MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
VOL. 10 NO.3 (MIJMBP) DECEMBER, 2019
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Bayero University, Kano,
PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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PERFORMANCE OF HABANERO PEPPER (CAPSICUM CHINENSES L.) VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY RATES OF NITROGEN IN THE NIGERIAN SAVANNA.
*A. Y. ABUBAKAR, **B. A. BABAJI, ***B. M. SANI, ****A. MA’AZU
*National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja. **Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ***National Agricultural Research Liason Services (NARELS). Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ****Department of Agronomy, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State.
A two location experiments were conducted during the 2013 rainy season at the research farm of Institute for Agricultural Research (I.A.R) Farms, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Located at Samaru in Northern Guinea and Kadawa in Sudan Savannas. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of six rates of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kgNha-1) and three habanero pepper varieties (Safi, Jaune de Burkina, and Miango), these were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Based on the results obtained from the study, application of 150 kgNha-1 resulted to maximum fruit yield for habanero pepper at Samaru and Kadawa respectively. While variety Safi consistent produced the highest fruit yield at both locations.
KEYWORDS: Nitrogen Fertilizer, LAI, Yield ,and habanero pepper varieties (Safi, Jaune de Burkina, and Miango) (Capsicum chinense L.)
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING DIABETIC CLINICS IN JIGAWA, NIGERIA
AHMAD, M.B.1, ANAJA, P.O2., AKUYAM S.A3., MUAZU S.B4 ,
1Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano. 2Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diabetic patients develops cardiovascular abnormalities with increased morbidity and mortality risk. CKD is commonly seen among elderly, some ethnic groups and disadvantaged populations which were identified with increased type 2 DM prevalence and its burden/complications with non-equitable access to renal replacement therapies. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD among diabetic patients and to assess risk factors specific to zonal areas in the state. A total of 130 diabetic patients attending clinic and 100 controls were recruited. Patients and controls were assessed for blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), serum and urinary creatinine, urinary albumin, glycaeted haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose. CJD, as defined by ACR ranges from A1 (ACR < 3 mg/mmol) to A3 (> 30 mg/mmol). Of the 130 patients, 20% were having CKD. Patients with 0-5 years duration of diagnosis had CKD prevalence of 25%, 6-7 years had 37%, while >10 yrs had 50%. Poor glycaemic control had CKD prevalence of 27%, borderline 18% and good glycaemic control had 9%. North east zone had (26%) while North-West and South-West groups were having 17% and 18% respectively. Female had 21% compared to male (19%). Poverty distribution is 79% among patients with diabetic only, 67% in controls and 92% in patients’ with both DM and CKD. High and low glycemic index foods were 80/20% and 93/7% among patients and controls respectively. Other related risk factors were age and inappropriate use of agro-chemicals in some areas. Routine kidney assessment and improved policy on use of agrochemicals should be addressed.
KEYWORDS: Chronic kidney disease, Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR), Poverty, Glycemic index foods (FGI), senatorial zones
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF STEM BARK OF PILIOSTIGMA THONNINGII (SCHUMACH) MILNE- REDHEAD
*S.A YUSUFF *F.I ABDULRAHMAN **O. A SODIPO ***B. GONI
*Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. ***Department of Forestry Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P.M.B 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study was carried out to investigate the phytochemistry (such as phytochemical constituents, elemental contents and proximate compositions). The air-dried and pulverized plant sample was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and proximate analysis. Few portions of the sample was ashed, digested and analyzed for trace elemental contents using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy (AAS and FES). The crude ethanol extract was subsequently subjected to partitioning/ fractionation using organic solvents; chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and fractions obtained were 0.24%, 0.59%, 4.5% and 4.8% from each solvent respectively. The phytochemical studies of the stem bark of Piliotigma thonningii furnished some useful chemical compounds such as flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The proximate analysis indicated dry matter having the highest percentage of 95.13 %, carbohydrate showed 89.03%, moisture content has 4.87 %, crude fibre showed 40.0 %, ash had 2.0 %, crude protein 2.10 % and ether or fat showed 2.0 %. The result of elemental analysis showed the concentration of Ca (38.30 ± 0.17 mg/L), Na (2.23 ± 0.03mg/L) while Mg (9.13 ± 0.02) and Potassium (3.72 ± 0.03) were within the recommended limit and Fe (4.87 ± 0.03), Mn (0.70 ±0.02), Cu (0.27 ± 0.01), Pb (0.22 ± 0.01), Zn (0.17 ± 0.01), Cr (0.16 ± 0.01) were also within the safety limit.
KEYWORDS: Phytochemical, Screening, Proximate, analysis , elemental , Stem bark, Ethanol
MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY OF SOME ANTHRAX LETHAL FACTOR INHIBITORS ON WT PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN OF ANTHRACIS AT PH 5.5
ADAWARA SAMUEL NDAGHIYA & DAVID EBUKA ARTHUR
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
WT protective antigen of anthracis is central to the action of the lethal and edema toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. It is the common cell-binding component, mediating the translocation of the enzymatic moieties (lethal factor [LF] and edema factor) into the cytoplasm of the host cell. 53 compounds of anthrax lethal factor inhibitors were used to investigate their inhibitory potencies against WT protective antigen of anthracis as novel drugs for treating early attacks of Bacillus anthracis. The compounds were optimized by employing Density functional theory (DFT) with basis set of B3LYP/6-31G*. The results of Molecular docking analysis by using two neurotransmitter transporters PDB ID 3Q8A (resolution = 3.129 Å) showed that two of the ligands (compound 2 and 11) having higher binding affinity were observed to inhibit the targets by forming hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with amino acids of the receptor binding site. The results of these studies would provide important new insight into the molecular basis and structural requirements to design more potent and more specific therapeutic treatment for anthrax.
KEYWORDS: SBDD, Molecular docking, Binding energy, Hydrophobic interaction, Hydrogen interaction, Drug.
A REVIEW ON THE MECHANISM OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM
I.MUHAMMAD1, PUKUMA,S.M.2 ADAMU A.A.3, SULEIMAN A.1, AISHATU A1, AND ALKALI Y.A3.
1Gombe State University, Biological Sciences Department 2Modibbo Adama University Of Technology, Yola, Zoology Department 3Federal University Kashere, Biological Sciences Department.
Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease that is caused by four parasites specie in the genus Plasmodium. Despite various efforts to prevent, control and eradicate the malaria at all levels, the disease continue to cause serious health problem especially in sub-saharan Africa. For decades chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy using synthetic drugs remain the only options for prevention and management of the disease, as up to now there is no single effective vaccine for the disease. One major set-back in using these drugs is that, three(P.falcifarum,P.vivax and P.ovale) of the five species have developed resistance to most commonly and affordable chemoprophylactic and chemotherapheutic drugs, but the geographic distribution of resistance to any given drugs varies greatly. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of drugs resistance in the three classes of antimalarial drugs: Quinoline (Chloroquine), Antifolate (Sulphadoxine Pyramethamine) and Artemisinin. One of the major causes of antimalarial drug resistance is spontaneous mutations that confer reduced sensitivity to a given drug or class of drugs. Other causes include use of sub standard drugs and sub-curative doses, drug pressure and accumulation of less than the lethal dose in the digestive vacuole of the parasite through high rate of efflux. Generally, resistance in P.facifarum is associated with mutations in adverse drug reaction (ADR) genes. For chloroquine, resistance in Plasmodium falcifarum is associated with mutation in Plasmodium falcifarum chloroquine transporter gene(pfcrt) at position C72S/R,73,74,N75E/D/K/I ,K76T, Q271E,N326S,I356T and R371I. For Plasmodium falcifarum multidrug resistance-1gene (pfmdr-1) mutations at position N86Y, Y184F, 1034, N1042D,and D1246Y are linked with drug resistance. For antifolate resistance, mutations in pfdhfr at position A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N and I164L are associated with antimalarial drug resistance, while mutations at position S436A, A437G, K540E/N, A581G and A613T/S are associated with drug resistance in pfdhs. For artemisinin mutations on k13 propeller gene at position Y493H, R539T, I543T and C580Y are linked with antimalarial resistance. Use of sub-standard and sub-curative doses of antimalarial drugs should be avoided and monitoring of genetic mutations should be carried out regularly in order to halt the spread of resistant gene in a population.
KEYWORDS: Antimalarial drugs resistance, Plasmodium falcifarum , Quinoline, Antifolate, Artemisinin
URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS INFECTION IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN RIMI, KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA.
USMAN, M1., T, S, IMAM2., LAWAL, N3., T,S, KUIWA1.,GARBA, M.Y1 AND ABUBAKAR A. L4
1&1&1 Department of Biology, School of Basic and Remedial Studies, Funtua/Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 2Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano 3Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Biology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 4Department of Biological Sciences, Alqalam University, Katsina.
Research was conducted to study Schistosomiasis infection in some selected primary schools in Rimi Local Government Area, Katsina State. Three primary schools were selected viz; Kaura, Bardayya and Iyatawa. A total of 135 urine samples were collected from pupils aged 6-15 years, 45 samples each were collected from each primary school. Haematuria, sedimentation and microscopy were the methods employed. It were observed that samples from Iyatawa primary school were un-infected, having prevalence of 0.00% and mean intensity of 0±0 eggs/10ml of urine. In Kaura primary school, haematuria analysis revealed 12 positive cases with prevalence of 26.66%. Microscopic analysis revealed Schistosoma haematobium eggs among the subjects. The mean intensity of infection obtained were 192.66 ± 52.48 eggs/10ml of urine. In Bardayya primary school 45 samples were analyzed, 6 subjects were positive for haematuria with prevalence rate of 13.33%. Microscopic analysis proved 6 infected pupils with mean intensity of 47±21.41eggs/10ml of urine. The total numbers of infected subjects were 18, and the overall prevalence were13.33%, while the intensity of infection were 13.31±4.01 eggs per 10ml of urine. Conclusively, the overall prevalence were light. Provision of portable water supply coupled with adequate health care facilities should be provided in the areas. Further researches on urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis co-infection should also be carried out in the area.
KEYWORDS: Urinary schistosomiasis, haematuria, prevalence, intensity, microscopy
POTENTIAL OF USING NATURAL PRESERVATIVES TO EXTEND THE SHELF LIFE OF LOCAL YOGHURT “KINDIRMO”
SAGIR ABDULLAHI MAIKANO & PROF. A. F. UMAR
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
The study focused on evaluating the potency of some preservatives on shelf life of local yoghurt (kindirmo). enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria from laboratory produced local yogurt was carried out according to standard procedures. Both treated and untreated yoghurt were analyzed for physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. Proximate analysis was only investigated in treated and untreated local yogurt. All the analysis were conducted at 24hours interval for four days. The results of the analysis of treated and untreated local yogurt showed that the mean pH range from 3.90± 0.0 to 4.26 ±0.03 while Titratable acidity from 0.96± 0.01 to 1.91± 0.06 Viscosity from 430cp to 318cp while total solid from 12.98± 0.02% to 10.79± 0.02% The average rage of ash, carbohydrates, fats, moisture and crude proteins were 0.79 0.03 to 0.47 0.02%, 4.1 0.08 to 2.8± 0.01%, 4.2± 0.03 to 2.4± 0.03%, 87.5± 0.9 to 90.4± 0.02% and 3.8 ±0.02 to 2.4± 0.03% respectively. Only treatment control and RPF-2 showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in APC from 4.91 to 4.88 and 5.49 to 5.35 (log cfu/ml) after 24 and 0 hours of storage. Decrease in LAB count observed in Control at 24 hours. The organoleptic scores of local yogurt showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the overall acceptability as the time of storage progress. Untreated sample had the lowest scores (4.8± 0.4) and control had the highest scores (6.7± 0.7).
KEYWORDS: Preservatives, Potential, Local Yoghurt, Natural, Shelf Life,
BIOREMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL USING BIOMASS OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATED FROM GOLD MINIG SOIL.
1HAUWA H., 2 KABIR A., 3 RM SOKOTO., 1Z.A.BINJI., AND 1 ADAMU A SHAHIDA
1Faculty of Sciences Department of Microbiology Sokoto state University, Sokoto 2Faculty of Sciences Department of Microbiology Bayero University Kano 3Faculty of Sciences Department of Biology Sokoto State University, Sokoto.
Contaminations of chromium in the soil above limit poses danger to the environment and health as it is non-biodegradable and persist in the environment. The present study was aimed at exploring Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an agent of bioremediation through biosorption. Two pseudomonas species were isolated from the soil (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence). The biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used for removing chromium in contaminated soil. Several culture conditions were optimized for the process, the effect of contact time was studied for 24, 48 and 72h and chromium was removed maximally at the 72nd h with 99.7% while the least uptake of chromium was at the 24th h with 91.9%. The effect of pH was also studied at pH 3,4,5,6, and 7 the highest recorded in this study was at pH 5 with 87.3% removal of chromium and the least recorded was at pH 4 with 76.1% removal .Temperature was also determined at temperature ranges 25-65◦C and the best for this study was at 45◦C with 93.7% chromium removal .The effect of biomass load was also studied at 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0,and 2.5ml , the highest recorded was 99.8 at 2.5ml and the least recorded was 97.7% biomass load. The effect of agitation speed was studied at 3000, 2500 and 2000 rpm, the maximum uptake in this study was best at 2000 rpm with 93.4% and the least was at 2500 rpm with 92.4% chromium removal. The degree of biosorption was determined in this study for 1,7,14 and 21 days, maximum biosorption was recorded during day 1 and 7 with 99.9% removal respectively. These results suggest that biosorption is an efficient process for bioremediation of chromium contaminated soil at low cost using biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
KEYWORDS: Biosorption, Chromium, Contamination, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gold mining
VETERINARY EDUCATION: A TOOL FOR REVITALIZING THE ECONOMY OF NORTHEAST NIGERIA.
SADIQ1, M. A; ABBA2, Y AND JAJERE1, S.M
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.m. b 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.m. b 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The crisis in northeastern Nigeria has significantly affected the livelihoods of people in terms of livestock production and market due to limited veterinary service delivery. Northeastern Nigeria has been known to be a home to large population of livestock mainly comprising of cattle and small ruminants. With just one accredited veterinary school in the entire region, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri has not relented in it duty of training qualified veterinarian throughout the period of the insurgency. This review highlights the impact of the insurgency on the economy of northeast Nigeria and the role that veterinary education has played in riving the sector.
KEYWORDS: Veterinary; Livestock; Insurgency; Education; Food Security
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE WET AND DRY FLOWERS OF NIGERIAN GROWN CLOVE BASIL (Ocimum gratissimum)
1AZEEZ, G.O, 1LAWAL, I.A , 1IMRAN M.O AND 2ASIMI, M.A
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The dry and wet flowers of Ocimum gratissimum were collected within the premises of Federal Government Technical College, Saki. The non volatile extracts were obtained by maceration cold method using water as extractant. The phytochemical analysis was done using classical method of analysis. Antimicrobial activity (sensitivity test) was carried out using the disc method on a dilute streaked culture media. Phytochemical screening of the non volatile extract obtained from dry flower showed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, phlobathatin, terpenoid, flavanoid and saponin, while that of wet sample displayed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, tannin, terpenoid and saponin. The non volatile extract of dry flower sample inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoneae. It was observed that non volatile extract of the wet flower sample inhibited Klebsiella pneumoneae, Escherichia coli but not Staphylococcus aureus, hence, the dry flower sample displayed better antibacteria activity than the wet flower extract. It is concluded that the aqeous extract of the plant flower is a potential source of antimicrobial that could be used in treatment of diseases caused by Klebsiella pneumoneae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
KEYWORDS: antimicrobial, phytochemicals, staphylococcus, terpenoids.
X – RAY FLOURESCENCE (XRF) ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF GARDENIA ERUBESCENS (GE) AS A MEDICINAL PLANT
F M KNTAPO, R M SAID AND Y B ABBA
Department of Applied Science, Kaduna Polytechnic.
Gardenia erubescens (Gb) was subjected to elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and the results revealed the following concentrations of the elements : sulphur (1.521 mg/kg), potassium (40.058 mg/ kg), calcium (56.005 mg/kg), scandium (0.603mg/kg), titanium (0.201 mg/kg), iron (1.073 mg/mg), rubidium (0.052 mg/kg), strontium (0.431mg/kg), zireonium ((0.028mg/kg), molybdenum (0.011 mg/kg), thorium (0.005) and uranium ( 0.010 mg/kg) respectively. All elements analysed above were within the permissible limit set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).Vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, arsenic, selenium, palladium, silver, cadmium, tin, antimony, tellurium, caesium, barium, tungsten, gold, mercury, lead and uranium were not detected in the sample.
KEYWORDS: Gardenia erubescens (Gb), elements, X-ray fluorescence (XRF).
PYRAMIDING BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANCE GENES (XA33 AND XA38) INTO ASD 16 RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPE THROUGH MOLECULAR MARKERS
AHMED, A1., RAMALINGAM, J2. KACHALLA K M1., MARYAM A. D1
1Cereals Research Department, Lake Chad Research Institute P.M.B.1293 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore, India
Bacterial blight is one of the most important diseases of rice. The use of resistant variety is considered to be the most effective method of control. ASD 16 rice genotype has been improved with the blight resistance genes xa5, xa13 and Xa21, through marker assisted selection (MAS). As the objective of this study, marker assisted backcrossing breeding (MABB) was adopted for targeted pyramiding of the broad spectrum resistance genes, Xa33 and Xa38 to the Improved ASD 16 rice variety. The rice genotypes FBRI-15, PR114 were used as donors of Xa33 and Xa38 genes, respectively. The marker RMWR 7.1 linked to Xa33 and the sequenced-tagged site marker Os04g53050-1 specific to Xa38 were validated in parents who were used for foreground selection. True F1 hybrids were selected using the polymorphic markers. Out of one hundred and thirty seven SSR markers, forty-six were polymorphic for Improved ASD 16 x PR114 which were used for background selection. Foreground selection revealed that two plants were heterozygous in Improved ASD 16 x PR114; these two were used to develop BC1 generation. At BC1F1, three plants were found to be heterozygous for Improved ASD 16 x PR114. At BC2F1, a single plant was found heterozygous from the crosses. In the final BC3F1 population, one heterozygote as well was validated from the crosses, the plant was subjected to background selection for selecting plants having the genetic background similar to that of the recurrent parent (i.e., confirmation of recurrent parent genome recovery) using the forty-six co-dominant SSR markers. In BC3F1, plant no 11 had 91.33% parental genome recovery in the Improved ASD 16 x PR114. This high parental genome line was selfed to produce BC2F2 for selection of homozygous lines for xa5, xa13, Xa21 and Xa33/Xa38. The study recommends that the BC2F2 plants be selfed using pedigree method and then advance to Preliminary Yield Trial (PYT), Advanced Yield Trial (AYT) and finally to On station and multi-environment testing for release.
KEYWORDS: Bacterial Blight, Rice, genotype, ASD16, Xa33, Xa38
OPTIMIZATION OF ADSORPTION OF Cr (VI) IONS FROM WASTEWATER BY CALOPLACA FLAVESCENS
1JATAU, REGINA S. B., 2AGBAJI, E.B., 2AJIBOLA, V.O., AND 3GIWA, A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria 3Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria..
Response Surface Methodology experimental design was used in batch experiments for the biosorption of a heavy metal, Cr (VI) ions, using a lichen, Caloplaca flavescens, to examine the combined effect of operating parameters and determine optimum conditions for the biosorption of Cr (VI) ions. The result showed that metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and temperature all have effect on the adsorption of these ions from wastewater. The optimum metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and temperature were obtained for Cr (VI) ions as 25ppm, 1.5g, pH 6, 60min, and 9.30C respectively. The effect of the interaction of different variables on the adsorption of Cr (VI) ions was also observed. Interactions between metal ion concentration and pH, temperature and contact time, and adsorbent dosage and contact time showed high significance in the adsorption of Cr (VI) ions. The SEM images of the adsorption showed alteration in the surface structure of the adsorbent after adsorption. This study showed that Caloplaca flavescens can be used efficiently as an eco-friendly, low cost alternative for removal of metal ions from wastewater.
KEYWORDS: RSM= Response Surface Methodology, SEM=Scanning Electron Microscopy
THE CULTIVATION OF Plecthrantus esculentus N.E.Br. AND ITS IMPACT ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A STUDY ON SOME FEW COMMUNITIES IN PLATEAU STATE
TOY, BENJAMIN DANCHAL
*Department of Biological Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
Plecthrantus esculentus N.E.Br. is a local, native root crop mostly cultivated in virgin lands or lands fallowed for some years hence, requires little or no fertilizer for its cultivation. The crop is native to Africa and cultivated in many African countries locally. But the plant has been reported to be endangered in some countries (largely due to neglect and under-utilization). In the few areas were the crop is still being cultivated, the plant serves as a staple food and also as a means of income for local women (as traditionally, the cultivation of Plectranthus esculentus is considered as “Women’s Work”). This research was carried out with the sole intention of finding out how these women in these areas have made gain from this activity and the possible utilization of the cultivation of this crop for the empowerment of local women in agriculture. The research revealed that it is possible for women to make interest as high as seven hundred thousand naira and the average of two hundred thousand naira per year. Therefore Government, religious bodies and NGOs are hereby encouraged to create awareness among women in agriculture to look at the cultivation of this crop for their empowerment. Research should also be carried out to look into the possibilities of cultivating this crop outside these localities where the crop is restricted to and possible work on the production of hybrids for more yield.
KEYWORDS: Plectranthus Esculentus, Cultivation, Women Empowerment,
PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUCKLEBERRY (Kumbi) LEAVES
1AMINU MUSA BRINGA 1AHMED YUSUF ABDULLAHI & 2YAHAYA SAIDU GWARZO
1Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B 0231, Bauchi State of Nigeria. 2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State.
In this study, analysis for the determination of the proximate and qualitative phytochemical composition of the Huckleberry (kumbi) leaves was carried out using A.O.A.C methods. . The result shows that Huckleberry contain 86% Moisture content, 2.25% Ash content, 2.86% Fat, 12.6% Crude fiber and 12.5% Crude protein. Also, the qualitative phytochemical test indicates that Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids and Alkaloids were present. The result obtained from this research shows that Huckleberry or kumbi leaves contain substantial amount of food constituents can be nutritionally useful in the maintenance of good health. The presence of phytochemical suggest that medicinal and anti-oxidant properties may be associated with the plant. Hence consumption of the kumbi leaves should be encourage especially in areas that are less familiar with the plant.
KEYWORDS: Huckleberry, Kumbi leaves, Proximate, Phytochemical.
ASSESSMMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN IN NURSERY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, BAUCHI STATE
LATEEF O.J. & MADA G. U
Nutrition & Dietetics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Nigeria.
High mortality and morbidity rate among under-five (U5) children particular in Africa had been given prominence in the recent past due to global concern for adequate nutrition in children. This research determined nutritional and health status of preschool children in nursery school in Bauchi metropolis. Ten nursery schools were randomly selected from the nursery schools in the metropolis and three hundred and seventy five pupils participated in the study. Checklist, weighing scale and improvised heightometer were used to collect data from pupil according to standard procedure. Results obtained indicated that about 68.5% of the pupils parents were between (25-34) years old and 87.2% of pupils had certificate for complete immunization while about 80.5% did not have serious medical condition. Furthermore, 78.4% always come with lunch boxes to school and 68.3% were moderately active in school. Result on clinical assessment of the pupils showed that79.7% did not have spare and thin hair while 42.4% had Glossitis and 37.9% had bleeding and spongy gum. Also about 33.3% had eye problem with 12.8% having dermatitis and 34.3% has skin pigmentations, only 18.4% of pupils had rickets. Overall anthropometric characteristics of pupils indicated that there was 0% underweight and 100% was moderately stunted. The BMI-for–age indicated that 75% were within normal (<+1SD), while 25% were within overweight (<+2SD) and none was within obese (<+3SD) Findings of this study indicated that although the health status of the pupils was good, a few proportion of them showed deficiencies of vitamins B,C, A and Calcium and were moderately stunted, therefore mothers should improve on the types of nutritious foods given to their pupils in order to preventing micronutrient deficiency disorders.
KEYWORDS: Nutrition, Health, Status, Nursery, Children, School, Metropolis
BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BORE- HOLE WATER IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNICS DAMATURU, NIGERIA.
IBRAHIM ADAMU1, USMAN KALLAMU MAIJAMA’A2, ADAMU AHMED GOJE3
1,3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Federal polytechnic Damaturu, P. M. B 1006. Damaturu, Yobe State. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Federal polytechnic Damaturu, P. M. B 1006. Damaturu, Yobe State.
The study was carried out to determine the bacteriological qualities of borehole water samples in the federal polytechnics Damaturu, North Eastern Nigeria. Twenty samples of borehole water sources were collected within the study area. The total bacterial count was determined by pour plate technique and total coliform determined using 3-3-3 regimen. Identification of isolates were done using standard bacteriological methods. Six genera of bacteria were isolated which include Escherichia coli, proteus spp, klebsiella spp, salmonella spp, staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonous aeroginosa. Total bacterial count in the water sample ranges from 0.6 X 102 to 2.0 X 102 cfu, while total coliform count from water analysed ranged from 4 to 11 MPN index of coliform/100 ml. Faecal coliform was not detected in all the water sample. Base on the investigation the borehole water in the polytechnic is not safe for human consumption.
KEYWORDS: bacterial count, isolates, Faecal coliform, Damaturu
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND ORGANOLEPTIC ASSESSMENT OF SMOKE CURED Distichodus Rostratus (GUNTER 1864) PRE-TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACTS OF Carica Papaya.
EBOCHUO, V.C1, OGBONNA, C.F1, NDUKAUBA, E.G1 AND AHAOTU, E.O2
1Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.
The work was carried out at fish processing laboratory of the Department. Ten samples of Distichodus rostratus obtained from hospital water-side market, Yenogoa, Bayelsa State were made into 4 groups (T1,T2,T3 and T4) weighed to obtain the carcass weight, eviscerated and weighed again to obtain the dress weight (0.00g, 250.00g, 500.00g and 800.00g) of cut and pulverized. Carica papaya leaves were mixed with 10 liters of water to which 300g of salt have been added and soaked for 24 hours under ambient conditions. The mixtures were sieved to obtain 0.00%, 2.50%, 5.00% and 8.00% of the leaf extracts. T1 was soaked in 0.00%, T2 in 2.50% for 1 hour before curing with wood smoke in a brick kiln for 4 hours. Cured fish was left overnight to cool and was weighed to obtain the dry weight before being packed in sterile polythene bags for storage. The weights taken were used to compute the weight loss after curing. The mean weight loss for all treatments is 67.00%. Result of the proximate composition of Carica papaya leaf extract pre-treated smoked fish were not significantly (p>0.05) different (moisture: 10.76+ 0.02%, 12.00+0.01%, 12.12+0.11% and 11.88+0.04%; protein: 64.78+0.01%, 63.24+0.02%, 63.97+0.03 and 62.88+0.31%; fat: 11.50+0.20%, 10.99+0.30%, 10.50+0.03 and 9.80+0.05%; ash: 6.85+0.08%, 5.76+0.22%, 5.34+0.13% and 4.98+0.05%; NFE: 12.76+0.05%, 13.50+0.11%, 13.98+0.16% and 14.02+0.03% respectively. Generally, there were no significant (p>0.05) differences among all treatments in different sensory parameters tested. These results showed that pre-treatment of fish with Carica papaya leaf extracts of prior to smoking did not change the proximate composition adversely or hamper consumer acceptance.
KEYWORDS: Carica papaya leaf extracts, Sensory parameters, Distichodus rostratus, Proximate composition.
DETERMINATION OF LIPID PROFILE AMONG MALARIA PATIENTS IN GENERAL HOSPITAL GWADABAWA, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA
1YUSUF SARKINGOBIR, 2MAHMUD MUHAMMAD BELLO,
1Department of Biology Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto ,Nigeria 2Sultan Abdurrahman School of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto,Nigeria.
Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in Nigeria characterized with huge consequences of death and morbidityMalaria cause changes in biochemical parameters of it host.Thus,the objective of this paper is to determine the lipid of profile in malaria patients at General Hospital Gwadabawa,Sokoto,Nigeria.The demographic properties of the study population were revealed. Predominant age range was 11-20 (29.5%) in patients, and 35% in control respondents. Majority of participants were male (48.5% in patients and 55% in control) .Most of participants were Hausa/Fulani 60.5% in patients and 65% in healthy individuals. The lipid profile of the study participants was revealed. The results show diverse levels of Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein ( HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein( LDL), and Very Low Density Lipoprotein ( VLDL) .In both ( control and patients ) ,the result revealed higher levels.The TC showed higher level (181.34+4.44) than in healthy participants (175.30+7.29). TG was higher in control (85.05+4.94) than in patients (72.56+3.85). TG levels in both subjects (patients and healthy ) were within the normal level . HDL in patients was lower ( 47.46+1.19) than in control (49.50+1.49). VLDL level was higher in cases (29.32+1.80) than in control (25.30+1.87).This study revealed diversity in the specific components of lipid profile among the observed patients and healthy people.The exact mechanism for that changes remained to be fully unveiled.
KEYWORDS: Malaria, General Hospital Gwadabawa, lipid profile, erythrocytes
ESTIMATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FUNGAL FERMENTATION OF SOME SPOILED FRUITS.
MALIK, AMINU IMONIKHE, OSESUA, BENJAMIN ANTHONY AND FASIKU OLUWAFEMI OMONIYI
School of Preliminary and Remedial Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1034, Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Spoiled banana, orange and pineapples were fermented using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for citric acid production. The production efficiency of these spoiled fruits was determined by comparing them with the healthy fruits of the same kind (control). The ability of the fermenting fungi was determined by screening the fungal isolates for citric acid production using Czapek dox agar and bromocresol green as indicator. Estimation of citric acid produced was done by pyridine-acetic anhydride method. Of the three spoiled fruits used, spoiled pineapple gave the highest citric acid yield of 6.8g/l (1.4%) and 2.2g/l (0.5%) with both Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus respectively at t-value of 2.50 and p=0.05. Healthy orange gave the highest citric acid yield of 59.1 (21.9%) and 3.7 (0.4%) with both Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus respectively at t-value of 3.59 and p=0.05. Citric acid yield from healthy fruits (control) was higher than the citric acid yield from spoiled fruits.
KEYWORDS: spoiled fruits, healthy fruits, citric acid, fermenting fungi and fungal isolates.
DRUG USE AND EXERCISE INVOLVEMENT ON THE HEALTH STATUS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN OYO STATE NIGERIA.
ARIYO, AYODELE OLUWAKAYODE (Ph.D)
*Department of Physical and Health Education, School of Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.
The study focused on drug use and exercise involvement on the health status of senior secondary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria. In view of the above objective, the study determined to ascertain the extent to which senior secondary school teachers are involved in exercise and find out how the demographic factors such as sex, age, academic qualification and years of service affect exercise involvement of secondary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The research data was collected through a self-developed structured and validated questionnaire. Seven hundred and thirty two (732) sampled participants were used in describing the population on the relevant variables of interest. The simple random sampling technique with replacement was used to select seven (7) local government areas out of eleven (11) local governments in Ibadan Oyo State. A total of fourteen (14) senior secondary schools were selected using the stratified random sampling technique. That implied that two (2) schools emerged from the selected local government areas using the simple random sampling techniques, while purposive sampling was employed to select a total of seven hundred and thirty two (732) respondents who participated in the study. The simple frequency count and percentages were used to describe the findings while inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the significance of each hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level. Three hypotheses were formulated, of which hypothesis one was significant (p<0.05) while hypothesis two and three were not significant (p>0.05). In conclusion there was a positive impact of drug use and exercise involvement on health status of senior secondary school teachers in Oyo state. Based on the findings, recommendations that could enhance involvement in exercise for health benefits are recommended.
KEYWORDS: Exercise, physical activity, physical fitness, low blood pressure, high blood pressure.
DISTRIBUTIONS OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC E. COLI O157:H7 ISOLATED FROM FOOD SAMPLES AND THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DIFFERENT ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN, NIGERIA
FALMATA A. ABADAMA, ISA GULANIC, MARYAM A. JARMAA, FATIMA MOHAMMEDA, YUSUF ALHAJI ISAB, LAWAN ADAMUC
aDepartment of Food Science and Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria bDepartment of Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria cDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Food-borne diseases often follow the consumption of contaminated food-stuffs especially from animal products such as meat from infected animals contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of the study is to determine the distributions of potentially pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 isolated from food samples and their susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents in Maiduguri Metropolitan, Nigeria. A total of 150 different samples was collected and screened for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Sampling and screening was done between July, 2018 and December, 2018, in the various wards of ([A], University of Maiduguri/Tashan Bama area; [B], Custom/Gomboru area; [C], Tashan Baga area) in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to AX in B ward compared to A and C wards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to ST in A, B and C wards. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to N in C ward compared to A and B wards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to GN in A, B and C wards. The distribution of E. coli serotype O157:H7 in the different wards in Maiduguri Metropolitan is with varying susceptibility pattern. Therefore, there is the need for vigorous antibiotic survey, detection and treatment of E. coli associated diseases.
KEYWORDS: E. coli O157:H7, Food Samples, Antimicrobial Agents, Pathogenic, Contaminated, Maiduguri
COUNSELLORS’ PERCEPTION ON COUNSELLING STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS SEXUAL ABUSE FOR MAINTAINING REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AMONG FEMALES IN NIGER STATE: COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS.
*DR. USMAN IDRIS GANA **DR. YAHAYA MUSTAPHA MAKANTA
*Department of Counselling Psychology, IBB University, Lapai, Niger State. (Nigeria) **General Hospital, Minna, Niger State. (Nigeria).
Consequences of sexual abuse among females affect their physical, physiological, social and psychological well-being of victim perpetrators. The present study investigated the counsellors’ perception on counselling strategies to address sexual abuse among females in Niger State. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. This was to provide an accurate description of the phenomena. The target population were all the counsellors in the state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 Muslim and Christian counsellors from both private and public schools. The study developed questionnaire titled “Counsellors’ Perception on Counselling Strategies to Address Sexual Abuse among Females” (CPCSASAF) and was administered to the school counsellors. The questionnaire consists of two sections A and B. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised and tested using mean, mean score and t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level alpha level with reliability of 0.88. The findings revealed that there were no significant difference in the counsellors’ perception on counselling strategies in Niger State, on the basis of school type and religion. The findings revealed among other things, that individual and group counselling, rehabilitative and reconciliatory counselling, cognitive restructuring, community – based counselling were found to be adoptable to impact on sexual abuse victims among females. Conclusion and Recommendations were proffered that counsellors should sensitize students and parents on the consequences of sexual abuse and the need for counsellors to enlighten students on sex education and by organizing debates, drama in the school and talks on sexual abuse by adolescents during P.T.A meetings and through community-based advocacy campaign against sexual abuse and how to maintain reproductive health among females.
KEYWORDS: Perception, Sexual abuse, Females, Reproductive Health, Counselling Implication.
POTENCY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS ON NEVIRAPINE INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS
*MARYAM UMAR MAIGARI **FATIMA UMAR MAIGARI ***ALHASSAN WUDIL
*Federal College of Education Tech Gombe- **Gombe State University, Gombe-Nigeria ***Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria.
The potency of aqueous leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis on Nevirapine (an anti-retroviral drug) induced liver damage was carried out in Wister albino rats. Forty (40) rats were randomly distributed into 8 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as the normal control and was administered with distilled water only, while group 2 served as test control. Groups 2 to 8 were administered with Nevirapine 6mg/kg for six weeks to induce liver damage after which groups 3 to 8 were administered with 100, 200mg/kg of the aqueous T.occidentalis extract respectively for seven days. Groups 5 to 8 were co-administered with Nevirapine and the same doses of the aqueous vegetable extract for six weeks. Administration of the drug and the aqueous vegetable extracts was done orally. At the end of the treatments, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase as well as malondialdehyde, total and direct bilirubin concentrations were determined. The result showed that the group administered Nevirapine alone (test control) has significant increases (P ˂ 0.05) in the above biochemical parameters compared with normal control. This shows that Nevirapine administration for 6weeks has induced hepatotoxicity. Administration of aqueous T.occidentalis extracts to groups 3 to 8 resulted in significant decreases in the liver enzyme activities and bilirubin concentrations compared with the test control group. The result of co-administration also showed significant decreases (P ˂ 0.05) in the above biochemical parameters. Results f this study indicates that the aqueous vegetable extracts can provide both curative and protective effects against Nevirapine hepatotoxicity.
KEYWORDS: Liver damage, leaf extract, Potency, Telfairia occidentalis, Nevirapine