Hummingbird Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (HUJHSS)
Vol. 19 (6) December, 2019. ISSN: 2278-8881
Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,
Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,
Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
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Historical Perspectives of Women Deprivation from Leadership and their Empowerment for National Development in the 21st Century, Nigeria
Prof. Rosemary K. Udeozor & Love E. Ebuk (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja, Abuja
This paper focused on historical perspectives of women deprivation from leadership and their empowerment for national development in the 21st century, Nigeria: (A Case Study of Women in Academics-Masters and Ph.D Degree Female Students, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja). The researcher used descriptive survey research design for the study. The population of the study was 346 Masters and Ph.D degree female students drawn from the five (5) departments that made up the Faculty of Education, University of Abuja. All the masters and Ph.D degree female students were considered for the study through purposive sampling technique. Two research questions were raised respectively for the study. Questionnaire on “Historical Perspectives of Women Deprivation from Leadership and their Empowerment for National Development” (HPWDLEND) was used to collect data for the study analysis. The questionnaire was validated by experts in the Faculty of Education, University of Abuja. The reliability of the instrument was tested and 0.71 index score was obtained. The statistics used for the study was frequency and mean to analyze the data for research questions. The findings of the study revealed that: women are aware of their ability to contribute to national development, women are not empowered to contribute to national development and women are not involved in national development. Due to the finding of the study, the researcher recommended that: the Nigerian government should emphasize the importance of female education in arts, the humanities, social sciences, sciences and technology, to enlighten, create awareness for women empowerment for nation building; the government should sensitize parents and key stakeholders about the importance of female student education so as to prepare them for future nation building, vocational skill acquisition centres should be created to empower women in different fields as this will make them to be self-reliant and self-employed and in turn contribute to national development and a certain percentage of the positions available either for elective or appointment should be kept for women as this will spur them to aspire for and contribute to national development.
Keyword: Historical Perspectives, Women Deprivation, Leadership, National Development.
Election Management Bodies and Elections in Nigeria
Innocent Benjamin Namo, Ibrahim Nuaimu Danbala and Andeley Laasutu Naomi
Political Science Department, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.
The intricacy and professional skills essential for electoral management necessitate that an institution or institutions be upstanding for electoral activities. Since the advent of the Fourth Republic, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) has been the election management body in charge of general elections in Nigeria whereas the State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs) are in control for elections at the local government level. Lately, there has been a unique devotion to electoralreforms motivated by the consciousness in political and electoral managementcircles that transforming social environments entail a reconsideration of electoral arrangements by the analytical responsiveness of election observers, and by the dawn of international organizations advancing democracy. As elections scrutiny intensifies, the dearth of understanding and the ‘experience gap’ in the technical know-how to administer elections by Election Management Bodies (EMBs) in Nigeria have been overwhelmedby an ‘integrity gap’– a weakened public conviction in the integrity and meticulousness of their activities. This has led peoples’ interestto beengrossed on reforming electoral systems through independent Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs) with extensive powers and responsibilities to deliver better electoral services while improving free and fair electoraloutcomes. This paper seeks to connect the functions and organization of EMBs in Nigeria especially in the Fourth Republic, as well asproffersexpansive scope of facts on good practiceson electoral managementtoconcerned observers of electoralandpolitical matters.
Keyword: Election, Electoral Process, ElectoralReforms, Election Management Body, transparency.
Literacy in the Indigenous Languages
Msuega Ahar, Pauline Sewuese Igyo and Tughgba Terkimbi Elijah
Department of Languages and Linguistics Benue State University, Makurdi.
The paper examines the concept of literacy in indigenous languages. Literacy is the ability to read and write. Literacy in every society is aimed at eradicating illiteracy and its attendant challenges. The researcher has investigated into the concepts: Literacy, the value or relevance of literacy, functional literacy. The paper further established the indispensability of language as tool that determines the effectiveness of any literacy programme. And establishe that indigenous languages are the best medium for literacy programes. The Speech Act Theory which reveals that when we speak we perform actions rather than mere expression of Linguistics items. The study argues that, language is used during literacy programmes to perform the role of instructions and teaching to shape the lives of the illiterates. The observational and qualitative methods of data collection were used to carry out the study. The research concludes that a quality literacy programme transforms individual’s life. It is self-development which in turn affects national progress. The researcher recommends language training, establishment of language institutes, provision of scholarship scheme for linguistic students, and introduction of linguistic and indigenous languages at all level of studies by the government and non-governmental organizations to enhance the raising of indigenous qualify instructors in Nigerian society.
Keyword: Applied Linguistics, Illiteracy, Indigenous Language, Literacy and Society.
Parametric Analysis of Inhibitors to ICT-Based Instructional Technology Adoption in Higher Educational Institutions in Bauchi State
Jibrin, M., Mustapha, S., & Rabi’u, M.
Department of Management and Information Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi State.
There is no doubt that Information and communication technology (ICT) has changed the face of teaching and learning globally. Although HEIs in Nigeria are making giant strides to join the global race, these efforts appear to be inadequate. The study was underpinned by the RIPPLES Model. A total of 335 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 304 (92.7%) of the distributed questionnaires were returned. After the data cleaning and examination, a total of 299 cases were retained and valid for further analysis. Parametric analytical techniques was used via IBM SPSS version 20 to analyze the data. The result indicated that Weak Institutional Policies have insignificant influence on ICT-Based Instructional Technology Adoption (ITA), while Low access to Infrastructure have a significant negative effect on ITA. The study suggested that HEIs should focus more on providing state-of-the-art ICT-based instructional technologies to enhance teaching and learning in line with what is obtainable in the developed countries in order to meet the 21st century educational demand.
Keyword: Institutions, Inhibitors, Instructional Technology, Higher Education, Parametric Analysis
Examination Malpractices an Instrument of Corruption in Nigeria: An Assessment of Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in Private Schools of Katsina State, 1980 – 2019
Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.
Corruption has been a cancer – worm that spread indeed into various institution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria since its independence in 1960. Hence, through careful examination of primary and secondary sources and adopting of historical methodology, the paper analysis the nature, causes and contributors, and the way-out of examination malpractices as an instrument of corruption in the conduct of Senior School Certificate Examinations in Private Schools of Katsina State from 1980 when the first private school was established to 2019 when the state recorded a better performance in WAEC and ranked 33rd compared to previous years. The paper argued that, although private primary and post-primary schools were established as a business enterprise in order to complement government efforts in the provision of quality education, but today high rate of examination malpractices are recorded in such schools. The paper further argues that proprietor’s greed for profit at all cost, threatening of teachers, enticements, poor economic situation of the teachers, and lack of integrity of the stakeholders are the main causes of the menace. It further posits through the application of ethical theories like utilitarianism, justice theory, virtue theory and deontology that proprietors, examination bodies’ staff, Ministry of Education supervisors, teachers, parents and guardians, students, and security agents are the key players in the game of examination malpractices; a cancer-worm monster that has eaten deep into the bone marrow of the Nigerian educational system which makes it a multifarious problem of Nigeria. The paper recommends that all stakeholders should rise to their duties of responsible parenthood, role model, and people of integrity and the icon of the society in order to join the anti-corruption crusade and get rid the system of this plague before the Nigerian certificates become worthless pieces of paper.
Keyword: Examination Malpractices, Corruption, Private Schools, Proprietors, Education, Parents, Students
War and Strife in Africa: Emerging Issues of Conflict in Darfur
Jibrin Ubale Yahaya
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
The problem facing African States today is the emergence of various categories pockets of conflicts which has seriously affecting structures such as political process, economic, environmental and excessive violation of fundamental Human Rights in many African countries. Africa is one of the worst victims of violent conflicts in the world. Many states have been battered and collapsed as a result of the many fratricidal wars, intractable political conflicts and economic insolence. The people have become more pauperized, hopeless and helpless victims of wars, repressive and corrupt governments, and economic adjustments that have had devastating and conflict-worsening consequences. African conflicts are not only more prevalent than earlier period; it is more virulent and destructive because its implications lie within both the state and the region. This study attempts to answer the following questions; is there a positive relationship between the delayed response of the UN and the protection of economic interest of China and Russia in Sudan? And, did the conflict resolution mechanisms adopted by the UNAMID facilitate the resolution of the conflict in Darfur? The Structural Functional approach was employed as our theoretical framework. Using this approach, this study attempts to look at the factors that delayed the UN in responding to the Darfur crisis and also the strategies and constraints that affected the UNAMID in its attempt to carry out its function towards resolving the Darfur crisis. Methodologically, the study adopted the Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) design which invariably led to the sourcing of data through secondary sources. The paper has findings which revealed that the economic interests of China and Russia delayed the response of the UN to the Darfur crisis due to their continuous vetoing of the resolutions that seek to proffered solutions to the crisis, The papers has also gives another finding which equally revealed that even though the UNAMID tried in their efforts to maintain the cease fire agreement, there were still constraints that prevented it from bringing lasting peace and security to the Darfur region of Sudan. We recommend that the UN Security Council and African Union should take a more proactive role in Peacekeeping operations in the continent through equipping its peacekeeping force so that they will be able to achieve peace in the continent especially Darfur to prevent the loss of lives and the destructions of properties. The government of Sudan should eschew politics of racial cleansing and see the people of Darfur as part of their responsibility to protect and provide for. We equally recommend that China and Russia should not because of their economic interests and investments in Sudan continue to obstruct resolutions that will bring peace and security to Darfur as they have sworn to maintain peace and security in the world which is one of the cardinal goal of the UN Security Council objective.
Keyword: Conflict, United Nations, Conflict Management, Security Council
Islamic Perspectives on Natural Resource Utilization and Concervation
Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University, Damaturu, brahim Dahiru Musa, Department of Geography, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State
A huge number of verses in Qura’n and several sayings of the Prophet Muhammad indicate the great importance that has been given to environmental resource utilization and the responsibility of man to the environment resource conservation. The utilization of all natural resources land, water, air, fire (energy), forests, oceans are considered the right and the joint property of the entire humankind. Since Man is Khalifatullah (the vicegerent of Allah) on earth, he should take every precaution to ensure the interests and rights of others, and regard his mastery over his allotted piece of land as a joint ownership wit the next generation. The rights to benefit from nature are linked to accountability and maintenance or conservation of the resource. The fundamental legal principle established by the Prophet Muhammad is that “The benefit of a thing is in return for the liability attached to it.” Much environmental degradation is due to people’s ignorance of what their Creator requires of them. People should be made to realize that the conservation of the environment is a religious duty demanded by God.
Keyword: Natural resource, Utilization, Conservation, Qur’an and Sunnah.
The Menace of Perceived Stigmatization of People Living with HIV/Aids Attending Clinic in University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria: A New Direction and Uncommon Changes
*Ariyo Ayodele Oluwakayode (Ph.D) and **Unoma Victoria Mgbendi
*Department Of Physical And Health Education, School Of Science, Adeyemi College Of Education, Ondo, Nigeria. **Department Of Human Kinetics, Sports and Health Education, Lagos State University
The study focused on the menace of perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS PLWHA attending clinic in University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan. In view of the above objective, the study determined the perceived forms of stigmatization on PLWHA by considering self-stigmatization, occupational victimization and discrimination by health care providers. A descriptive research design was adopted. The research data was collected through a self-developed structured and validated questionnaire from conveniently sampled 365 PLWHA attending clinic under the Society for Family Health Foundation in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The simple frequency count and percentages were used to describe the findings while inferential statistics of chi-square (X2) was used to test the significance of each hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level. Three hypotheses were formulated, of which one (1) was not significant (p<0.05) and two (2) hypothesis were significant (p>0.05). The conclusion of the study was that stigmatization occurs to PLWHA. Based on the findings, recommendations that could minimize or eradicate stigmatization on PLWHA were suggested.
Keyword: Stigmatization, HIV/AIDS, Discrimination. PLWHA, Seropositive, Confidentiality
Assessing the extent of the utilization of TETFund for manpower training and development in Tertiary Institutions in Maiduguri, Borno State
*Kurama Modu & **Idris Haruna
*Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno state. **Department of General Studies, College of Education Waka/Biu Borno state.
The Nigerian Government has spent a lot of resources towards enhancing quality education in terms of manpower training and research through Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund). However, despite these interventions, there is huge gaps in the needs of the tertiary institution in Maiduguri. This study therefore assessed the extent of the utilization of TETFund for manpower training and development in Tertiary Institutions in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study was 1898 while the sample size was 330 respondents which were obtained using Yamane’s formula. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire which were administered on the Respondents. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire which were administered to the academic staff of the selected institutions and TETFund desk officers of the selected institutions and TETFund head office in Abuja. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential tools. The hypotheses were tested using ANOVA analysis. The findings of the study revealed that Lecturers’ development programmes have been given considerable attention by TETFund in terms of training for M.Sc and Ph.D both locally and internationally.
Keyword: utilization, TETFund, manpower training and development
Nigeria and the Quest for Continental Integration (2000 – 2019)
Mustapha, Ayodele Haruna
Department of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
The African continental integration came into existence as a result of the agitation by the African leaders to unite for political, economic, cultural and social unity. Shortly after those countries started gaining independence from their colonial masters to formed independence state with or without any economic/ political cooperation or affinities. The global reality of international dynamism warranted the necessity for states to integrate towards the continental Africa as observed and obtainable in the European Union (EU) platform. This involved pooling of all economic forces (trade, monetary etc.) and political union tendency to serve all states. The study interrogates the role of Nigeria in the past, present and future of the African Union member states towards continental economic and political integration. It x-rays the support Nigeria has tendered to the continent, its perception with regards to African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) their challenges and prospects towards integration like lack of political will in the part of African leaders to surrender their sovereignties for supernatural governments, ownership questions and leadership vacuum. The study posits to provide possible solutions like economic gains behind integration and show of political will. The interference in the internal affairs of member states allowable in the African Union’s article provides for transparency and accountability. The paper makes use of both primary and secondary sources to elucidate data while it adopts integration theory to midwife the study.
Keyword: Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, National interest, National Security, Continental Integration
Corruption and the Challenges of Good Governance in Nigeria: A Review.
Dahiru Abubakar Sambo
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State.
This paper critically explores the challenges of good governance and corruption in Nigeria. Corruption has largely contributed to the backwardness and failure of good governance in Nigeria. The country has not been able to implement policies which promote good governance and facilitate the development and success of the democratic process due to the prevalent existence of corruption at both high and low levels. There is no doubt that this development threatens the moral integrity of the nation and hampers her social and economic development. Nigeria’s complex political design is a contributing factor to the rise of corruption, which has adversely affected stability and trust and which has damaged the ethos of democratic values and principles. Although the Nigerian government has been instrumental in systems to fight the evils of corruption, practical problems have increasingly emerged over the years. The most notable problems are insufficient coordination of anti‐corruption work within the Nigerian public service and among the various sectors of society; poor information about corruption and the impact of anticorruption measures and agencies; and the impact of corruption on good governance. The paper places the current high-profile debates over corruption and poor governance in Nigeria within an historical analysis of the patterns of governance in Nigeria over the years since independence in order to understand the intricate issues surrounding the historical, cultural and socio-political context of the problems of governance and corruption and their influence on anti-corruption reforms in the Nigerian context.
Keyword: Nigeria, Governance, Corruption, development, democracy, challenges.
Mass Media as Essential instrument for Da’wah (Islamic Propagation).
Kabiru Adamu Umar
Department Of Mass Communication, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.
For effective and efficient communication of da’wah activities in the society, it requires the need for mass media to enable the passage of messages of Islam to its target audience at large. The paper presents an explanation on the role and impact of mass media in the propagation of the teachings of Islam. This in essence significantly reduced the traditional mode of communicating da’wah activities in the society. The paper centered on the explanation of the concept of da’wah (Islamic propagation), da’wah in the qur’an and Sunnah as well as the essential role of mass media in promoting da’wah programmes in the society. The paper finally recommends that, the media personnel should play their roles in promoting Islam as a tolerant and accommodating religion.
Keyword: Mass Media, Instrument, Da’wah, Islamic, Propagation.
Money Laundering in Nigeria: An Analysis of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) Act 2004.
Ashigar, A. K. Satomi, Danjuma Abubakar Umar and Usman Ismaila
Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State
This article evaluated the activities of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission on the war against corruption in Nigeria. The article revealed that there is no genuine commitment of government nor its agencies to fight corruption. Most investigated cases are inconclusively pending in courts of law while some indicted ex-governors and top government functionaries are enjoying unchecked freedom. This dictated the tempo and ingredients of the war against corruption in Nigeria. The article concluded that the Presidency has eroded the autonomy of the anti-graft agency and therefore considered some recommendations for future improvement of the Commission.
Keyword: Money Laundering, Financial Crime, Corruption, terrorist Financing and Media Fixation.
Neologism: A Process of Language Engineering
Mufutau Kazeem Ishola
Department of English language, College for Sharia and Arabic Studies(COLSAS), Bauchi.
This paper discusses the practical ways by which language users make use of neologisms in order to find expressions for the day-to-day usages of common terms, which are found in other languages like English, Arabic, and Hausa and so on. The media practitioners and educationists are exposed to using words to capture their intensions. Since these practitioners are faced with audience that are of local language, they are forced to look for words that will express what goes on in the world around them. In an age of science, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), many of the words used are terms from English and Arabic origin; therefore, this research work aims to solve this problem of new terms when coming to yoruba language. We do hope the extension of such can be done to any other Nigeria languages. The methodology used in this work is purely observation. Through this, we discover that new items are named through the processes, such as Eponym, Loanwords, Onomatopoeic, Phono˗ semantic matching/ Interface and so on.
Keyword: Neologism, ICT, Media practitional, Eponym, Phono-Semantic mtching
A Critical Appraisal of Military Intervention in Nigeria Politic 1966 -1999
Abdullahi D. Mamman
School of General and Management Studies, Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State
This paper attempts a discussion of “A critical appraisal of Military intervention in Nigerian Politics (1966 – 1999)”. The Nigerian Armed Forces is a legacy of British imperialist intrigues in Africa. It is an institution whose class role was primarily the creation of a conducive atmosphere for the establishment of colonial rule and after October 1960, had performed the role of defenders of the territorial integrity and maintenance of law and order in the neo- colonial state. By 1966, the Military were to formally intervene into Nigerian politics due to the nature of the socio-economic system prevailing in Nigeria which gave rise to a cut-throat intra-class struggle for power and wealth among the various factions of the ruling class. The paper recommends solutions on how to stop further military intervention in Nigeria.
Keyword: Military Intervention, Politc, Critical, Nigeria, Appraisal.
Issues on Warm Spring and Health Tourism Development: A Global Perspective
Oladimeji Mattew Timothy & Joshua Maxwell Elgen
Dept. of Tourism Management, National Institute for Tourism & Hospitality, Bauchi Zonal Campus
The health importance of warm springs cannot be over emphasized. As might be expected, the composition of spring water varies from place to place according to the rock formation in which it occurs. Warm spring is the result of hot and cold spring mixing together but may also occur outside of geothermal areas. Health tourism is a term describing the rapidly growing practice of traveling across international borders to obtain health care. China is fast emerging as a desirable destination for individuals seeking medical care in a wide range of medical specialty including cardiology, neurology, orthopedics and others. In Nigeria, these destinations can be harnessed to carter the health needs of patients. They include ikogosi warm spring Ekiti, whispering palm iworo badagry, osun osogbo mangrove etc. Warm spring play important role as sites for theurapetic uses. Health tourism providers make information available about the hospitals and doctors that they are partnered with but the nature, extent and quality of information provided by different organizations vary. The provider usualy require the patients to provide a medical report including nature of ailments, local doctors etc. Warm Spring sites are a potential health tourist haven for revitalization, rejuvenation and recuperation.
Keyword: Tourism Development, Issues. Global Perspective, Warm Spring, Health.
A Cursory Look at Marxism to Examine Amina
Hudu Salihu and Adamu Uba
Department of Hausa, Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan Waya
The Marxism is named after it founder, the German born philosopher, economist and sociologist, Karl Mark (1818-83). As a theory, Marxism begins from the simple observation that human survival depends on the production of food and material object. In this production process people enter into social relationship with each other. Together, the forces of production and the social relationship that characterize them from the economic basis of society, which the Marxist refer to as the infrastructure. An economic infrastructure that underlies all human activity. He (Karl Marx) further note that all law, customs, religion, political and familial relation result from an economic base. Therefore, man is not the maker of his economic system, but rather is made by it. Muhammad Umar’s novel ‘Amina’ is considered by critics to be representative of Marxist overtones comprising references to literary and political works also closely associated with Marxist thought on the conception of an equitable society. Also it showcase how less privileged were exploited.
Keyword: Cursory, Examine, Markism, Capitalism, Amina
Guidance and Counselling as a Verital Tool for National Transformational Agenda in Nigeria: An Empirical Review
Asu Blessing Aho
Department of Foundations, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Kano
Nigeria is one of the third world nations and also one of the richest countries in Africa but virtually majority of her citizens are living in abject poverty. This paper tries to examines the general orientation that education through Guidance and Counselling approach, can transform Nigeria into a country to be envied by others. Counselling approach is one of the key areas that can help in the rapid transforming of a community. With the use of counselling principles, Nigeria as a third world nation can swiftly make a different especially through the use of quality education and acquisition of good values. The paper therefore started with the concept of Guidance and Counselling, the history, need, basic principles and services of Guidance and Counselling. The Guidance and Counselling as Transformational Tools in Secondary Schools in Nigeria and the role of Guidance and Counselling as a tool for national transformational agenda in life skill education and human resource development were equally highlighted. It was recommended among others that all schools should be provided with professionally qualified and adequately trained counselors and that universities should be given the mandate to train more professionals in the area.
Keyword: Guidance, Counselling, Transformation, Agenda, Education
Despite the Existence of Al-Dhimmah in Every Human Being, Ability of Certain People to Engage in Contractual Relationship is Curtail
Sabo Karabi Giade
A.D.Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, P.M.B. 004 Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The paper clearly spelled out the meaning of the word “Dhimmah,” which is an Arabic word to mean the ability to acquire rights and obligations by a mukallaf (the subject of law) which is not just left without conditions or hindrance it also stated the life circle of any human being is categorized in to four. From the time an embryo is conceived in it’s mother’s womb to it’s delivery, from delivery to Tamyiz (which is seven years according to Islamic Jurists), from Tamyiz to maturity and from maturity until death. Therefore after attaining legal capacity, sometimes ability of certain people to engage in contractual relationship is curtailed. The factors include but not limited to natural circumstances and man affected or acquired causes like sleeping, infancy, in coercion/duress, mistake and ignorance on the other side.
Keyword: Agricultural Libraries, Competitive Intelligence, Promotion, Information Delivery.
Roles of Traditional Rulers on Boundry Dispute Resolution in Bauchi State
Salisu Yakubu Idris & Alhaji Kawugana
Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 0231 Bauchi, Bauchi State
This study examines “Roles of Traditional Rulers on Boundary Dispute Resolution in Bauchi State” .The data for this study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources, while the primary data were derived through questionnaires. The secondary data were obtained from relevant textbooks, journals and government documents. The researchers adopted simple random sampling technique to determine the sample size for the study. The study revealed precisely that traditional rulers are the major agent in transforming the attitude of rural people provided they are answerable to a titled ruler vested with the authority of governing the affairs of the people. Findings from the study shows people of Bauchi state believed that the traditional rulers in their community are the major agents in settling crisis and based on the findings, the researchers have come with the conclusion that traditional rulers have made a positive impact in community development to a degree by maintaining peace in their domain.
Keyword: Resolution, Traditional Rulers, Dispute, Role, Boundry Dispute
Some Highlights on Arbitration and its Preference over Arbitration
Sulaiman Shehu Esq.
Public Administration Department, School of Business Studies, Federal Poytechnic, Bauchi
Dispute between one another is an inevitable part of life. This dispute may arise from a plethora of reasons, social, economic, educational, among others. Dispute if unresolved can lead to many things that are not good to both the people and the nation at large. In Nigeria, every day one dispute or another arises in one society or another. Most at times, an unresolved dispute can lead to bloodshed which affects national development. It is the aim of this Paper to look at a more efficient, practical, cost effective means of resolving dispute among people.
Keyword: Arbitration, Preference, Hilights, Dispute, Inevitable