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANAEMIC ALBINO RATS

 

*ZAINAB HASSAN BELLO1, SHAMSUDEEN MUHAMMAD1, SALE AMINU1, SUMAYYA AHMED AYUBA1, FARIDA BASHAR2 AND  ZULKALLAINI SHEHU1

1Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in phenylhydrazine-induced anaemic albino rats on some blood parameters (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell Count (RBC), Haemoglobin (Hb) Concentration, Mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) White Blood Cell Count (WBC) and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC)). Twenty (20) rats of both sexes were randomly divided into 5 groups after acclimatization for three weeks.  Group 1 (normal control), Group 2 (negative control) was administered with Phenylhydrazine (40 mg/kg, interpretoneally) without treatment. 0.6ml of Moringa oleifera extract was given to Group 3. Phenylhydrazine (40 mg/kg) were administered to Groups 4 and 5 and were treated with 300 and 600 mg/kg of Moringa oleifera respectively. All treatments with the extract were given orally for 14 days. Anaemia was comfirmed after 24 hours through PCV and Hb estimation. After treatment period, blood samples were collected from the rats via their heart and was analysed. Results showed that, there was significant (P<0.05) increase in some blood parameters (PCV, Hb, RBC count). Therefore, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera may increase some blood parameters and may be essential in the treatment and management of anaemia.

KEYWORDS: Moringa olifera, Phenylhydrazine, Heamatological parameters, Anemic, Albino rats.

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DAMAGE ASSESSMENT 0F INFESTATION BY COWPEA WEEVILS (CALLOSBRUCHUS MACULATUS) ON COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA) AND (VIGNA SUBTERRANEAN)

 

1MUSA IBRAHIM KATUZU AND 2LAWAN BELLO,

1&2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.

 

Abstract

Bambara nut (Vigna subterranean] and Beans (Vigna unguiculata) are indigenous Nigerian crops that are grown across the country and by extension cultivated by subsistence farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Research findings indicate that these crops have nutritional and agronomic potential, but it remains scientifically neglected. The aim of this work is to determine the most susceptible cowpea type (Vigna unguiculata and Vigna subterranean) to infestation by cowpea weevils (Callosbruchus maculatus). Weight loss determination technique was used to obtain the most infested cowpea during the three weeks of pest exposure. plate 1 had weight loss of 0.1g for white bean seeds and 0.3g for white Bambara nut. Plate 2 had weight loss of 0.1g for bean seeds and 0.2g for Bambara nut. Plate 3 had 0.2g for bean seeds and 0.4g for Bambara nut respectively. However, the control had 0g weight loss. Similarly, for brown cowpea, Plate 1 had weight loss of 0.1g for bean seeds and 0.5g for Bambara nut. Plate 2 had weight loss of 0.1g for bean seeds and 0.6g for Bambara nut. Plate 3 had 0.2g for bean seeds and 0.4g for Bambara nut. However, the control experiment had 0g weight loss for both seed types. The results shows that Vigna subterranea seeds are more susceptible to cawpea weevils as the weight loss was more than that of Vigna unguiculata seeds after infestation. Recommendation on the provision of good storage facility to serve as a barrier for infestation by Cowpea weevil is essential in food security.

KEYWORDS: Infestation, Vigna, crops, agronomic, Bambara nut, Beans, cultivated.

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ENZYMATIC EVALUATION CHANGES IN SUBLETHAL CYANIDE POISONING ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH CHROMOLAENA ODORATA (LINN.) AND SODIUM THIOSULPHATE

 

SIKIRU GBENGA.K., OLORUNDARE O.O AND OLADEJO A.O

Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Recently, the plant has been employed in the remediation of cyanide from contaminated sites. Cyanide remediation potential of plants is due to their ability to synthesize cyanogenic glucosides. Naturally, cyanogenic plants not only synthesize organic cyanides but are also imbue with efficient degradation potentiality. Example of such plants is Chromolaena odorata which is widely known to be effectively used as a therapy against several ailments. Cyanide intoxication mediate pathologic effects on different tissues that precede alterations in biochemical parameters. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal cyanide exposure and ameliorative effects of sodium thiosulphate and ethanol Extract of Chromolaena odorata (ECO) administered singly and in combination on some enzyme activities in rats. Thirty five male rats were divided into seven groups. All test groups received potassium cyanide (KCN) at 7 mg/kg body weight; Control group:received distilled water daily for the experimental period. Cyanide group: received KCN at 7.0 mg/kg administered via gavage; KCN+100ECO group:received KCN and 100 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+150ECO group:received KCN and 150 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+200ECO group:received KCN and 200 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+Na2S2O3 group:received KCN and oral administration of sodium thiosulphate at 200 mg/kg; KCN+ECO+Na2S2O3 group:received KCN and oral administration of both sodium thiosulphate and ECO at 200 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, activities of Rhodanese, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and superoxide dismutase were measured. Potassium cyanide administration caused alteration in the measured enzymes while sodium thiosulphate and Chromolaena odorata ethanol extracts relieved the alterations. Whereas, combination of the two regimen showed a synergistic effect. The altered tissue activities of some enzymes in the present study might reflect the metabolic disturbances due to cyanide intoxication. However, further research should be focused on this issue for better understanding of the fine mechanism of cyanide effects upon metabolic enzyme activities.

KEYWORDS: Cyanide; Chromolaena odorata; Sodium thiosulphate; Rats

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COLLABORATIVE FLIPPED LEARNING IN MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL CLASSROOMS AND STUDENTS’ LEARNING OUTCOMES IN SCIENCE IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, EKITI STATE. NIGERIA

 

*OLADOSU, ADEBIYI TOYOSI & **DARAMOLA, MERCY ADESOLA

*Department of Biology, School of Science, College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria **Department of Integrated Science, School of Science, College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

A flipped model of personalized learning was adopted using WhatsApp for monolingual and bilingual classrooms. A total of 90 purposive sampled biology students from College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria were used for the study. The treatments and control groups consist of 30 students each. These treatments groups were flipped before each of the instruction using the students’ WhatsApp application. Meanwhile, monolingual group was strictly restricted to the lingual franca as means of instructional delivery as well as when the students collaborate. In the other treatment group, students in the bilingual could speak the language of their immediate environment during collaboration in the classroom and they were encouraged to do so. Standardized Biology Achievement Tests were administered on the three groups. The findings from the study show that students in the bilingual collaborative classroom performed better than those in the monolingual; and those in the monolingual collaborative flipped classroom performed better than those in the traditional group but without statistical significance difference. It was therefore recommended among others that, language of the immediate environment should be incorporated into instructional strategy when students are collaborating in flipped classrooms.  

KEYWORDS: Collaborative, Flipped Learning, Monolingual, Bilingual, Students’ Learning Outcomes

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SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UTILIZED BY AFIZERE PEOPLE OF JOS, PLATEAU STATE, NORTHERN NIGERIA.

 

ADEDIRE, O., YAKUBU, C. K., MBAH, J. J., OLORI-OKE, E., OLADIPO, S. A., AND A. S. POPOOLA.

Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This study was designed to identify and document the medicinal plants used by the Afizere people in Jos North and Jos East LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria, in the management of human illness and to harness such plants for the purpose of drug development in future research. Both closed and open-ended questions and guided dialogue techniques were used to interview the respondents in the two LGA considered. Simple discriptive statistics was used to analyzed the data. The results revealed that more than 70 plants belonging to 37 different families were mentionedas being used for treatment and control of various illness. The family Fabacceae (8) 21.6% was the most common family mentioned while 34 other families are the least. The life form of the plants are basically trees with 49species (53.3%), herbs (23.9%) and Shrubs (20.6%). Leaves (32%), roots (25.2%) and bark (13.7%) were mentioned as the most common plant parts used. The Afizere people have appreciable knowledge of medicinal plants and could constitute a relevant source of information about herbal remedies. The status of plants in the study area were aboundant in both LGA. From this research findings it was found that the Afizere people have rich undocumented knowledge on medicinal plants, the information on this research work can help in discovering new medicines and also help in creating conservation programs for species that are rare which are prune to being threatened or going extinct.

KEYWORDS: Afizere, traditional medicine, Plants, life form, Diseases.

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MINERAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE SESAME (SESAMUM RADIATUM) LEAVES

 

*UMAR, A.N., **MOHAMMED, A. K., *DANFULANI, S. ***HASSAN, H. AND ****YUSUF Z.O.

*Department of Biological Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic PMB 55 Bida, Niger State. **Department of Chemical Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic PMB 55 Bida, Niger State ***Department of Home Economics and Food Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State. ****Department of Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism Management, The Federal Polytechnic PMB 55 Bida, Niger State

 

Abstract

This studies evaluates some mineral composition of the leaves and sensory attributes of the soup prepared from Sesamum radiatum (one of the many neglected wild leafy vegetable of the tropics) commonly found in the North central part of Nigeria. Freshly harvested leaves were obtained from the Federal polytechnic Bida environs Niger state. The fresh leaves for analyses were collected cleaned to remove dirt’s, dried at ambient temperature for two weeks and milled into powder. The dried sample was packaged in air tight container while the leaves for sensory evaluation were collected, washed and the soup was prepared while the leaves were fresh.  The samples were analysed for its mineral composition using AOAC (2010) method and the sensory evaluation of the soup made from the leaves to determine the taste, colour, texture, flavour and general acceptability were carried out using 5-point hedonic test. The result showed the value of (36.1mg/100g) for Iron, Sodium (27.5mg/100g); Phosphorus (26.75mg/100g); Calcium (24.35mg/100g); Potassium (11.8mg/100g) and Zinc (5.6mg/100g). Considering the presence of these minerals in moderate quantities, Sesamun radiatum leaves can be used as dietary supplement useful in health conditions such as anemia, arthritis, rickets and tooth decay. Sensory evaluation of the sample revealed 3.6, 3.33, 10.33, 7.13 and 2.8 for taste, colour, texture, flavour and general acceptability respectively. There was significant difference (p<0.05) among the parameters. Sensory evaluation results indicates high acceptability of Sesamum radiatum in terms of taste, texture, flavour, colour and overall acceptability among the panellist examined. From the results of this studies, it can be concluded that high mineral composition, sensory properties coupled with its availability could make Sesamum radiatum leave an excellent addition into the modern food vocabulary.

KEYWORDS: Vegetable, Sensory attributes, Soup, Minerals, Wild. 

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BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES: A TOOL FOR ACHIEVING FOOD SUFFICIENCY

 

ADUBI AMOS OLADIMEJI

Department of Biology School of Science, the College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The development of agriculture has historically been based in the identification of a reduced number of species that have the appropriate features to be cultivated. But with increase in population food production will need to double as more people adopt a western diet. The predicted changes in rainfall and temperature, and an increase in extreme weather events (floods and droughts) all pose significant risks to agriculture. Also, with the horticulture’s dwindling fortunes, biotechnology has to be rescued. The objective of this review is to provide comprehensive overview of the application of biotechnological approaches to improve the nutritional quality of our food. In this case, the following issues were critically assessed: the origin and definitions of plant biotechnology; successful application of biotechnology in fruit and vegetables production; the effect of the biotechnological application on the nutritional quality of fruit and vegetables; the challenges associated with the biotech fruits and vegetables and the need for biotechnology in the production of food in the 21st century. The available scientific literature shows that the developed biotechnological approaches have the potential to enhance the yield, quality, and shelf-life of fruits and vegetables in the midst of the global climate change, water scarcity, population increase, and ever-increasing demand for food. To make sure that the current debates and complexities surrounding the human safety and environmental considerations addressed, various stakeholders in the private sectors, agriculturalists, biotechnologists, scientists, extension agents, farmers, and the general public are engaged in policy formulations, seed-embodiments, and products developments.  

KEYWORDS: Horticulture, Biotechnology, Fruits and Vegetables, Nutritional Quality, food.

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A SURVEY OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS USED LOCALLY IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA IN EDO STATE

 

IYEKEKPOLOR R. M., 0. LYEKOWA, ERHABOR, L. O. EDUWUIROFO, J. O. AKINBOLADE, AND H. OLIGIE

Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City.

 

Abstract

“Fura” is known to have originated from Hausa/Fulani and is produced mainly from millet flour blended with spices, compressed into balls and boiled for thirty minutes. While still hot, the cooked dough is worked through in the mortar and pestle (with addition of hot water), until a smooth, slightly elastic cohesive lump “fura” is formed. This study was carried out to compare the physiochemical and sensory characteristics of “fura” using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). The millets were cleaned, dry milled, and sieved to produce “fura” flour. The pearl millet flour and finger millet flour were made into “fura” separately. The samples were analysed for proximate, functional, and sensory properties. The data obtained were analysed using unpaired student T-test  at p<0.05. Findings showed that proximate composition had significant differences (P<0.05) in the moisture, protein and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) while there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the ash, crude fibre and oil extract of the pearl millet “fura” (sample A) and finger millet “fura” (sample B).Functional properties showed significant difference (P<0.05) in water absorption capacity and swelling capacity while no significant difference was observed in bulk density among the samples. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in all the parameters evaluated (taste, appearance, texture and general acceptability). Finger millet “fura”had higher general acceptability (M=7.95, S.D=0.89) than pearl millet “fura” (M=7.87, S.D=0.88).  

KEYWORDS: “Fura”, Finger Millet, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties.

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TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TERPENOID FRACTION OF PHYSALIS AGULATA ON LIVER AND RENAL FUNCTION BIOMARKERS

 

BAWA A., ABDULKADIR Y. AND ABRAHAM E. A.

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.

 

Abstract

The aim of the research was to investigate the toxicological effects of terpenoid fraction of Physalis angulata on male albino rats. Acute toxicity of the extract was determined according to the OECD guideline No.425 (Acute oral toxicity-Up and Down-procedure). The effect of the fraction on liver function was determined by analyzing the serum level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using standard methods. Also, the effect of the extract on kidney function was determined by analyzing the serum level of urea and creatinine. The results of the acute toxicity studies showed that the fraction is safe for consumption (to be used as drug). The results of the fraction’s effect on liver function biomarkers showed that there is no significant (P>0.05) increase in the serum levels of AST and ALT in groups treated with the fraction compared to the normal control, but there was significant (P<0.05) decrease in the serum level of ALP in fraction-treated group compared to the normal control. The effect of the fraction on kidney function biomarkers revealed that there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the serum level of urea and creatinine  in the fraction-treated group compared to the normal control. All these results suggest that the terpenoid extract of Physalis angulata has no negative effects on the function of liver and kidney, and is also safe for use as medicine.

KEYWORDS: toxicological effects, terpenoid fraction, Physalis angulata, Albino rats, biomarkers

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STUDY OF FRAGILITY OF ERYTHROCYTES IN VERTEBRATES (NORMAL HUMAN CELL, HUMAN SICKLE CELL, COW, SHEEP, GOAT AND CHICKEN) IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA

 

YUSUF SARKINGOBIR1. , AMINU UMAR IMAM2.  , MALAMI DIKKO3

1Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria 2Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria 3Sultan Abdurrahman School of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Erythrocytes are important in the transport of oxygen to the tissues in the body. The need to preserve the integrity of erythrocytes played by their membranes is enormous.This work studied erythrocytes fragility in some vertebrates (normal human cell, human sickle cell, cow, sheep, goat and chicken), using the standard method. The results revealed that, normal human red blood cells (NHRCs) have lower fragility than sickle cells (SCs).Haemolysis (fragility) was higher from cow down to goat’s red blood cells (RBCs).Chicken’s RBCs possessed highest level of fragility, surpassing all. Conclusively, there are varying levels of fragility among vertebrates (erythrocytes).    

KEYWORDS: Erythrocytes, erythrocytes fragility test, red cells NaCl, osmosis, mean cell volume, surface-are – volume- ratio

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PREVALENCE OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS AMONG MEN SUFFERING FROM OLI GOSPERMIA IN PARTS OF OHAJI/EGBEMA L.G.A., IMO STATE, NIGERIA

 

*NWABUEZE E.U.; **NWABUEZE N.O.

*Department Of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji. **Department of Animal and Environment Biology, Imo State University, Owerri

 

Abstract

This study is aimed at determining the prevalence and implication of chlamydia trachomatis among male couple suffering from infertility due to oligospenia The study was conducted in parts Ohaji/Egbema L.G.A., Imo state between the months of February 2016 to June 2017. A total of 600 urethral swab as well as urine samples were collected comprising of 300 samples from childless couple (male) and another 300 specimen from male volunteers (control). The samples were analized using Chlamydia Rapid Test Device (CRTD) and a quantitative literal flow immunoassay for detection of Chlamydia antigen. Out of the total number of samples analyzed from the study group 145 (48.61%) were infected, while 155 (51.6%) were negative. Also, of the control group 10(0.1%) were infected while 290 (98.6%) were not. The study revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childless couple, when compared with the control group at (p<0.05). The study also revealed a significant increase in the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and staph aurens co-existence among childless male couple with oligospermia 95 (31.6%) when compared with those that presented with azospermia 50(16.6%) of (p<0.05)  The age group 30-40 years recorded the highest prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection 90 (30.0%) when compared with the age group 41 – 50 years 50 (16.0%). The result of the study revealed that Chlamydia trachomatis is the main cause of infertility among couples within the study area. Therefore, it is suggested that government at all levels should come up with health policies that will raise public awareness on the dangers of Chlamydia trachomatis and the  test should be made compulsory for all intending couple.

KEYWORDS: Chlamydia, Trachomatis, Oligospermia, Azospermia, Infertility.

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THE EFFECTS OF DIABETES ILLNESS TO SOCIO-CULTURAL LIFE OF PEOPLE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF PATIENTS IN ATBU TEACHING HOSPITAL, BAUCHI STATE

 

KABIRU ABUBAKAR GARBA AND ABDULWAHAB SANI

Dept. of general studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.

 

Abstract

Diabetes is seen as a lifelong chronic disease in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body cannot effectively use insulin. Nigeria is a country with significant socio-cultural and economic divisions. Access to health-care in some parts is adversely affected by socio-economic as well as infrastructural development. The management of diabetes is largely dependent on the attitudes of the people and members of their family towards the disease. The study examined the effects of diabetes to socio-cultural life of diabetes patients in ATBU Teaching Hospital, Bauchi. The study objectives were to find out the effects of diabetes on eating habits of people in Bauchi, it also examine the effects of diabetes on sexual performance on people of Bauchi. Health belief model and sick-role behavior theories were reviewed and adopted as the theoretical framework for the study this is because of their relevant in explaining social factors and diseases. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 diabetes patients receiving related treatments in the hospital, the sampled will help to obtain a quantitative data (questionnaire) for the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS and hypotheses were tested using chi-square. Result showed that majority of the diabetes patients were of the belief that the major cause of diabetes was genetic inheritance; on effects of diabetes to eating habits the result showed that majority of them find it difficult to adhere to proper diabetes nutritional foods, because majority are low level income earners with a low level knowledge of western education; on influence of diabetes to sexual performance it indicated that a high proportion of the patients had reported sexual problems in older age which means that diabetes has affected their sexual performance, which leads them to sexual dysfunctions. It was recommended that adhering to a recommended lifestyle can delay or prevent the progression of the complications associated with it, also long-term diabetes management involves key health behaviors, such as physical activity, healthy eating and weight management should be encourage. Lastly, providing intensive long-term diabetes management support in times of diabetes care should be encourage. Also in a matter of urgency Government should intervene to provide free medical support and nutritional dietary foods for diabetic patients, including tools for monitoring lifestyle changes, goal-setting and frequent contact, for people with newly diagnosed diabetes may help them to achieve and maintain positive lifestyle changes.

KEYWORDS: Northern, Patients, Socio-cultural, Illness, Effects.

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IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA FRUIT (UDA)

 

UCHENDU, A.C1.  EBI, I.I2.   EBI, P.U3.

1Zitelle Oil Nigeria Limited, Amansea, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Von Foods Nigeria Limited, Osisioma, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria 3Zitelle Oil Nigeria Limited, Amansea, Awka  Anambra State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Several methods were employed in this study in extracting and testing the antimicrobial activities of the three extracts of Xylopia aethiopia (Hot water, cold water and ethanolic extracts) against Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella Prieumoniae, and Candida albicans.Staphylococcus aureus showed the greatest susceptibility to the extracts whereas Echerichia coli showed the least susceptibility (MIC-E.coli=50mg/ml, S.aureus=10mg/ml and 20mg/ml). Staphylococcus aureus was also found tobe more sensitive to the hot water extract than the cold water and ethanolic extract (MIC, 10Mg/ml).The results also showed that the ethanolic extract was the most effective of the extracts (MIC: 20, 50, 30, 20, 20).  It can also be deduced from the result that Staphylococcus .aureus showed the greatest susceptibility to the extract, while E.coli showed the least susceptibility, followed by Candida. albicans and as such suggest that Xylopia aethiopica   will be very effective for the treatment of Staphylococcus.aureus infection. Therefore, there was significant difference in the antimicrobial activities of the three extracts of Xylopia aethiopica based on One Way ANOVA analysis carried out. Traditional medicine should be encouraged and modernized so as to increase the utility of new plant based antimicrobials like Xylopia aethiopica.

KEYWORDS: Invitro, Antimicrobial and Xylopia aethiopica.

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THE IMPACT OF HEALTH EXPENDITURE ON HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA: ARDL APPROACH.

 

MUDI HADIZA **ZAINAB MUSA YAHAYA

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Nursing and Midwifery, PMB 0445, Bauchi state, Nigeria **Department of General Studies, College of Nursing and Midwifery, PMB 0445, Bauchi state, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the Impact of Health Expenditure on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria from 1990 to 2018 using the ARDL model. A pre-test for stationarity of the data set was determined using the Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philips-Perron unit root test indicating that a co-integration relationship exists. The Johansen co-integration test confirmed the existence of co-integration relationship among the variablesand the results revealed that the total population (POP) is positive and significant at 1% level in influencing HIV. Meaning that increase in population will increase HIV likewise decrease in population will decrease HIV cases. The result also revealed that total health expenditure (THE) is also positive and significant at 5% level of significance. It also demonstrated that GDP per capita is negative and significant at 1% level of significance. Dynamic DOLS and FMOLS employed for robustness check indicated that total population and total health expenditure have a significant positive relationship with HIV. This finding confirms the long-run results of the ARDL, where total population and total health expenditure have a positive and significant impact on HIV. While GDP per capita is still negative and significant in both the two tests and is in line with ARDL long run results. Therefore, we conclude that there is a long-run relationship among the dependent (HIV) and independent variables (THE, POP,GDP) and the analysis from the adopted econometric techniques revealed that HIV/AIDS had a negative impact on GDP in Nigeria between1990-2018. Health Expenditure had a significant positive impact on HIV/AIDS and the total population is also positive and significant at increasing HIV.

KEYWORDS: HIV/AIDS, Health Expenditure, Total population, GDP, ARDL approach

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION POTENTIAL OF PHYTO-SYNTHESIZED NANOPARTICLES

 

OKUNOLA, A.A (MRS) AND ADEFILA .O.O (PhD)

Department Of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State

 

Abstract

The present study evaluates the use of Jatropha curcas aqueous leaf extract for the green production of silver nanoparticles and determining the potential suitability in the purification of contaminated water evaluating its potency in the removal and/or reduction of toxic materials. The biologically reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purification experiment was dose dependent using nanoparticle concentrations/water sample 25ml/l, 50ml/l, 75ml/l and 100ml/l in comparison with the control(zero treatment ).The physicochemical results reveals that nitrate and sulphate levels deceased by 50% and 40% respectively but heavy metals showed insignificant changes even at higher concentrations however prior studies have advocated that removal of heavy metals by nanoparticles can be increased with the use of ligands to decrease surface resonance between the nanoparticles and the heavy metals in water to be treated .C.O.D and B.O.D levels depicted a reduction. Increase is observed in the concentration of turbidity and dissolved solids as treatment concentration increased so it is prescribed that after treatment using silver nanoparticles further filtration and flocculation techniques should be applied to remove sediments/ de-colorization. Conductivity increased with treatment due to the high conductance of the nanospheres.

KEYWORDS: Nanoparticles, metals, purification, spectroscopy

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