MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOL.11 (5) (MIJETR) JUNE, 2020


MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

VOL. 11 NO.5 (MIJETR) JUNE, 2020


Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,

Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.

Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: mediterraneanresearchpub@gmail.com PHONE: +234-708-717-324



 

SAFETY FRAMEWORK APPROACH FOR REHABILITATION ROBOT

 

USMAN HALADU GARBA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

There is no doubt the use of rehabilitation robots in the world is increasing day by day as a result of an increase in the number of stroke patients and its needs in medical and clinical fields. These robots are used near or in contact with humans. And there is no safety standard for rehabilitation robots. Therefore safety framework for rehabilitation robots has to be established. This paper is all about building safety for rehabilitation robots. And in this paper, new and some existing safety frameworks approaches are also highlighted.

KEYWORDS: Safety, Rehabilitation, robot, Patient, Accident, Sensor

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PRODUCTION, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPER BOARD BRIQUETTE USING WASTE PAPER AND SAWDUST

 

 ABUBAKAR U. BABUJE1, JAMILA ADAMU2, CHISHAK Z. SAMUEL3, ALHASSAN A,M4

1Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi 2,4Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnics Bauchi 3Department of Foundry Engineering Technology, Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi, Plateau State Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Paperboard is a thick paper base materials with a grammage above 250g/m2. Paperboard can be single or multiply. In this work, waste paper and sawdust which are part of abundant bio-mass resources and agro-forest residues whose potential are yet to be used fully to our economic advantage are used in the production of paperboard briquettes. The paperboard briquettes were produced manually by compressive load of 30kg in the mixture ratio by weight of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90, and 0:100 of paper pulp to sawdust and named sample A-K respectively. The sample were sun dried for three days to ensure proper dryness. The physical and mechanical properties of the sample are were properly carried out. The best combination that give good result is the 70:30 ratio.

KEYWORDS: Production, Characterization, Briquette, Waste paper, Sawdust.

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SMART CITY: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN IOT BASED 3.5 KVA INVERTER MONITORING

 

1ALAO, O. S.; 2*EHIAGWINA, F. O.; 3AFOLABI, L. O.; 4KEHINDE, O. O.; 5OSUNKUNLE, A.

1Department of Electronic/Electrical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State 2,3,4Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State 5Department of Architectural Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Offline inverters face the challenges of limited power monitoring and management in terms of load schedule. Hence, this research aims to design and construct an Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Smart 3.5kVA, 240V, 50Hz Inverter with a low harmonic distortion, digital display, multistage charging and 4 individually controlled output of same voltage and power rating. We designed a smart 3.5kVA inverter that has four outputs with the same voltage rating that can be individually controlled via the internet. The control and monitoring are done on an interface that is accompanied by the IoT part of the inverter. The interface is a cross-platform web-page written in HTML, CSS and PHP, and hosted on a cloud server. This interface helps the users to communicate with the IoT circuit as the name (interface) implies.

KEYWORDS: Internet of things (IoT), Inverter, renewable energy, electricity, online control, smart city, smart devices

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DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION METER

 

TERAN GEORGINA MBANENGEN, E.A.P. EGBE, ALKALI BABAWUYA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Infrastructure Process & Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Thermoplastic recycling is recognized as an important method of waste reduction and it reduces environmental pollution problem posed by non-biodegradable nature of polymers. Quality plastic products can only be made from recycled thermoplastics when the melt characteristics of the material are known. Non-availability of thermoplastic extrusion meter in local plastic industries makes it difficult to ascertain the actual melt mass flow rate of recycled thermoplastics which makes it difficult to verify whether the plastic grade is within the required fluidity range and addition of plasticizers is by trial and error instead of the ISO standard. It’s important to develop a thermoplastic flow meter, to determine the melt mass flow rate of thermoplastic materials for quality control in plastic industry in Nigeria. The thermoplastic extrusion meter was designed to ASTM D1238 standard, and the fabrication was made from ANSI 1018 cold rolled mild steel. The equipment was calibrated to ensure actual melt temperature and the performance of the equipment was evaluated. Procedure A was employed to determine the MFR of virgin and recycled HDPE. The HDPE for virgin was found to be 9.96g/10mins while that of first recycled HDPE was 10.88g/10mins under the same load and temperature conditions of 2.16Kg and 190ᴼC respectively.

KEYWORDS: Development, extrusion, thermoplastics, temperature, meter.

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EFFECT OF POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES ON THE INDEX AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS.

 

1MBAMALU C.F, 2OYELAKIN, M.A, 3OKEKE E.C, 4UMAR L.

1,2,4Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara state, Nigeria 3Department of Civil Engineering, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi state, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The effects of polypropylene (PP) fibres on the index and compressive strength properties of cohesive soils have been studied. The PP fibres were sourced from open dump sites in Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. They were cleaned and diced to an average size of 50mm by 50mm. Two cohesive soil samples were collected, dried and deflocculated. The index properties of the soils and that of the soil mixed within PP fibres in the percentages of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% was determined. Subsequently the test samples were moulded into cubes of 100mm x 150mm x 45mm (WBH) and subjected to compression test with an initial load of 1.0 N and a penetration speed of 2.5mm/min.  From the results obtained, both samples were classified as sandy clay (SC) according to the Unified soil classification system (USCS) and A-6 according to the AASHTO classification system. The PP fibres had a negative effect on the plastic and liquid limits of the soil samples as their values continued to decline on the addition of PP fibres and at 2% addition of PP fibres, the sample could no longer be moulded. The PP fibres improved the compressive strength of the soil samples to a peak value of 1.3N/mm2 from 0.3N/mm2 and 1.12N/mm2 from 0.29N/mm2 for samples one and two respectively. These peak values were attained on the addition of the PP fibres at 0.5%. The young modulus (stiffness) and the applied load during penetration followed similar trends on the addition of the PP fibres. The force required to make the samples yield upon loading rose from 5056.1N to 19,322N for sample 1 and rose from 4877.5 N to 18562.1N for sample 2 on the addition of the PP fibres at 0.5%. This value started decreasing as the volume of the PP sample was increased. The findings gotten from this research suggests that PP fibre is a good stabilizer for soils classified as SC or A-6 and 0.5% should be used to achieve optimal strength. However, it can be added up to 2% in cases where the intent is to re-use or safely dispose the PP.

KEYWORDS: Polypropylene (PP), AASHTO classification, compression test, young modulus, cohesive soils.

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DESIGN ANALYSIS OF WELL SCREEN CUTTING MACHINE

 

 A.M. ALHASSAN*, J. ADAMU**, AND NASIRU SHUAIBU

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The cutting of well screens has for a very long time been done manually by borehole drillers before the advent of well screen cutting machine. Doing the cutting of well screen manually is time consuming as well as time wasting. Therefore, the reason for design and construction of the well screen cutting machine is to eliminate or reduce the stress that results from the manual cutting. Hence in this project a well screen cutting machine was designed and constructed using locally available materials and production processes. The well screen cutting machine was tested and the objective of the design and construction was achieved.

KEYWORDS: Machine, Cutting, Design, Analysis, Screen.

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MODELLING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF 0-15 VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY USING PSPICE SIMULATOR

 

1 OLADOSU, D. A., 2FOLAMI, F. T.2OLAYIWOLA, S. O

1Department of Computer Engineeering Technology, the Polytechnic, Ibadan 3Department of Elecrical Engineeering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan

 

Abstract

This work summarized the usefulness of the circuit simulator spice in the design and construction of electronic device, it was employed through mathematical model to generate the values of the components needed in the circuit, followed by step by step simulations of components using pspice simulator before totalsimulation of the whole circuit, so as to observe the versatility of the0 to 15volts Variable Power Supply before construction. Moreso, some other routine tests such as AC sweep,DC sweep,and Fourier Analysis and Transient Analysis  were carried out and the results obtainedwere compared with that ofLaboratory Bench Oscilloscope  after the device construction. The simulation results and test carried out in the laboratory shown very good dynamic and static behavior of the proposed device. This shown probe is like a theoretical oscilloscope that can be used as a laboratory bench to view the waveforms of a designed cicuitand can assist to have a constructed cicuit well tailored to the design.

KEYWORDS: Simulation, fourier, analysis, transient, stability

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 500W/240V WIND TURBINE GENERATOR.

 

BALA A.M, ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR & ZAHRADDIN UMAR DAHIRU

Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.

 

Abstract

In Nigeria, insufficient electricity supply had been a major challenge for many years, several methods of supplementing the generation and distribution of electricity to meet the demand . the major components of wind turbine are: the rotor component which includes the blades for converting wind energy into low speed rotational energy, the generator components which includes electrical generator for generating 13.5 volts D.C maximum , which is later inverted to 240 volts a.c by 12 volts D.C/240 volts a.c inverter. The control system which controls output obtained from the generator, preventing it from exceeding 12 volts d.c required for charging 12 volts d.c battery,while the gear box arrangement was made to convert low speed incoming rotation to a high speed rotation .the wind turbine is capable of powering a small load of not more than 500W power which can be used as a source of electricity for domestic or an office use and again for further modification of this work, the turbine speed needs to be enhanced to generate more power for a bigger load application.

KEYWORDS: Generation, Turbine, rotor, inverter, battery

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SOIL RESISTIVITY SURVEY OF DAMATURU METROPOLIS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA.

 

SUNDAY DAVID NAJOJI*, MORUMA IBRAHIM & YAKUBU SAMUEL MINGYI

The Federal Polytechnic, Pmb 1006 Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The electrical properties of soils are the parameters of the natural and artificial field in soil influenced by the distribution of mobile electrical charges mostly inorganic ions in the soil. Identifying low resistivity earth materials and their potentials becomes imperative. The aim of this study is to carry out the soil resistivity survey of the study area. The method used in sample collection is the surface scraping and digging to a depth of about 20 cm at random where each location coordinates is taken using a Global Positioning System (GPS). The samples are stored in plastic containers and taken for laboratory ex-situ measurements. A conductivity meter is used to determine each sample’s conductivity where the resistivity of each sample is calculated from the reciprocal of the conductivity. The result is digitized and a contour map of the study area is plotted using Surfer software. The map shows the delineation of the resistivity variation in the study area. The spatial variations of resistivity in the study area are found to be between 5.5 x 103 Ω-cm to 1.6 x 104 Ω-cm.

KEYWORDS: soil, resistivity, survey, conductivity, ex-situ, digitized.

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IMPACT OF VALVE OPENING FREQUENCY (VOF) ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AN AIR-DRIVEN FREE PISTON LINEAR GENERATOR (FPLG) ENGINE

 

WASIU B. AYANDOTUN1,2, RASHID B. A. AZIZ2, ZAINAL A. B. A. KAREEM2

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 2Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility (CAREM), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), 32610, Seri Iskandar, Perak State, Malaysia.

 

Abstract

Free-piston linear generator (FPLG) engine is a novel type of engine conversion device which can generate electrical energy. It exhibits advantages of simple structure, less friction, high thermal efficiency, and operational flexibilities. This paper, therefore, presents the engine performance report of the research conducted on an air-driven dual-piston FPLG engine designed using FPE concepts, and fabricated to operate in both expansion and combustion modes. However, for these experimental tests, the engine was set to operate in expansion mode using different valve opening frequencies (VOF) and at 8 bar intake pressure. The data collected were processed and analysed to extract the engine performance parameters. The findings of the study revealed that the highest translator velocity of 2.5 m/s was achieved at the 33.3 Hz VOF. At the same VOF, the 61.38 J indicated workdone was recorded as the lowest. While the highest indicated workdone of 95.64 J was produced at 5 Hz VOF. Despite the highest peak power of 496.85 W displayed at 5 Hz VOF, the power (rms) obtained was 28.4 W. while the highest power (rms) generated was 95.7 W at 33.3 Hz VOF. At 8 bar intake pressure, the maximum pressure developed inside the cylinder continued to decrease as the VOFs was increased. With further improvement on the power output, this technology could be used to achieve our energy sustainable goals.

KEYWORDS: Safety, Rehabilitation, robot, Patient, Accident, Sensor

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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING INTERNAL MODEL CONTROLLER: AN INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION STRATEGY

 

1USMAN OMEIZA AHMED AND 2PATRICK AYUBA AVONG

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, P.M.B 01, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

In developed nations, industries are made to function at control engineering costs. For industrial applications, adopted speed control scheme is fundamentals and determine the dc motor’s performance. This paper seeks to analyze and validate performance of dc motor in Internal Model Control (IMC) and Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) control schemes. The IMC was realized by cascading inverse of the target control process model with the model of the reference process transfer function. This is aim to achieve unity gain that could track the set-point. The methodology involved getting specifications for the dc motor (model RMCS-3011) and then derivation of motor’s IMC controller transfer function. Simulated plots in Matlab-Simulink using the PID and IMC were presented. The quantitative results of the IMC method compared with the Matlab-Simulink tuned PID controller provides a commendable performance. Thus, its being recommended for consideration and application in Nigeria industries.

KEYWORDS: Industries, controller, dc motor, performance, model.

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DESIGN OF A 60,000 LITRES UNDERGROUND HORIZONTALLY LAID PETROL STORAGE TANK

 

IW. UJEVWERUME1, G. AYADJU2, A. O. EDEMA3, E. POPOOLA4

1, 2, 3, 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This work is on the design of a sixty thousand litre underground horizontally laid petrol storage tank. The length of the tank, the internal pressure acting on it, Cylinder Thickness, Induced Hoop, Longitudinal Stresses and the Von-Mises stress were avaluated. Moreso, the wall thickness was varied to check its effect on the hoop and longitudinal stresses. From the analysis, it was seen that a total of 12 plates of 6m x 1.5 m and 0.007m thickness are required to fabricate the underground storage tank. The induced hoop, longitudinal and Von-Mises stresses will keep reducing with increasing tank wall thickness keeping the internal pressure constant. The implication is that with the same internal pressure of 0.061MN/m2, greater material cost will be required to produce the tank because of the higher cost of plates with thicker dimensions. The design is safe due to the induced Von-Mises stress of 11.3MN/m2, a value much lower than the maximum allowable stress of 160.8 MN/m2 for the selected material.

KEYWORDS: Design, Petrol, Underground, Horizotally, Storage.

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APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DENTISTRY, NEUROSURGERY AND BIOMEDICAL FIELD

 

USMAN HALADU GARBA

Mechanical Engineering Department, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Many people in the globe are suffering from various diseases like cancer, brain tumor, stroke, diabetes etc. And nanotechnology has many potentials in healthcare, from delivering drugs more effectively, diagnosing diseases more rapidly with the use or help of nanorobotic and nanomedicine. This paper is all about the applications of nanotechnology in dentistry, neurosurgery and biomedical field and the recent innovations.

KEYWORDS: Nanotechnology, Nanomaterial, Nanorobot, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle

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PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL USING PALM KERNEL OIL (PKO)

 

1ANAKHU A. ESTHER, 2SMART BELLO AND 3AJAYI A. STANLEY

1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State. 3Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State.

 

Abstract

Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel was produced through transesterification reaction with ethanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel was characterised as alternative fuel for diesel engine through ASTM standard fuel test. The transesterification process using 400 g of PKO, 1200 ml of ethanol and 28 g of NaOH at 60oC temperature for five hours to yield the product obtained was subjected to analytical process and the results obtained are in good agreement with published data for vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for diesel fuel.

KEYWORDS: Biodiesel, PKO, Esterification, Transesterification,

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EFFECTS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON THE QUALITY OF SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN SONG TOWN, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

SULEIMAN UMAR MAGAJI*, AHMED BUBA SELI AND KABIRU SALIHU;

Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Nigeria

 

Abstract

In an effort to investigate the impact of the sewage disposal methods on available water supplies in Song Town, questionnaires were administered and observational study was conducted at random on 150 houses. From the results obtained, it was observed that 55% of the resident’s wells are located at a distance less than 9m from the toilets. Water samples, taken from 19 different locations across the study area, were analyzed and studied in order to assess the groundwater quality. The physico-chemical analysis results indicate the presence of certain sewage sensitive parameters such as chloride (Cl), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Nitrates (N03-), in mild quantities. The results of bacteriological analysis of the samples reveal very high concentrations of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli varying between 130 and ≥ 2400MPN/100ml of water. This is an indication of faecal contamination of the groundwater. It is recommended that, hydrogeological survey of the area be conducted to ascertain the direction of groundwater flow and depth to water table before location of toilets and wells. Environmental and health authorities should educate, regulate and control the people regarding sewage disposal.

KEYWORDS: Groundwater, Sewage, Contamination, Water Supplies, Toilets, Physico-chemical, Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli

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THE EFFECT OF OSCILLATOR STRENGTH ON GERMANIUM NANOCRYSTALS (GE-NCS)

 

AMINU R LADODO1, SAGIR LAWAN2, AHMAD A.A3, ISIAKA BALA MUSA4

1, 2 & 3 Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna 4 Kaduna Electrıcal Dıstrıbutıon Company.

 

Abstract

Understanding the mechanism of a promising germanium nanocrystal (GeNCs) responsible for photoluminescence at room temperature has attracted much attention for its visible Photoluminescence emission. Estimation of the influence of oscillator strength on the PL spectrum in GeNCs is carried out. A theoretical model using matlab codes is adopted to examine the influence of oscillator strength as a function of size, photon energy and also on the photoluminescence intensity. Results indicated that, oscillator strength of GeNCs behavior is in line with the quantum confinement effects which determine the optical properties of GeNCs. The oscillator strength in nanocrystallites varies with the amount of confinement and also with the surrounding environment via the change in dielectric constant.

KEYWORDS: mechanism; photoluminescence; oscillator strength; GeNCs; quantum confinement.

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EFFECT OF COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINES ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME IN STATE AND FEDERAL POLYTECHNICS IN ADAMAWA, TARABA AND GOMBE STATE. NIGERIA

 

1SAMAILA YERIMA SULE, 2DR. E.B. ENOCH, 3J. WADAI,

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Technology, State Polytechnic Yola, Adamawa State. 2Department of Technology Education, School of Technology and Science Education, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State.

 

Abstract

The study will investigate to find out the effect of Computer Numerical Control machine on student achievement in Mechanical Engineering programme in all state and federal Polytechnics in Adamawa, Taraba and Gombe State, four research questions in line with the purpose of the study will be formulated for the study. Four hypotheses will be formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance study will be made. The study will be conducted using quasi–experimental design. Specifically, the pre – test post – test non-equivalent control group design. This implies that intact classes (non-randomized groups) will be use in the study. The study will be carried out in Adamawa, Taraba, and Gombe State which are located in the North-East Region of Nigeria. The target population of this study consisted of 40 diploma II students enrolled in 2018/2019 academic session in the Department of Mechanical Technology, in all state and federal Polytechnics in Adamawa, Taraba and Gombe State. The instrument for data collection will be tagged Machine Tool Achievement Test (MTAT) developed by the researcher. The instrument will be a multiple choice question containing 40 items. Each item will have options A – D from which the respondents will choose the correct option. Questions willbe drawn from past school examination question papers of 2014 – 2019 session to form Machine Tool Achievement Test (MTAT). The statistical tools that will be used for analysis is ANCOVA. The independent variable will be the use of CNC machine and analog lathe machine. The dependent variable will be the students’ achievement scores obtained after the treatment (post-test). The pre-test performance scores will be obtained prior to the commencement of the treatment and will be use as covariate to control the group differences. Analysis of Covariance will be conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between the Students taught using CNC machine and those taught using analog lathe machine.

KEYWORDS: Polytechnic and Computer Numerical control, Engineering programme, student achievement.

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VEHICLE TRACKING AND ACCIDENT ALERT SYSTEM USING GPS AND GSM MODULE

 

G.N. JOLA1 Y.M. AUDU2    B.E. ZAKKA3

(1, 2)Electrical Electronics Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The vehicle tracking system is design to monitor and control vehicles that are used by individuals, fleet management function such as fleet tracking, routing, dispatch information and security and urban transportation companies. This system helps to reduce the rate at which cars are stolen and also increased survival chances of accident victim through the impact sensor. The system is designed to track the position of the vehicle and alert the user anytime the vehicle have an accident. It comprises of integration between GPS receiver, microcontroller, GSM module and impact sensor. The GPS module receiver is the coordinate from the satellite at which the system is located, controlled by the user using command interfaces through GSM module as a transmitter and receiver of data. This project consist of two basic parts, the hardware and the software development. The hardware development includes the GPS, impact sensor and the microcontroller wiring connection, and its integration with GSM module. The software development includes the programming of the microcontroller (ATMEGA 328) with the source code and GSM message command.

KEYWORDS: Tracking, GSM Module, Alert System, Vehicle, GPS.

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