MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE
VOL. 11 NO.6 (MIJHSS) | JUNE, 2020 | ISSN: 1021-3197
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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PROVERBS AS ANTIDOTES TO CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN SOCIETY: A THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SOME SELECTED YORÙBÁ PROVERBS
BADRU, SURAJUDEEN ADÉWÁLÉ
Yorùbá Education Unit, Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ìlo̩rin, Ìlo̩rin, Nigeria.
The incidence of corrupt practices that is ravaging the Nigerian nation is increasing day-by-day despite various efforts to eradicate it through the activities of anticorruption agencies such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Whistle Blowers. This suggests the need to look elsewhere and inward in fighting this epidemic. Since solutions to every society’s problems reside primarily with such society’s culture (literature inclusive), this paper, therefore, examines the roles of Yorùbá proverbs in curbing and eradicating corruption in Nigerian society. This is achieved through a thematic analysis of some randomly selected (sampled) Yorùbá proverbs with particular reference (special bias) to the themes of instruction, warning (advice) and correction. The paper argues that Yorùbá proverbs are useful tools (weapons) for instructing towards best practices, warning and advising individuals against corrupt practices and guiding and correcting individuals against corruption, and emphasising the implications of corrupt acts. The paper concludes that Yorùbá proverbs are indeed, vital (crucial) in fighting corruption in various sectors of the Nigerian nation. This paper avers that individuals with in-depth understanding of Yorùbá proverbs and their implications for corruption would appreciate and seek to promote a corrupt-free society. Such individuals would not engage in corrupt practices and would run away from (guide against) actions and inactions that would promote corruption.
KEYWORDS: Thematic Analysis, Yorùbá Proverbs, Antidotes, Corruption, Nigerian Society
ANCHOR BORROWERS PROGRAMME AND RICE PRODUCTION IN KWANDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA
*SAMBE, NGUTOR **KORNA, JOHNMARK MKAV ***YAGA, AONDONA EMMANUEL
*Department of Sociology, University of Mkar, Mkar **Department of Accounting, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi ***Center for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER), Benue State University, Makurdi.
This study was therefore conducted to investigate effects of Anchor Borrower’s Programme on rice production in Kwande Local government area. Specifically, was aimed at determining the effects of socio-demographic characteristics of people on access to the Programme’s assistance; determining the effects of the Programme on rice production, exploring challenges faced by the Programme in rice production in the study area The study used a cross sectional survey design while a convenience sample of was used to select 78 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis involved the use of percentages, mean, t-test and binary logistic regression. The study found that majority of the respondents was beneficiaries of the programme. However, most beneficiaries did not access all the assistance they were supposed to get from the programme. The logistic regression results showed that age and education had significant effects on access to ABP, while sex, marital status and occupation did not significantly affects access to the programme. T test showed a statistically significant difference in rice output between the beneficiaries and non beneficiaries as P<0.00; however there was no significant difference in rice output between beneficiaries before and after the programme as P>0.00. The study also revealed that major challenge of the programme for the beneficiaries was late arrival of inputs, breach of agreement, poor implementation and incomplete delivery of inputs. For the non beneficiaries, biased selection, political interference and neglect of rural people were the major challenges and poor awareness was the major challenges. The study therefore recommended for Time disbursement of inputs, complete delivery of inputs, independent supervision of the programme, inclusion of rural of more farmer and reduction of political interference.
KEYWORDS: Anchor Borrower’s Programme, Rice, production, Kwande, Benue state
SOCIOLINGUSTIC ANALYSIS OF PROVERBS IN A YORUBA HOMILY; AN APPROACH FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G ACRONYM
*OLADIPO, MICHAEL MOFEOLUWA1 **OKATA GIFT NGOZI, PhD2
*Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State **Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University Ilisan Remo. Ogun State
Language is a powerful tool in human communication. Culture is also a core aspect of human life. In fact, language is a product of culture. The failure to locate culture as the strongest index in the centrality of language use among individual language users in a connected speech within a particular speech community is a cankerworm that has militated against the appropriate use of language in today’s society. This is as a result of the fact that language and culture are inseparable. Proverbs are products of the human cultures because they are witty statements loaded with implicit truths. Culturally, proverbs can be used to address virtually all human situations. Using a total of six proverbs, selected through purposive random sampling technique and the descriptive qualitative method of analysis as framework, the study espoused relevance, contextual interpretation, themes and symbols as linguistic tools employed by Bishop Samuel Ogundeji in the presentation of his homily. Findings showed that proverbial expressions are needed in Christian homilies. The preacher in this study embellishes his sermon with proverbs in order to engender a level of cultural affiliation with the listeners and the paper concludes that proverbs are the identifying markers in the utterances of interlocutors of a particular language. The study recommended the use of proverbs as a persuasive strategy because many listeners are attracted to expressions they can relate with their sociocultural background.
KEYWORDS: Culture, Proverbs, interlocutors, Speech Community, Christian Homilies
MIGRATION, URBAN SETTLEMENT AND THE ROLE OF KANO INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES IN THE WEST AFRICAN INTEGRATION
DR MUHAMMAD DAIYABU HASSAN AND ABDULRAHMAN DANGANA LUKMAN
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
From its first settlement a millennium ago, Kano city has grown over the centuries as a cosmopolitan centre and an assortment of diverse ethnic communities mixing and mingling with the original Hausa founders, and melting into a huge people called Kanawa. Factors which include massive drought that led to the great migration of the 16th century in Hausa land, trans-Saharan trade activities, the development and expansion of transportation systems and the introduction of groundnut as a cash crop during the 1920s, were responsible for the mass movements of people into the town. This paper examines the impacts of migration and urban settlement in the development of Kano industries for the West African integration. The method used in the study is context analysis of predominantly secondary sources. The theory adopted is the liberal theory of international relations which emphasizes the principles of economic interdependence, cooperation and liberty among independent entities. Findings reveal that, due to the early patterns of associational ethnicity, a steady and continuous market for both semi-processed and manufactured products helped integrates the West African citizens particularly in trade and industrial activities. While urban settlement in Kano was greatly enhanced by migrant settlers across central and western Africa, industrial areas like Challawa, Sharada and Tokarawa saw the development of diverse products like agricultural implements, textile materials as well as productive activities like iron mining, skin tanning and ornamental leather works. Even though, various territorial divisions (Sabon Gari, Tudun Wada, Nasarawa etc) provide an insight into the structure of relations between Kano peoples and migrants, the city developed a cosmopolitan outlook, unlike many other cities in Nigeria and the entire West African sub-region. The study recommends that, authorities should enhance the development of Kano industries for proper integration of the West African communities..
KEYWORDS: Migration, Urban Settlement, Industrial Economies, West African Integration, and Kano Industries.
A JUST WAR (bellum justum) OR JUST A WAR? THE JULY 2006 ISRAELI INVASION OF LEBANON
ALIYU MUKHTAR KATSINA, PhD. & MUBARAK AHMED MASHI
Department of Political Science, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University (UMYU), Katsina – Nigeria
This paper examines the theoretical assumptions and major principles of the just war theory (bellum justum) and argues that they are fundamentally intended to serve as an ethical and moral compass to guide the conduct of warfare, especially in contemporary period where advances in science and technology have made warfare an existential threat. The paper further operationalises the fundamental principles of just war on the 2006 Israeli invasion of Lebanon in order to determine whether the invasion is justified or otherwise. The paper is structured into two parts. The first part examines the core theoretical assumptions of the Just War Theory and it traces the evolution and development of Just War Theory in history, showing its roots to Christian philosophy being attributed to it. The second part delves into the study of the 2006 war involving Israel and Hezbollah. In this part, the paper starts with a general background review of the Middle-Eastern politics including the creation of the state of Israel and the resentment, which generated among Middle-East Arabs. The paper then outlines the remote and immediate causes of the war. This part also attempts an analysis of the Israeli behavior and conduct before, during and after the war. The aim is to show that consistently, Israel violated all the known principles of just war theory.
KEYWORDS: Just war theory, bellum justum, Israel, Hezbollah, Lebanon,
IMPACT OF DISPLACED PERSONS ATTRIBUTES ON EASE OF RESETTLEMENT OF INTERNALLY DISPLAED PERSONS: A CASE OF NIGER DELTA REGION, NIGERIA
*POPOOLA, OLUSOJI DAVID (PhD) **ARIAGA, REGINA CHINEDU (PhD) ***NYUMA, JOE FAYIA (PhD)
*Department of Sociology & Anthropology,Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria **Legal Department, Redeem Christian Church of God, Rivers Province 11, Egbeda Road Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. ***Minister Plenipotentiary & Head of Chancery Sierra Leone Embassy South Korea
Internal displacement often brings destruction of life and properties as well as dislocation of socio economic and political life to the entire society. Victims often lose their means of livelihood, social and psychological well-being as well as their political freedom. They are at the mercy of relief materials from donor agencies, government and philanthropists. Host communities may also be exposed to social problems such as over population, poor sanitation, hike in prices of goods and services, pressure on social amenities and outbreak of diseases among others. Government and donor agencies often spends huge sums of money on rehabilitation and relief materials for the displaced persons wherever it occurs. This account for why efforts are always geared towards resettlement of internally displaced persons as soon as possible. However, efforts at resettlement might be frustrated by the displaced persons themselves if some factors are not taken into consideration. Thus, this study examined five factors associated with the displaced persons that can hinder ease of resettlement with particular focus on the displaced people of Niger Delta Region (Rivers State), Nigeria. Using snow ball method, a total of 132 participants were sampled using purposive sampling procedure. Five hypotheses posited that, sex, marital status, religion, educational status and employment status significantly determine ease of resettlement were tested using chi square analysis. Results, showed that, religion significantly influenced ease of resettlement while sex, marital status, educational status and employment status were weak determinants of ease of resettlement. Further analysis showed that, Moslem were more willing for resettlement than Christians. We conclude that, religious faith of the displaced persons is an important factor of ease of resettlement in Rivers State. The study recommend involvement of religious leaders in the resettlement and restoration of peace and security in the troubled areas of Niger Delta region, Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Displaced Persons Factors, Ease of resettlement, Internally Displaced Persons, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING AS NEW VARIANT OF SLAVERY.
*AWOSIYAN, OLUWAGBEMISOLA. O **IGUANRE, SOLOMON, PhD1
*Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University Ilisan Remo. Ogun State **Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State
Literature represents tradition, culture which consists of those works in language by which a community defines itself through the course of its history. History in the conventional sense can be defined as a record of “real” events that happened in the past on the other hand, it functions as initiator of new worlds of experience, which bypasses its boundary as a historical or cultural creative work. The study focused on determining the level of awareness of the form of modern slavery; describing the meaning of human trafficking. In order to accomplish these objectives, a study was done based on their thematic relevance to the study. This study aimed at studying human trafficking through the methodology of Record keeping qualitative means, the use of Newspaper and modern African texts. The study was guided by New Historicism theory. Findings from the study reveal a connection between the lack of awareness, understanding, of human trafficking and other forms of modern slavery like consensual smuggling. The following conclusions were identified: Human trafficking is a mutation of the old slavery. This study posits that human trafficking is like re-inventing the wheel and religion isn’t necessarily evil, but was manipulated by humans to suit their needs. May Ifeoma Nwoye’s Fetters and Choices and Akachi Ezeigbo’s Trafficked describes the forms of modern slavery, this can be based on exploitation i.e. Forced marriage, debt bondage, human trafficking, sexual exploitation and consensual smuggling as long as it is a means of exploitation and human degradation as it poises dangers of physical and mental abuse to victims. The study recommended that interventions by the Government/Organisations have an indirect, preventive effect on fighting exploitation by decreasing vulnerabilities of consensual/nonconsensual exploitation, enhancing economic opportunities for the poor. To curb human trafficking parental love towards children goes a long way, also providing job opportunities, reporting any suspicious case of trafficking and creating awareness on the dangers of trafficking.
KEYWORDS: Slavery, Human trafficking, exploitation, consensual, smuggling, New Historicism Theory, human degradation.
PERCEPTION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN WORKING IN MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Mass Communication, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The study examined the perceived discrimination against women employees of media organizations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study employed survey method using questionnaire as research instrument for gathering relevants data with a population of 285 respondents. The study is anchored on Liberal Feminist theory which focuses on gender roles in social, political, legal and economic equality. Major findings have shown that under-representation of women in leadership positions, sexual harassments and violence against women, unequal promotional opportunities and unequal employees’ promotions are some of the manifestations of gender discrimination against women in media houses in Kaduna State. Other findings show that poor media content, mistrust among employees, apprehensive and discontentment, constant conflicts in the stations, de-motivation of female employees, decreased production as a result of no team work, are the effects of gender discriminations on women’s performances in media organizations in Kaduna Sate. Based on the findings, the study recommends that media organizations in Kaduna State should have affirmative action for effective development of women career and provide gender sensitive training to both male and female so as to promote non-discriminatory working relationships and respect for media employees of Kaduna State.
KEYWORDS: Gender, Discrimination, Women, Perception, Organization
THE WOMAN AS A VICTIM OF VIOLENCE/RAPE
DIBIE, GODFREY ATUNU (Ph.d)
Department of General Studies, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State.
The rising cases of violence against women world wide is not only becoming very worrisome but such that is getting out of hand and this must be urgently addressed. The aim of this paper is to bring to the knowledge of all the various forms of violences against the woman which includes physical, sexual psychological, i.e. wife battering that inflict words on the body, sexual molestations of female children and adults, within communities homes, during communal clashes, inter tribal wars, Boko Haram attacks, riots, and many more and the need for government to take very urgent and drastic measures to put an end to this very wicked and ungodly act against the woman and also to strengthen existing laws. So that perpetrators will be dealt with accordingly. As a position paper, it draw basically from libriaries, prints from the internets relevant texts. It concludes that if government can wake up from its slumbers, and become alive to her responsibilities added to the efforts that will be made by civil societies and religious bodies to deal with the situation it will certainly reduce the acts of violence against women and this will bring a lot of peace and sanity to women and man kind.
KEYWORDS: Violence, sexual, molestation wife battering, urgently, drastic, solutions.
MAXIMISING THE UTILISATION OF THE MILITARY FOR EFFICIENT SECURITY DELIVERY IN THE MIDST OF COMPLEXITIES AS AN AGENT FOR TRANSFORMATION.
OGUNDIMINIYI MICHAEL T.
Department of Sociology, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.
This paper attempts on various ways by which the military of some developed countries respond to situations at different times of their needs; especially as it relates to the security of their domain to foster development. The result of which have in no small measure brought succour, relative peace, and hope of existence. Hence, fostering harmony, unity and smooth running of their various governments. The sociological approach is adopted in view of the traditional focal point generated by this paper, to portray the military as it should be in an ideal situation. Identifying the major roles and the herculean task of the military in the developing countries of which Nigeria is a major point of reference, effort was geared towards; among others the stemming of crises posed by religion, ethnicity, the ones generated by the activities of insurgents, separatists, insurrectionists, just to mention but few. How it has translated substantially to the present level of the overall development of our endeared nation – Nigeria. With due regards to the tasks before the military, it was recommended among others that the military should be efficiently funded, and should make its presence known more in the suburbs, villages and sparsely habited forest areas as this areas are used as breeding grounds for criminals who are later sent to the populace to wreck havoc. In conclusion, the paper envisages that the solution this paper will proffer, will serve as a transformation agenda, to enhance a reduction in the state of insurgency in Nigeria and the world at large.
KEYWORDS: Agent, Military, Security, Transformation, and Insurgency.
EXTENT OF THE PROVISION OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
UMEOZOR, UZONNA JULIANA (Ph. D) AND ODOH, JULIANA NKECHI
Department of Educational Management and Policy, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State
The Nigerian federal government gave their support in the National Policy on Education (NPE) for the need of some educational support services be introduced for proper schools’ administration. Given the fact that this is a federal government directive, yet many secondary schools are yet to comply. This has made it possible to conduct this present research in order to investigate the extent of the provision of educational services for administration of secondary education in Anambra State, Nigeria; looking at the extent to which school teaching facilities/resources, health facilities and guidance and counselling services were provided for proper administration of secondary education in Anambra State. Three research questions were posed to guide the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Population of the study comprised 258 principals and 5,976 teachers in the 258 public secondary schools located within six (6) education zones in Anambra State. The sample size for this study was a total of 727 participants, made up of 129 principals and 598 teachers from 129 secondary schools drawn using stratified random sampling technique. Fifty percent (50%) of the principals and their public secondary schools were selected, while only 10% of the teacher sample was selected. A questionnaire containing 23 items and titled: “Extent of Provision of Educational Services Questionnaire (EPESQ)”, which was equally validated by three experts was used in eliciting information from the principals and teachers in this study. Data gathered from the pilot test were analyzed using Cronbach Alpha method. This yielded an overall coefficient of internal consistency of 0.84. Data collected and collated were quantitatively analyzed using only the descriptive statistics of the mean scores in order to answer the three research questions. Findings of the study indicated among others that: all the educational services investigated such as the school teaching facilities/resources, health facilities and nutritional services, guidance and counselling services were provided for administration of secondary education in Anambra State to a low extent. Based on the findings, recommendations were proffered and among these included that: Anambra State government and Post Primary Schools Service Commission should ensure that they promote proper administration of secondary education in Anambra State to a high extent through adequate facilities/ resources provision, adequate funding and policy directives implementation.
KEYWORDS: Extent, Provision, Educational, Services, Administration, Secondary, Schools, Anambra State
THE SECURITY AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATION OF POROUS BORDERS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
*JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA, PhD **ABDULLAHI MUSA ZANGO
*Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) **National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)
It has been agreed among scholars in the social science and security management that the nature of porous borders in Nigeria has created a large gaps of emerging insecurity as a result of uncontrolled proliferations of small arms and light weapons which has led to so many issues of insecurity in Nigeria like the insurgency attacks of Boko Haram in North East, Bandit and Kidnapping in North West in places like Zamfara, Katsina, Kaduna and some part of Kano as well as farmers/Herders conflicts in middle belt in states like Benue, Nasarawa and Plateau State. Generally speaking, the borders in most of the African countries were among the upshot of the colonial ruling in those countries. Such demarcations were mostly created in a kind of problematic situation thereby causing serious misunderstanding among neighboring countries. It is also an imperative to know that these creations were actually perpetrated intentionally by the imperialist to serve so many purposes which includes among others the continuation of exploitation, free access to their colonies and coming back as aids providers. Moreover, such demarcations are being constructed on the papers without visiting those countries during the Berlin conference in 1885 with the aid of complimenting the countries that were affected by the second world to revive them. Nevertheless, Nigeria without an exception has also faced with so many challenges in its borders especially the Northern area. Therefore, this paper tries to examine why despite so many consideration by different governments and administrations yet border issues continue to be the most challenging factor in this prevailing situation in the country. Furthermore, the borders in the North were so porous to the extent that the issue of proliferation of weapons and food security were very obvious thereby challenging the security and economic wellbeing which in turn affect the nation building in the country. Based on the above, this research concentrates on the qualitative technique on the area of economy and security. for Nigeria to move out of this mace Nigeria must collaborate with neigbouring countries of Niger Republic, Cameroun, Chad, Ghana and Benin Republic to create means of stopping the illegal movement of arms from our borders .
KEYWORDS: Border, Economy, Insecurity and Development.
THE UTILITY OF ARBITRATION IN PROMOTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AFRICA: NIGERIA PERSPECTIVES
ERIC OMO ENAKIRERU
University School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, Okada, LLB LLM (Benin)
The fact that African countries economic is facing hardship is no longer news and many of these developing economy are making efforts to attract foreign investments to Africa in a new bid to steer the economy from the path of recession as presently been experience by developing countries. This paper shall discuss generally, the law and practice of arbitration and other models. However, the main thrust of this work shall be to answer the question, “how can arbitration bring about economic reform and development? Thus, this paper discusses why and how Arbitration can serve as a springboard for promoting and encouraging foreign direct investment in Africa. It will be argued that one way (amongst many) to attract foreign investors is via an investment treaty embodying an arbitration clause between many Africa countries and the foreign investors. The rationale for the said argument shall be fully elucidated in the course of the discussion. It later concludes that as long as the present challenges facing arbitration persist, economic reforms and developments will be inevitable. This paper further recommends other factors that need to be put in place if the economic reform and development is to have a lasting impact.
KEYWORDS: Arbitration, Dispute resolution, Investment, and Economic development
PROBLEM AND PROSPECTS OF MICROFINANCE BANKS IN ADAMAWA STATE
City University Cambodia
The Nigerian government inaugurated the Microfinance banking scheme in 2005 to provide Finance to economically active poor excluded from financing by conventional banks, provide employment, Engender rural development and reduce poverty. This research theoretically examines the challenges these banks have had to grapple with from their inception. Furthermore, it scans the business environment to assess the prospects of microfinance banks in Adamawa State. The research shows that microfinance banking in Adamawa State faces enormous challenges in infrastructural inadequacies, social misconception, poor legal and regulatory framework, unbridled competition from other financial institutions, and abandonment of core microfinance function and paucity of qualified manpower. Despite this plethora of challenges, the study identified several areas where opportunities exist for these banks. The growing entrepreneurial awareness, increasing government interest, large unbanked rural area and high population of poor people were identified as some of these opportunities. The researcher argues that with proper regulatory interventions and commitment of other stakeholders to the core mission of microfinance banking, its challenges can be addressed and its prospects enhanced. This study therefore concludes that the future of microfinance banking in Adamawa State and in Nigeria as a whole is bright.
KEYWORDS: Prospect, Banking, Sector, Microfinance, Interest, Economic.
‘IGWEBUIKE’ AS THE MOVING SPIRIT OF POPE FRANCIS’ COMPASSIONATE LEADERSHIP
PROF. KANU IKECHUKWU ANTHONY
Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Anambra State
Leadership is a process by which an executive directs, guides and influences the behavior and work of others towards the accomplishment of specific goals with confidence and zeal in a given situation or organization. The success of any organization, religious or secular, is highly dependent on the quality of leadership. Where there is no good leadership, it would affect the success of the group or organization. This explains why whenever an organization runs into crises the first step taken is to assess the quality of leadership and make a change if need be. Because of the significant place that leadership occupies, it has been an area of concern that Pope Francis has focused on in his major writings and homilies. And a new concept which the Roman Pontiff brings into leadership discourse is the idea of compassion. This piece, therefore, has studied Pope Francis’ concept of compassionate leadership in a bid to generating the antidote for the diseases or maladies of leadership. This research discovered that the idea of compassionate leadership in Pope Francis is based on six pillars: listening, sympathizing, companionship, hospitality, protection and service. This discovery has also led to the understanding of Igwebuike, an African philosophy of humanity towards the other, as the moving spirit or operative condition of Pope Francis’ leadership of compassion. These pillars on which Pope Francis’ compassionate leadership stands, come together, as though knit by a thread to support the achievement or realization of compassionate leadership. For the purpose of this work, the thematic and Igwebuike approaches in research were adopted.
KEYWORDS: Pope Francis, Compassion, Leadership, Moving Spirit, Igwebuike
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL(S) OF CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE AVAILABLE SOURCES OF FINANCING IN THE FCT AREA COUNCILS, ABUJA.
*MAIDOKI, P.B. & **SARKA, S.W.
*Department of Public Administration, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria **Department of Public Administration, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.
One of the indicators of development of a Country is the extent of its development at grassroots. Against this backdrop, this paper examined the performance of local government financing sources in the three Area Councils (Abaji, Bwari and Gwagwalada) of the FCT, Abuja. Specifically, it examined the level(s) of contribution of the available sources of finance. The study used both primary and secondary data, and is anchored on the theory of revenues exaction. It adopted a survey design method with its primary data obtained by the use of structured questionnaire and field observation. The secondary data was obtained from the records of the selected Area councils (2009-2013), books, official gazettes and periodicals among others. The primary data was analyzed with the help of Ms Excel and SPSS software; Kruskal-Wallis H-test statistics was employed in testing the hypothesis. The study reveals that there was low contribution of internal sources of financing, poor accounting records and the non-viability and enforceability of some revenue sources resulting in over reliance on external sources. To this end, the study recommends for intensive approach towards exploring more internal revenue sources via diversification of the local economy/revenue base away from oil exports, and extant disciplinary measures be enforced strictly to stamp out indiscipline. Furthermore, local government’s financial autonomy should be ensured in order to avoid unnecessary interference by higher tiers. Appropriate forum be formed to involve all stake holders in the plan process of the rural development projects.
KEYWORDS: Local Government, Financing Sources, Development, Rural Development.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WILD WALES BY GEORGE BORROW AND A MALAYSIAN JOURNEY BY REHMAN RASHID
Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu
This essay focuses on an important genre of Literature that encapsulates Travel Writing. Travel Literature is basically concerned about the key perspectives of writers in a specific period in the history of a country or people. It highlights landmarks in a particular epoch. The analysis centres on the travels of George Borrow and Rehman Rashid. Borrow lived during the Victorian Age in England. He travelled through Wales. His accounts provides readers with key insights into the lives of people who lived in that age. Rashid on the other hand gave a concise picture of British Malaya and also post independent Malaysia. He made copious use of political and historical data in his accounts. The two aspects of his journey highlighted his physical travels through British Malaya and the newly emerging post independent Malaysian state and his introspective assessment of the country in its urgent drive towards progress and development. Borrow and Rashid gave an authentic picture into a period in the history of their individual countries. Their travels – Wild Wales and A Malaysian Journey provided a valuable glimpse into the Victorian Age and Malaysia before and after independence from the British. Both accounts gave a succinct narration of the advancements of the two periods in the areas of science, technology and socioeconomic progress.
KEYWORDS: Bumiputra, England, Malaysia, Train, Victorian Age, Wales
ASSESSING THE SOCIAL HOUSING PROGRAMME OF BUHARI’S ADMINISTRATION.
AKPAN, USEN UKPONG
Political and Governance Policy Department, the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan, Nigeria
The paper examines the social housing programme of Buhari administration and its challenges. Over decades most Nigerians are homeless in the urban centres especially the low income earners due to lack of good quality /affordable housing. Various government policies have been formulated to provide affordable housing and to overcome the prolong problem by Nigerian Housing Policies but the situation has not really changed. The need to provide adequate housing delivery constitutes a critical challenge to the current administration. The paper assess the rationale employed by the administration in providing an effective housing policy framework towards achieving social housing programme and to reduce the housing deficit gap in the country. Documentary research was employed for collecting data for the write up. Thus relevant textbooks, journals and newspapers were used. The paper is introduced by giving clarifications on the concept of housing and other associated issues. It was therefore concluded that government may not necessarily involved in building houses for the targeted population but rather concentrate on providing and improving infrastructure and services.
KEYWORDS: Affordable, challenges, housing, policies, social housing,
IMPLICATIOIN OF KOPPEN’S CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION ON AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA
*PIUS WILLIAMS WUAM *NAFIU UBAYO AND **IBRAHIM DAUDA
*Department of Geography, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State **Department of Educational Foundations, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe, Gombe State
Koppen’s climate classification which is today the most widely used in the world based his classification on three elements of climate namely; temperature, vegetation and precipitation. However, there is no single classification of climate anywhere in the world that can serve more than a limited number of purposes satisfactorily even though many different classifications such as the Greek classification and Aristotle’s schemes have been developed over the years. It is in the light of this that, this paper focuses on Koppen’s climate classification system and its implication on agricultural production in Nigeria. Information in producing meaningful system of climatic classification, the origin of Koppen’s climatic classification, application of the system, strengths and weaknesses of the scheme and its modification and the implications to agricultural production in Nigeria was looked at. It was concluded that, despite numerous weaknesses observed with the system it still remains the most widely used classification in the world today. Amongst others it was recommended that issues of climate be given priority attention by government as it serve as a veritable tool for agricultural production and results of weather forecast should be made available to farmers to enable them take informed decisions on types of crops to plant at any point in time.
KEYWORDS: Implications, Climate classification and Agricultural production.
IMPACT OF PRINCIPAL’S LEADERSHIP STYLES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF JALINGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT, TARABA STATE
1 SAMUEL TITUS 2 NUPO JOHN SULE 3 RAYMOND JAMES 4 AKWAYAMAI, P.J
1,2,3,4, Peacock College Education Jalingo, P.M.B. 2, Along FMC Way, Jalingo. Taraba State, Nigeria.
This study was designed to assess the impact of principal’s leadership styles on students’ academic performance in secondary schools of Jalingo local government, Taraba state. The study targeted all the public secondary schools in Jalingo metropolitan local government, Taraba state. The local government has a total number of 34 schools comprising of 34 principals and 822 teachers. 200 respondents were randomly selected out of the entire population using random sampling technique, the findings of the study revealed that both autocratic and democratic leadership style is mostly used by the principals. The findings also revealed that there was high respect for democratic leadership style to teachers’ also autocratic leadership style is also respected by some principals and it increase the academic performance of student. It was therefore recommended that the principals of secondary schools in particular be encouraged to use both autocratic and democratic style of leadership simultaneously in the management of secondary schools to improve the academic achievement of their students and increase teachers’ performance.
KEYWORDS: Impact, principals, leadership style, academic performance and secondary schools
TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND THE CONTAINMENT OF THE SPREAD OF COVID-19 IN NIGERIA. A CASE STUDY OF EWU TRADITIONAL INSTITUTION, EDO STATE, NIGERIA
*ALIGBE, B. A. PH.D **MOMOH, M.M
*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria **Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria
The study examined the roles of the Traditional Institutions in the containment of the spread of Covid-19 with reference to Ewu clan in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State. The major problem of political participation and governance at the local level of administration in Nigeria, revolves round the delicate issue of redefining the roles of traditional rulers, who before the colonization of Nigeria, had sovereign authority in their areas of jurisdiction. The traditional institutions which has been in existence even before the advent of the British officials, hence they leverage on the traditional institutions for what called effective administration, which lubricated the relationship between the people on one hand and the British officials on the other hand. The paper critically synchronizes the roles of the traditional rulers in critical times of the global pandemic, Covid-19. This paper is however qualitative in nature and is based on organized review of related literature and a subtle examination of other secondary data. From the various critical perspectives, findings were made of the emerging additional functions of the traditional institutions in terms of management like Covid-19. The paper amongst others recommends that since the traditional rulers are respected and reverend by the people, additional statutory powers should be given to them as deemed fit as this will further help to fast-track national integration and development.
KEYWORDS: Traditional institutions, communication, Covid-19, national development, British government.
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF NIGERIA’S SECOND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (1970-1974)
*ADAMU BUBA **HUSSAINI ADAMU HUSSAINI **KABIRU ABUBAKAR GARBA
*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The social and economic development of any country is predominantly connected to a set of plans designed and set out by the leadership of such countries. This is not new to both third world and advanced countries of the world. Nigeria as a country is not exclusive on this and it has throughout the years designed different national development plans that are geared toward ensuring that the country is placed on the part of development alongside other countries of the world. These plans were conceptualized and designed to encourage and expedite a holistic approach to development thereby improving the general living standard of the populace. Regardless of the respectability of these plans, they have not in way recorded the desired results as most of the indices still remain as they were. Hence,, the critique of such plans. However, this research fundamentally seeks to analyze the second national development plan 1970-1974, the indices of the plan and why it failed, and make recommendations on how to forestall future occurrences in our subsequent national plans. Only secondary data was used in the course of this analysis.
KEYWORDS: Critical, Review, Nigeria, and Second National Development Plan,
LE DESTIN, LA TRADITION ET LA SAGESSE CHEZ LE STOÏCIEN DANS LE BISTOURI DES LARMES DE RAMONU SANUSI
AKANDE OLUBUKOLA ABOSEDE (Mme)
Département du Français, École des études langagières, Emmanuel Alayande Collège d’Éducation, Oyo.
Destiny is never erased in the individual’s life. All effect and tradition in society help its accomplishment. This means that the divine being and human being combine in the existence of each and everyone in the world. This work employs the analytical method and stoïcisme theory of Zenon de Kition and its strategies such as destiny, courage, moral and others to see, study and analyze the chosen text of Ramonu Sanusi; le Bistouri des larmes. It speaks of stoic characters in agony, the insults, the cries, the pain with courage especially the heroine of the selected novel;Abibatou Yétoundé. It also addresses certain customs, traditions and ceremonies that citizens must obey and do in Mandibou society such as Naming, Funeral, circumcision, hunting and others. To conclude,Ramonu Sanusi suggests to his readers to become stoic under the difficulties with courage in the world through his main character and that destiny is certain.
On n’efface jamais le destin dans la vie de l’individu. Tous effet et tradition dans la société aident son accomplissement. Ce qui veut dire que l’être divin et l’être humain se combinent dans l’existence de chacun et chacune dans le monde. Ce travail emploie la méthode analytique et la théorie du stoïcisme de Zénon de Kition et ses stratégies telles que le destin, le sage, le courage, le moral pour voir, étudier et analyser le texte choisi de Ramonu Sanusi; le Bistouri des larmes. L’histoire parle des personnages stoïques sous l’agonie, les insultes, les cris, la douleur avec courage surtout l’héroïne du roman sélectionné; Abibatou Yétoundé. Il adresse aussi certains coutumes, traditions et cérémonies que les citoyens doivent obéir et faire dans la société Mandibou au Nigara telles que le baptême, l’obsèque, l’excision, la chasse, et d’autres. En conclusion, Ramonu Sanusi suggère aux lecteurs de rester stoïque sous les difficultés avec courage dans le monde à travers son personnage principal et que le destin est sure.
KEYWORDS: le destin, la tradition; la sagesse; le stoïcien; le bistouri des larmes; Ramonu Sanusi
IMPACT OF REMUNERATION ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN FEDERAL INLAND REVENUE SERVICES, MAIDUGURI OFFICE
ALHAJI LAWAN KAWI1 BABAGANA MOHAMMED1 & MARYAM KYARI KANAMI2
1Public Administration Department Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri 2Liberal Studies Department Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
The study stands to examine the impact of remuneration on job performance in federal inland revenue services, Maiduguri office. the review relevant literature as its relate to the study. expectancy theory of motivation is adopted as a theoretical for the study. By the way of methodology, the researcher uses survey method of data collection through the instrument of questionnaire administered to the target respondents. The sample size of the study is (114) out of the total population of (160) while (104) questionnaire returned as valid. The sampling technique is multi stage sampling which incorporate both simple random and stratify sampling technique. From the study, it is concluded the impact of remuneration on job performance in Federal Inland Revenue Services, Maiduguri Office Borno state. this shows that, employees are not satisfied with greater pay package and employees’ performance are not directly related. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the employees should be adequately compensated to enhance their performance. The Board should pay enough fringe benefits to the employees so that they can satisfy their needs and put in their best toward the achievement of the set goal.
KEYWORDS: Remuneration, Job Performance
TAFSIR BIL ISHARAH [THE SUFI MODE OF TAFSIR BY USING SOME HIDDEN INSINUATION THAT APPEAR TO SUFIS]
School of Arts and Social Sciences, A.D Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.
This paper intended to provide the meaning of Sufism its development. The linguistical and contextual meanings of Tafsir bil Isharah and the basis in which is build upon, the differences between Tafsir bil Isharah and philosophical Tafsir. The views of scholars on Tafsir and condition for acceptability of Tafsir Bil Isharah and some books written on Tafsir bil Isharah.
KEYWORDS: Tasawwuf, Tafsir Bil Isharah & Sufi Tafsir
HUMAN RIGHTS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS; AN OVERVIEW
USMAN BAPPAH, DARAZO
General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State
The promotion and protection of human rights have engaged the attention of the global community, Nigeria as a country in Africa has signed regional and international treaties for the enforcement and protection of human rights. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Human Rights violations are still imminent and of daily occurrences in Nigeria. This work appraised the National, regional and International institutions and instruments for the protection of Human Rights, their functions, achievements and, diverse challenges which have constrained meaningful enjoyment of human rights both at the national, regional and international levels. It points out the shortcomings of the dualist model under a nation called Nigeria and stresses the objectionable wide amplitude of the derogation clauses. It also makes suggestions for reform.
KEYWORDS: Human, Rights, Protection, Institutions, Overview
LANGUAGE, LITERATURE AND COMMUNICATION NEXUS
SHUAIBU RAMAT SULE
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State
Language and literature are interrelated and interdependent. Both of them have bearings on the various strands of societal life. The goal of language and literature is communication of information. Without communication, the human world can be in the oblivion. Herein lies the far reaching consequence of language and literature on our existence. This paper examines language and literature as Sibling Rivers forming a confluence of communication.
KEYWORDS: language, literature, communication, societal coexistence, interrelationship, interdependence.
ECONOMIC RECESSION AND MONETARY POLICY IN NIGERIA
OKPE GABRIEL1, OLEABHIELE ERNEST PAUL2 & GREGORY E. IGIBA3
1&2Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 3Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Recession is a business cycle contraction, and it refers to a general slowdown in economic activity for two consecutive quarters. During recession, there is usually a decline in certain macroeconomic indicators such as GDP, employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household income, business income, and inflation, with the attendant increase in the rate of unemployment. Technically, when an economy recorded two consecutive quarters of negative growth in real GDP, it can be said to be in recession. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP), investment and consumption spending, savings rate, imports and exports, capacity utilization, household income, trade, capital flows, business profits and inflation decline, while indebtedness, illiquidity, bankruptcies and the unemployment rates rise. On the other hand, monetary policy has always been seen as a fundamental instrument over the years for the attainment of macroeconomic stability, often viewed as prerequisite to achieving sustainable output growth. Thus, in the pursuit of macroeconomic stability, the managers of monetary policy have often set targets on intermediate variables which include the short term interest rate, growth of money supply and exchange rate. This studies hopes to assess recession and monetary policy in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Recession, macroeconomics, growth, unemployment and inflation.
SOKOTO BORDERS UNDER THE REGIME OF BANDITRY
BASHAR MACCIDO ALIYU
Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Sokoto State is located in the north-western part of Nigeria. It shares borders with Kebbi, Kastina, Zamfara states and some parts of Niger Republic. The Sokoto-Zamfara borders communities witnessed series of security challenges in recent times, due the perpetual bandit’s attacks in Zamfara State. These crises have grossly affected communities, to the extent that most social and economic activities came to a standstill along the borders of Sokoto State. The worst hit areas of the borders were Isa, Sabon Birni, Tangaza, Goronyo and Tureta Local Government Areas of Sokoto State. Therefore, this article explains the impact of insecurity in Zamfara state on the border areas of Sokoto State.
KEYWORDS: Banditry, Sokoto, Under, Regime, Borders.
EFFECT OF MISTAKE UNDER LAW OF CONTRACT IN NIGERIA
SANI MOHAMMED Esq
Department of Business and Management, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Mistake at Law as a more limited scope than mistake in ordinary usage. In other words, what may be regarded as mistake by the layman, will in most cases not be so regarded at law. If one or both parties to contract enter into it under some misunderstanding or miss apprehension, in what circumstances will they be termed to rescind the contract on the grand that had they known the true facts, they would never have entered into the agreement.
KEYWORDS: Contract, Nigeria, Effect, Under Law, Mistake.
INVENTORY ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION
MUSA UMAR FAROUQ
Marketing Department, School of Administrative and Business Studies, College of Administration, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi
One major step in the organization of effective inventory control and the key to a successful control plan is the making of an analysis, tabulation or classification of the characteristics of the articles of inventory. A thorough classification of accounts will foster a sound financial control of inventory by pointing out to the inventory planners those accounts which carry the majority of monetary values. An important point of consideration in the choice of such classification is the analysis of usage.
KEYWORDS: Adequate, Level, Stock, Analysis, Schedule, Delivery, Key, Items, Periodical, Reviews, Adjust, Open, Techniques, Commitment, Value.
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING AS A VERITAL TOOL FOR NATIONAL TRANSFORMATIONAL AGENDA IN NIGERIA: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW
ASU BLESSING AHO
Department of Foundations, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Kano
Nigeria is one of the third world nations and also one of the richest countries in Africa but virtually majority of her citizens are living in abject poverty. This paper tries to examines the general orientation that education through Guidance and Counselling approach, can transform Nigeria into a country to be envied by others. Counselling approach is one of the key areas that can help in the rapid transforming of a community. With the use of counselling principles, Nigeria as a third world nation can swiftly make a different especially through the use of quality education and acquisition of good values. The paper therefore started with the concept of Guidance and Counselling, the history, need, basic principles and services of Guidance and Counselling. The Guidance and Counselling as Transformational Tools in Secondary Schools in Nigeria and the role of Guidance and Counselling as a tool for national transformational agenda in life skill education and human resource development were equally highlighted. It was recommended among others that all schools should be provided with professionally qualified and adequately trained counselors and that universities should be given the mandate to train more professionals in the area.
KEYWORDS: Guidance, Counselling, Transformation, Agenda, Education
INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON WORK MOTIVATION
NDIFE, CHINELO FRANCA
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.
This study critically examines the relationship between socio-demographic factors on work Motivation. Specifically, the study ascertains the influence of age, gender and educational achievement on work motivation using a survey which elicited opinions of staff using questionnaires as instrument of data collection. The study made use of a random sample of 300 employees of selected private owned companies in Anambra State. The companies are limited liability companies registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission and currently doing business in Anambra State, Nigeria. The Companied selected must have minimum staff capacity of 20 permanent staff of different cadres and departments. The convenience sampling method was used to select the companies due to ease in accessing them. The primary source of data collected with the aid of structured questionnaire and the various hypotheses were tested using Chi-square test of independence at 5% level of significant. The results of the study found that age, gender and educational attainment have significant influence on work motivation. The study therefore concludes that socio-demographic factors influence work motivation. This study recommends among other things that managers should be keen at knowing what motivates the employees based on their age, gender and educational differences.
KEYWORDS: Motivation, age, gender, educational achievement, socio demographic factors.
SHARI’AH APPLICATION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: AN ASSESSMENT.
IBRAHIM SULAIMAN GALADIMA,
A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.
Northern Nigeria is a region that Islam got into, about seven centuries ago, through Kanem Borno. It witnessed a revolutionary reform led by a re-known African Reformist- Sheikh Usman Bin Fodio that made the entire region under Islamic leadership, in 1804. About a century later (1900), the British colonialists arrived and eventually destroyed the remnants of 1804 reform revolution and replaced it with their secular system. After another century, some of the Northern Nigerian Political leaders began another move for the application of Shari’ah in the region. This time around, not through a revolution, but under the guise of constitutional provision of freedom of religion. Many Muslims welcomed the idea, while some few intellectuals have a contrary view. The objective of this research work is to assess the year ‘2000’ “Gusau Declaration”, compare it with ‘1804’ revolution, conducted by Sheikh Usman Bin Fodio with a view to presenting Islam in its real picture as the only system capable of solving the compounding problems of the world. Indeed, the world needs a system that is divine in nature, to give solution to these problems, and Islam has this solution. Islamic revolution is never carried by sword; it is a change of attitude and behavior. Sword is only allowed to be taken in self defense. Islamic system, if applied accurately, it will be a source of blessing for all. It happened before, and it will be easier to happen again. The application of dual laws that are different in nature and content is the main hindrance that denies the successful implementation of Zamfara Shari’ah program. There are also countless failures recorded within the two decades of its existence. However, few successes are also recorded. This research observes some vital issues that need to be addressed and/or amended for the full application of Shariah to be realized. The research uses the primary and secondary methods of research, employing the use of library, survey, and interview.
KEYWORDS: Shariah, Application, Northern Nigeria, Reform.
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COVID-19 OUTBREAK ON CRUDE OIL PRICES IN NIGERIA: A STRUCTURAL BREAK APPROACH
*EHIGHEBOLO, IZIN ANNE & **SHAIB, ISMAIL OMADE
*Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. **Department of Statistics, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.
Nigeria is a mono-cultural economy with over 70% of federal government’s revenue emanating from the export of crude oil. This paper empirically analysed the impact of covid-19 outbreak on crude oil prices in Nigeria. Data used in the estimation were sourced online and the total number of daily observations was 58days. The models of the structural break analysis was evaluated using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) maximum likelihood approach with the aid of E-views 11.0 software. The results reveal that the structural break model variables (COP and COI) at days 15 and 35 are significant at 5% as the F-stat 0.00<0.05. This implies that Covid-19 pandemic is significant to crude oil prices and negatively influences crude oil prices. Covid-19 (COI)) exerts negligible influence on crude oil prices by 0.00% in the short run but gradually affects oil prices by 6.61% in the long-run. The paper concludes that economic understanding of the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on crude oil prices in Nigeria using a structural break model at day 15 break point is most appropriate for prediction. It recommends amongst others that, government and private individuals must invest in funding research on sustainable vaccine and germane solution to the disease in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Covid-19, Nigeria, Crude oil, Structural break Approach, Economy
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SCHOOL-BASED SUPERVISION IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA”
*MUSTAPHA A. BABA IBBI; **ASHEIK ALI KIME & *IBRAHIM SALE BALI
*Taraba State University, Jalingo **University of Maiduguri
The study compares school-based supervision in public and private senior secondary schools in terms of: classroom supervision, teachers’ utilization of instructional materials, teachers planning of lesson and relationship among management supervision of teachers in classroom, utilization of instructional materials and teachers planning of lesson in Maiduguri metropolis secondary schools. Four hypotheses were raised and tested to guide the study. Survey and causal comparative research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised of all the 48 school managers in 16 public senior secondary schools and 150 school managers in 50 senior secondary school in Maiduguri Metropolis all sampled for the study. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Findings revealed a significant difference between management supervision of teachers in public and private schools on classroom, there was a significant difference between management supervision of teachers in public and private schools on utilization of instructional materials, there was a significant difference between management supervision of teachers in public and private schools on lesson plan all in favor of private schools, there was a strong positive relationship between supervision of teachers in classroom and planning of lesson, there was a positive moderate relationship between supervision of teachers in classroom and utilization of instructional materials, there was a moderate positive relationship between utilization of instructional materials and planning of lesson. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that Borno State Government should organized training and workshop to school managers of public Senior Secondary Schools on supervision of teachers in classroom, utilization of instructional materials, and teachers planning of lesson..
KEYWORDS: classroom supervision, lesson plan, public school, private school, Utilization of instructional materials, school management
EXTENT OF TEACHERS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, FCT, ABUJA
ADESINA OMOLARA ADEOLA
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
Teachers are one of the important agents in the management of secondary schools especially when it comes to impacting on students’ learning. Being at the forefront of students’ learning in the classroom, teachers are expected to contribute greatly towards the management or administration of the school for quality assurance to be enhanced. But there are difficult scenarios or cases whereby many teachers including those in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, have complained bitterly concerning their lack of involvement in school management which has equally affected their commitment and dedication to work. These poor scenarios have kept teachers in some tight corners and affected quality assurance in many secondary schools in the FCT. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the extent of teachers’ involvement in school management for quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised in the study. The study employed the descriptive survey research design. Population of the study constituted a total of 3,339 secondary school teachers in 62 public secondary schools from the 6 LGAs in the FCT, Abuja. Sample size of the study comprised 668 teachers from 50 public secondary schools within the 6 LGAs in the FCT, selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. 20% of the teachers and 80% of the public secondary schools population were selected as sample for the study. A 35-item questionnaire developed by the researcher and titled “Extent of Teachers’ Involvement in School Management for Quality Assurance Questionnaire (ETISMQAQ)” served as instrument for data collection. Construction of the questionnaire was guided by the purpose of the study and research questions. This research instrument was structured on a 4 point scale of Very High Extent (VHE), High Extent (HE), Low Extent (LE) and Very Low Extent (VLE). The questionnaire was validated by three experts from the Department of Educational Administration and Planning, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Reliability of the instrument was established through a pilot-test. The scores obtained were measured using Cronbach Alpha statistics which yielded an overall internal consistency reliability value of 0.78, showing that the instrument was trustworthy and reliable. Data were analyzed using mean scores which were rated at 2.50 and standard deviation. Findings of the study revealed among others that teachers’ were involved in school management at a certain degree of a low extent. The extent to which teachers were involved in instructional leadership, staff management and financial management activities for quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria, were all to a low extent. It was also discovered through the finding that the to which teachers were involved in extracurricular activities for quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria, was to a high extent. From the findings of this study recommendations were made and among them include that principals should constantly and highly involve teachers in instructional leadership activities in order to ensure that quality assurance is fostered in the school.
KEYWORDS: Extent, Teachers, Involvement, School, Management, Quality Assurance
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SIGNIFINICANCE OF IGALA BODY AESTHETICS
LABIJA, IFITUMI COLE
Federal Government Girls’ College, Zaria, PMB, 1088, Zaria Kaduna State.
The socio-cultural significance of Igala body aesthetics serves as a means of transmitting history with the aim of documenting the importance of Igala body aesthetics, noting the symbolic meanings and to see whether they relate to the philosophical statement of the life of the Igala. The socio-cultural and political activities of the Igala are promoted through their decorative arts such that scarification enhances the close connection with ancestors and the importance of the continuity of generations. However, there are three significant occasions in the life of every Igala, that is; birth, marriage and death rites. The socio-cultural significance of Igala body aesthetics is aligned to these occasions or ceremonies, organized in the society. This concept is important in the analysis of Igala body aesthetics noting that the cultural practice, is respected among the Igala, due to its multiple socio-cultural values. More so, a good understanding of Igala body aesthetics requires identifying the socio-cultural platform that supports such cultural practice, annually. These ceremonies are essential rites of passage that uphold customs such as oduo-adu (naming ceremony), oya ene (marriage), olawo oni (turbaning), ido- egwu (masquerade-dance), ocho and egwu festivities, among others and this platform creates room for the Igala to display every aspect that projects the Igala aesthetically. Lastly, the socio-cultural significance of the Igala body aesthetics serves universally to differentiate one social or cultural group from another and varies in style, perceived meaning and use. It is promoted through cultural activities that enhances close connection with ancestors and the importance of continuity for generations.
KEYWORDS: Aesthetics, Significance, Body, Socio-cultural, Igala.