Hummingbird Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (HUJAAT) Vol.19 (1) December, 2019

Hummingbird Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (HUJAAT)

Vol. 19 (1) December, 2019. ISSN: 2278-8779

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997



The Effect of Three Pre-Germination Treatments on the Germination and Early Growth Studies of Tectona Grandis (Teak) For Rural Afforestation


Amadi  D.C.A;  Jethro  Glory;  Kwada  D.K and Thlama D.M. 

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria.


Decreasing natural timber resources have resulted in increasing interest in forest plantations as an efficient timber source and a means to reduce pressure on natural forests. At present, teak ranks among the top five tropical hardwood species in terms of plantation area established worldwide. Forest production and sustainability has been a great problem in Nigeria due to deforestation and degradation. Seed dormancy is one of the major problems of afforestation of Teak  germination due to it stony impermeable endocarp. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the effect of three different pre germination treatments on the germination and early growth studies on Tectona grandis. The study was conducted at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Nursery, Federal University Wukari located in Taraba state of Nigeria. Seed lots collected from Federal College of Forestry Jos, Nigeria were subjected to three treatments: alternate soaking and drying for two weeks, socking in water for two weeks, and scarification by fire. They were then planted in Poly pots of size 18 x 25cm filled with two potting mixtures and two plots for each treatment. Each plot had 12 poly post planted with 2 seeds. The treatments lay in a complete randomize block design (CRBD) and were placed under the shade and watered in the early morning hours every day. After the germination process at two leaves stage the seedlings were thinned for early growth studies. Data collected among others include germination count / percentage, leaf count, seedling diameter and height using veneer caliper, meter rule and physical counting. The data generated were subjected to two way analysis of variance ANOVA using SPSS software package. Statistical tools such as mean, percentages, bar charts and pie charts were also used. Results showed that alternating soaking and drying for 14days enhanced fast germination of teak seed, height and number of leaves of the seedling and seedling diameter. Scarification by fire also had a significant effect on the germination of teak seed, seedling height, number of leaves and seedling diameter while soaking in water for 14days did not have significant effect on the germination of teak. From this result it implies that alternating soaking and drying for two weeks is the best pre-germination treatment recommended to enhance germination of Tactona grandis.

Keyword: Germination, Pre-Germination, Rural Afforestation, Tactona grandis, Treatments.



Assessing the Effects of Rainfall Variability in Parts of Benue State, Nigeria


1Iornongo Terseer, 2T.I Yahaya, 3Ojoye Samsedeen, 4Eli Kolo Tsado

1, 2&3 Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna 4Department of Agriculture, Federal University of Technology Minna



 The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rainfall variability in parts of Benue State. CMAP rainfall data were collected using orbiting satellite for the period of 30 years from 1988 to 2017 over Benue State. Data collected were subjected to various statistical analysis which include Coefficient of Variation which was used to determine the rainfall variability and Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) which was used to show the tendency of drought. The result shows that the mean rainfall distribution is normal since the mean annual precipitation is greater than 1000mm. The precipitation Variability Index in all the selected LGAs within the three zones indicates that the tendency of drought is much higher in the Northern zone of the State followed by the West and the South. Vandeikya LGA in the Western zone have Precipitation Variability Index of 19.50% in August which is an indication of least variability of moisture with high rainfall intensity, it is concluded that, in all the zones in Benue State agricultural activities should be carried out during the month of May, hence the Precipitation Variability Index values in April exceeds 30% which is an indication of higher rainfall variability..

Keyword: CMAP, Drought, Moisture, Precipitation, Variability.



Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in Tilapia and Catfish Collected from Saki Dam, Oyo State, Nigeria


Lawal, I.A; Azeez, G.O, Imran, M O and Adepoju, R.A

Department Of Science Laboratory Technology, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. PMB 021, Saki.



 The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-nutrients, proximate and mineral composition in cat-fish and tilapia fish collected from a dam located  in Saki. However, the gills, body and head each of a set of the sampled fish was subjected to digestion and another set were dried and then ground separately before taken for laboratory analysis.  The results showed that all the parts tested contain trace amounts of the elements analysed.  For tilapia fish, Cd concentration was the same at each part of the fish (0.28±0.00mg/kg), the Pb, Zn, Fe, and Cr concentrations ranged from 0.50±2.17 to 5.22±1.51mg/Kg, 0.86±0.19 to 2.86±0.45mg/Kg, 0.74±0.03 to 1.93±0.01mg/Kg and 0.95±0.20 to 1.59±0.19mg/Kg respectively. Pb was the metal with highest concentration of the metal determined and it was found at the head of the fish. In cat fish, the Cd was not detected in the gill but its highest concentration (0.04±0.01mg/Kg) was found in the head. Pb , Zn,Fe and Cr concentration ranged from 0.12±1.13 to 2.99±0.65mg/Kg, 1.24±0.31 to 6.13±0.75mg/Kg, 0.95±0.02 to 1.26±0.10mg/Kg and 0.41±0.10 to 0.56±0.26mg/Kg respectively. Zn was found as the element with highest concentration and was detected at body.  Cd concentrations were generally low in all the samples when compare to the permissible limit of WHO.  Pb concentrations were higher than the permissible limit in almost all parts of the samples , the concentrations of  Zn were lower than permissible limit given by WHO,  the iron levels were below permissible limit stated by WHO.  It can be concluded that the contamination of P b in the fish samples may pose threat to human health.

Keyword: Catfish, Evaluation, Heavy Metal Contents, Collected, Saki Dam.



A Comparism of the Effect of Some Organic Wastes on the Rate of Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Spent Engine Oil Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometer


Muhammad, R.G., Machido, D.A, Ado, S.A., Atta.H.I, Bello I.A



Potential of some organic wastes (chicken droppings, cowpea haulms and groundnut haulms) to stimulate the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by the indigenous bacteria was investigated. The rate of biodegradation was studied for twelve weeks. Percentage Nitrogen and Phosphorous content in the contaminated soil do not fulfil the requirement for efficient degradation of spent engine oil because they are low in contaminated soil, hence the need for addition of supplements. The Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria found in the soil belongs to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and Flavobacteria. The gravimetric analysis of TPH in spent engine oil showed 84.42%, 71.81%, 70.85% degradation in CD, CPH and GNH amended soils respectively, while 47.36% was recorded in control. Biostimulation efficiency (B.E %) of the organic wastes was determined and result revealed that the organic wastes can stimulate biodegradation of TPH in the following order CD (43.89)>CPH34.04)>GNH (33.24). Dynamics of soil bioremediation was also determined and high values of Correlation determination (R2): (CD=0.9687, CPH=0.9579, GNH=0.937; CL=0.9883) obtained showed that biodegradation data fitted well into the first-order kinetic model. The chromatograms of oil extracted from soil before and after bioremediation using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis of extracted oil, showed varied peaks representing different hydrocarbon compounds as well as alcohols and fatty acids. At the end of this study, highest percentage degradation of hydrocarbon was recorded in soil treated with chicken droppings (73.9 %), 63.18% and 53.8% reduction was observed in CPH and GNH treated soils respectively, while control soil had the lowest (33.28%) percentage hydrocarbon loss after bioremediation.  The organic wastes used in this study, can complement the use of more expensive and unfriendly physical and chemical methods of remediating contaminated soil.

Keyword: Biodegradation, Bioremediation, Indigenous Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria, kinetics Model, petroleum   hydrocarbon, Biostimulation-Efficiency



Water Management in the Face of Climate Change: A Good Irrigation Practice as an Adaption Technique towards a Better Streamflow Discharges of Hadejia River System


1Abdullahi N.I., 1Ismail A., 1Adie D.B, 1Ajibike M.A, and 1Ijimdiya S.J.

1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU Zaria, Nigeria



There is growing concern towards effective water resources management in the face of climate change, phenomena that lead to a mounting pressure on stream flow discharge. Consequently, there is need to identify options towards adapting the phenomena. This paper is set out to serve as an advocate for climate change adaptation technique in sub-Saharan Africa, where it proposed irrigation practices that have a tendency of freeing more water that will increase stream flow discharge for downstream users. A water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) was used to model for stream flow discharge along Hadejia River System, Nigeria. The model was ran from 2017-2050 under five different developmental scenarios; Business as Usual scenario (BAU), expanded area scenario (EA), Irrigation Efficiency Scenario (IE), Irrigation Practice Scenario (IP) and Combination of Interventions scenario (COI) representing different irrigation practice. The model results shows average stream flow discharge below Hadejia River head flow to be 40 m3/s. The average stream flow discharge towards the outflow of the river system was found to be 59.3 m3/s, 58.0 m3/s, 58.3 m3/s, 59.9 m3/s, and 64.8 m3/s under BAU, EA, IE, IP and COI respectively. The COI demonstrated an ability of increasing stream flow discharge by 11%. The study concludes that adopting an appropriate irrigation practice will result into a better stream flow discharge.  Finally, the paper recommends for shifting back to more appropriate irrigation practice.

Keyword: Climate Change, Hadejia River, Stream flow Discharge, Water Resources Management.



An Overview of the Cosmological Big Bang Theory of the Universe


Emmanuel Leghara Ikpendu1 and  Datti Ahmed Shinge2

Department of Industrial Physics Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli Anambrastate.1   College of Agriculture Damaturu, Yobe State.2



The most popular theory of our universe’s origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that galaxies are moving away from each other with great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force. This paper therefore reviews the big bang theory and its observational evidences and concludes with the present understanding of the Big Bang.

Keyword: Galaxy, Universe, Big Bang, Matter Atom and Expansion



Contaminant Status of Waste Dump Site in Mubi Metropolis of Adamawa State-Nigeria


Elihu, A.,Mshelia, Z B and Rufus, P

Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi. Adamawa State-Nigeria.



 Municipal waste dumps significantly increases ground water vulnerability and pollution risk. Various processes of contaminant transport such as advection and hydrodynamic dispersion transport leachates from dumpsites to ground water. Ground water and soil samples collected from Kolere and Wuro Gude waste dumpsite in Mubi revealed the following chemical and microbial concentrations above WHO /EU guidelines for potable water, lead (Pb) 0.01mg/l, copper (Cu) 2.0mg/L, Zinc (Zn) 3.0mg/L, manganese (Mn) 0.5mg/L, compared to result obtained Lead (Pb) 9.61mg/L, Manganese (Mn) 11.84mg/l. Zinc (Zn) 3.14mg/L and total microbial count 156±0.00. These indicate probable pollution and thus pose risks to human health and the environment. Most highly hazardous substances present in these contaminated water are colourless, ordourless and highly dangerous when ingested even in very minute concentrations. Bioaccumulation of hazardous substances within human tissues as a result of chronic ingestion of these ground waters poses serious risks to human health and environment; as certain endocrine disruption effects have been attributable to their ingestion.

Keyword: Contaminants Status, Waste Dumpsite, Heavy metals, Mubi Metropolis and Adamawa State.



Appraisal of Fuel Wood Consumption Trend in Jere Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria


Gupa, M.A. *1;   Sa’idu, M. 1; Zira, B.D2; Dantani, A. 3; Abubakar, A. 4; Danturai, S.A. 5 and Abubakar, B.5

1,2Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Borno State. 1Department of Forestry Technology, College of Agriculture, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic Kazaure, Jigawa State. 3,4Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Bayaro University Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State. 5Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, P.M.B. 3244, Kano State.



This paper was carried out to assess the fuel wood consumption trend in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State Nigeria. Data of the research were collected through a survey and the used of structured questionnaire that was administered to 160 respondents randomly. Four out of twelve districts were randomly selected. Out of the selected districts, 40 respondents were randomly selected based on gender. From each area 10 men and 30 women were purposively interviewed using structured and open ended questionnaires. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages). From the analyzed data, 70% of the respondents obtained their fuel wood from market and 56.9% consumed 3-4 bundle of fuel wood every day, moreover, 70.6% of the respondents spent N100-200 for cooking per day. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents indicated that forest provides fuel wood.  However it was evident from the research that, our forest is always depleting as a result of overharvesting and pressure mantled by the respondent is search of fuel wood and charcoal and therefore recommends the establishment of community forest and plantation by the community members so as to prevent the depletion of the forest. The government and policy makers should also provide alternative sources of energy in cheap way to the populace.

Keyword: Assessment, Fuel wood, Pattern, Utilization



Soil-Crop Relationship in Gully-Impacted Farmlands along Ata Obio Akpa Watershed, Oruk Anam, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


1Nyetiobong William, 1Edu Inam, 2Samuel Yakubu, 3Solomon Ikpe

1International Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research, University of Uyo, Uyo 2Department of Geography, Osun State University, Osun 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu.



Gully erosion subjects soils to breakdown of equilibrium, which is detrimental to crop production. This work examined the soil-crop relationship in gully impacted farmlands along Ata Obio Akpa watershed, Oruk Anam, Akwa Ibom State. Twenty four soil samples were collected from identified gully farmlands and control plots at two farms in the community selected through stratified random sampling for physicochemical properties of soils. Soil samples were collected using hand auger at two depths (topsoil 0-15cm and subsoil – 15- 30cm). Two hypotheses which stated that “there is no significant variation in soil properties between gully-impacted and control plots” and that “there is no significant effect of gully soil on crop production”. T-test statistic at p< 0.05 revealed that the properties of soil vary between gully-impacted and control plot. The Regression Statistic shows that B.Sat and ECEC contributed more at r>70% and p<0.05 than other variables which contributed low and moderately at p>0.05, with r>60% and r<60% respectively. The regression model showed the trend of input and output at one unit increase, soil properties increase at different proportions where B.Sat and ECEC had the highest input to crop production. Also, this research discovered that crop production was unstable within the same terrain under gully influence where the upper slope produced differently from the middle slope as well as the valley bottom. From the study, it can be clearly stated that the dynamics of soil properties influenced by gully scenario have determined the farm output with respect to topographic points. Therefore, it is recommended that proper attention be given to this devastated terrain so as to reclaim the value of the agro-ecological community and sustainable enhance crop production efficiency and environmental resource management in the region.

Keyword: Gully, soil, Crop, Farms, Oruk Anam



Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Spacing on Growth (Plant Height) of Rhodes Grass (Chloris Gayana Tan) in the Dry Sub Humid Zone of Sokoto Nigeria


Isa M Mabu1, Mohammed Bukar1 * Ibrahim Jibrin

1Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University Damaturu. 2 Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University Damaturu. 3 Department of Agric Education, Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua.



Ruminant livestock in Nigeria depends largely on natural grasslands that are nutritionally poor due to low potential for natural forage production. Therefore, in order to meet the feed requirements of the ruminants animals in Nigeria; there is need to increase the forage production in the savanna zones of the country. A field experiment was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons at Centre for Agriculture and Pastoral Research (CAPAR) of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and inter row spacing on growth of Rhodes grass. Five nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kgNha-1) and three inter row spacing (30, 50 and 70cm) were used, making fifteen treatments combinations, which were laid out in a RCBD replicated four times. The result reveals that application of 160 kgNha-1 consistently recorded higher values (P<005) for the plant height of Rhodes grass in the study area as compared to 0 kg Nha-1 which produces significantly (P>005) lower plant heights. Inter-row spacing of 70cm showed superiority among the treatments on the plant heights measured compared to 50 and 30cm spacings. It can be concluded that application of 160 kgNha-1 and 70 cm spacing gave higher (P<0.05) plant height of Rhodes grass in the study area and thus it’s believe that increase in plant height is accompanied with an increase in number of leaves, leave width, number of leaves and  the herbage yield respectively.

Keyword: CAPAR, Plant height, Rhodes grass, Nitrogen fertilizer and inter row spacing



Growth Response of Lowland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) to Seedling Age, Method and Rate of Nitrogen Applinction in Nigeria Savannah


Babaji M.1* Mahmud M.2, Hassan H. A.3, Tasiu H. M4

1 & 2Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando-Kaduna 4Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State



Field trials were conducted at the Research farms of the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru and Kadawa irrigation Research Station during 2017 dry season, to determine the effects of seedling age, rate and method of nitrogen application on lowland rice in Nigerian Savannah. Treatments consisted of four seedlings ages (2, 3, 4, and 5 WAS), two method of nitrogen application (broadcasting and deep placement), and three rate of nitrogen fertilizer (75, 100, and 125 kg ha-1). These were arranged in a split plot design with factorial combination of rate and method of N fertilizer application assigned to main plot and seedling age was placed in sub plot with three replications. The results revealed that, rice transplanted at 3WAS performed better at all sampling periods in both locations, on all the parameters measured during the experiment, such as plant height, leaf area, total dry matter, except at 9WAT on crop growth rate, at Kadawa. Deep placement of N fertilizer resulted in better performance in almost all the sampling periods at both locations, on all the parameters measured, except on crop growth rate 9WAT at Samaru. While at Kadawa on crop growth rate. The results of the trials further showed that, application of 125 kg N ha-1 resulted in the highest performance in almost at all the parameters in both locations, except at Samaru on crop growth rate at 6WAT. While at Kadawa on crop growth rate at 9WAT, and on plant height at 6WAT, in all locations were not significant at 3WAT. Regression analysis showed that linear model was best fit for all the locations. Based on the results it could be conclude that transplants of 3WAS ages with 125 kg ha-1 applied as deep placement of N fertilizer gave better growth of rice.

Keyword: seedling age, rate and method of Nitrogen application



Assessing the Effects of Planting Seasons on Seedling Damping-Off (Aspergillus Niger) for Sustainable Groundnut Production in the Semi-Arid Zone of Northeastern Nigeria


  1. Mustapha and M. B. Jidda*

Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.



Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is not commonly grown in the dry season in northern Nigeria except for the preliminary trials on some improved groundnut varieties along with local checks which showed possibility of its production during this season. It has been traditionally a rainfed crop sown at the onset of the rainy season. Two trials were conducted during these periods to assess their effects and that of groundnut variety on pre-emergence damping-off and yield. Dry season trial was conducted from March 2 to June 10 (2016), and the rainy season trial was done between July 13 to September 26 (2016). Four varieties comprising two improved and two local varieties were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) during each planting season and replicated three times. The results showed that planting seasons had significant (P≤0.01) effect on the seedling emergence, disease incidence and pod yield. Disease incidence ranged from 1.5 to 15.3 % and from 32.5 to 35.0 % in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Mean disease incidence across the varieties was reduced by 27.3 % and seedling emergence was increased by 30.9 % in the dry season compared to rainy season. While rainy season increased pod yield by 853.8 kg/ha over the dry season. Variety also significantly (P≤0.05) affected the parameters measured in both seasons without any consistent pattern. The results suggest that with reduced disease incidence, an encouraging pod yield, available water for irrigation, and avoiding the hottest and the coolest months, dry season is an important second groundnut cropping option for sustainable groundnut production in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Nigeria.

Keyword: Groundnut Production, Plabting Seasons, Assessing, Effect, Northeastern, Seedling.



Socio-Economic Survey of Artisanal Fisher Folks in Three Selected    Areas along River Kaduna


Musa, I.M1., Ndrimbita, W.L2., Musa, A3

1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University Dutse 2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Maiduguri 3College of Agric and Animal Science, Mando Road, ABU,Zaria.



The present study surveyed the socio-economic status of   some selected sixty (60) artisanal fishermen from Guza, Ungwan mu’azu and Gamji portions of River Kaduna with the objective to examine the state of indigenous (artisanal) fisheries sector in Kaduna state and to determine ways of developing it.  The fishermen were selected randomly and data was obtained by survey methods and analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentage.The study showed that output of artisanal fishing is positively associated with labour, capital, operation costs, fishing experience and educational level. Majority of the active fishermen fall in the 40-49 years age group, which represents 43.3% while 50% of the fishermen have a fishing experience of more than 15 years, with 67% having Quranic and Primary education. Male fishermen represents 88.3% and  fishermen who operate on a full time basis are 65%. The fishing methods/gears  utilized are cast nets, hook and line and trap (35%),while canoe and gourd as craft(36%). High fishing catch period is represented by 58.3%, while 38.3% represents period with bigger sized fish.There are no restricted fishing area or zone and no prohibition to size of fish captured. The common fish species captured are Hetrobranchus bidorsalis, Clarias gariepinus, Gymnarchus niloticus, Auchenoglarres occidontalis, Tilapia faciatus, Hemichromis faciatus, Hyperopsis bebe. The study reveals the poor state of the fisher folk with little or no formal education and non- governmental participation to help strategise the capture fisheries for meaningful productivity.

Keyword: Education level, Fisher folks, Socio economics, Profession, Fish gear



Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Fish Cured with Two Energy Sources.


Ebochuo, V.C*1; Emuka, E.C1; Onyeme, O1; Ezennadi, P.O1 and Ahaotu, E.O2

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria.



The proximate composition and organoleptic properties of silver catfish (Bagrus filamentosus) cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood and Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) were determined. Fourteen pieces of Bagrus filamentosus weighing between 500g and 600g were purchased, killed, deguted and washed to remove blood and slime. The fish were divided into two groups. Each group were immersed in ten liters of water that was mixed with 300g of salt to get 3% brine solution and allowed to stand for an hour respectively. The first group was cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood while the second group was cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) for four hours respectively. Cured samples were allowed to cool at ambient temperature for 12 hours and were packed in a sterile black polythene bag before being sent for proximate and organoleptic analysis. The result of the proximate analysis showed that fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) higher dry matter than the same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (92.40b+/-0.10 and 90.00a+/-0.10). Fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) lesser moisture content than same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (8.90b +/-0.02 and 14.40a+/- 0.01). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had insignificantly higher (P>0.05) protein content than Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) cured fish (59.98 +/- 0.09 and 61.11b +/- 0.10). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had significantly (P<0.05) higher lipid content than fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (18.71a+/-0.08 and 10.10b +/-0.10). The result of the organoleptic analysis showed that the parameters taste and appearance for Bagrus filamentosus cured with wood and gas were significantly (P<0.05) different scores. However, aroma, mouth feel and general acceptability so treated fish were not significantly different (P>0.05). The two sources of energy could be used to cure fish since the parameters examined fall within the recommended ranges.

Keyword: Proximate composition, Organoleptic properties, Alchornea cordifolia wood, Bagrus filamentosus, Kainji Gas Klin (KGK), cured fish.



Environmental Catastrophes: Man the Culprit


1Atanu, O.S. and 2Abodenyi, V. A.

1,2Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.



 The environment is at the threshold of the major catastrophes; this is not unconnected with man and his activities. Sometimes man’s disregard and ignorance can result in a redefinition of the quality of life on earth. Human activities have exposed many part of our natural environment to considerable risk. Scientific and technology advancement have been used to understand and harness the world’s resources but not always to the greater benefit of mankind.  Short –term economic gains tend to outweigh most other considerations. Agriculture, energy, manufacturing, transportation, exploration, housing/urban development, etc. are components contributing to global environmental problems such as climate change, deforestation, desertification, acid rain, erosion, ozone layer depletion, famine, diseases etc. This paper attempts to examine some of the enumerated consequences of man’s activities and proffer solutions/suggestions on how to avert them.

Keyword: Climate Change, Catastrophes and Human activities.



Performance of Broilers Fed Four Feed Types: A Source of Livelihood for Small Holder Farmers


*Kuttu Julius Musa *Augustina Ndu *Suleiman Abbas Jama **Cornelius Anthony Edet (Ph.D) & ***Kuttu Arki Musa

*Department of Agricultural Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational) Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State. **Department of Educational Psycology, Guidiance and Counselling. School of General Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State Nigeria   ***Bejafta Chemical and Agro Allied Services Nigeria LTD (Bejafta Fertilizer) No. 30 Rayfield Road, Opposite Steel Rolling Mills Quarters Jos, Plateau State



The experiment was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed four commercial feed types as source of livelihood for small holder poultry farmers. The experiment was conducted at the Poultry and Research Farm, Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, Kano State, using 84 Obasanjo broiler chicks, 12 cages were used and 7 birds were allocated per cage. Four treatments were allocated at random as T1 = Livestock broiler supper starter, T2 = Chukun broiler supper starter, T3 = Vital broiler supper starter and T4 = Feggen fama broiler supper starter. All treatments were replicated trice. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Generated data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by the use of SPSS version 20, were differences among means was separated using Tukey at 5% probability level. The result showed that, there was significant difference (p<0.05) on the means of four commercial feed types fed to broilers. T1, T2, T3 and T4 at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 was significantly different (p<0.05) on left over feeds (g) on broiler performance and there was also a significant difference on weight gain of broilers on T1, T2, T3 and T4 at weeks 1 to 5. In conclusion, T2 showed better performance with the highest value of 1,515.4g compared to other treatments and is hereby recommended for small holder poultry farmers to boost their source of livelihood.

Keyword: Performance Broilers, Livelihood, Small Holder, Farmers.



Analysis of the Factorial Effects of Variety and Spacing on the Yield of Sesame Seed (Sesamum Indicum) Using Split-Plot Design


M.S. Galadima1*, M.A. Dauda2, M.A. Wudiri3 and U. Hassan4

1,2,4Statistics Department, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria. 3Agricultural Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria.



Field trial was carried out in the rainy season of 2018 to study the effect of Variety and Spacing on the yield of Sesame Seed in the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria. A split-plot design was used with Variety as the main plot Factor and Spacing as the subplot Factor. The experiments consisted of four levels of Variety (NCRIBEN 01M, NCRIBEN 02M, NCRIBEN 04E, NCRIBEN 05E) and four levels of Spacing (10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25cm). The Data obtained from this Experiment was analysed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The result of the analysis shows that Spacing had a significant effect on the yield of Sesame Seed (kilogram per hectare) with 10cm and 15cm intra row Spacing giving higher yield than 20cm and 25cm (with 65cm inter row spacing). However, the effect of spacing on 1000 grain weight, yield per plant, capsule length, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule was not significant; also Variety and interaction between Spacing and Variety had no significant effects on the yield of the Crop. Furthermore, this research had shown that the higher yield, in kilogram per hectare, observed for low level of spacing was due to the relatively higher population of plant on the plots where the spacing was low.

Keyword: Split-Plot Design, ANOVA, Factor, Spacing, Variety.



Performance of Habanero Pepper (Capsicum Chinense L.) Variety as Influenced by Farmyard Manure, Weed Control and Intra Row Spacing in Northern Guinea Savannah.


  1. Y. Abubakar, L. Aliyu, D. I. Adekpe, M. A. Mahadi, B. A. Babaji, A. Ma’azu, M. S. Abdulsalam. A. Danjuma

*National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja. **Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ***Department of Agronomy, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State. ****Centre for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Jos.



 The study show the effect of farmyard manure at 0, 10 and 15 t/ha six weed control treatments which included application of pendimethalin at 1.5 and 2.0 Kg a.i/ha each at pre-transplanting and also post-transplanting and  three hoe weeding at 3, 6 and 9 week after transplanting (WAT), weedy check and two intra row spacings 20 and 40 cm on growth and yield of habanero pepper were evaluated under field condition in 2015 and 2016 at the experimental site of Kaduna Agricultural Development Project (KADP) located at Maigana, Soba Local Area) and the research farm of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (located at Samaru  in the Northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria. Farmyard manure application significantly increased crop injury score, crop vigour score, number of leave, total dry matter and fresh fruit yield per hectare. However, 15 t/ha of applied manure significantly produced higher growth and yield component of pepper,  hoe weeding at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and 1.5 and 2.0 kg a.i/ha of pendimethalin significantly produced higher crop vigour score, number of leave , total dry matter and fruit yield. However, no manure treatment, weedy check and 20 cm produced higher crop injury score. Application of 15 t/ha of farmyard manure and hoe weeding with 40 cm intra row spacing resulted in higher yield of habanero pepper.

Keyword: Farmyard manure, weed control, intra-row spacing, Dry matter and habanero pepper Capsicum chinense L.



Genetic Advance in Heat Tolerant Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines Using Conventional and Molecular Maker Techniques


1k.K. Mala*, 2d. Aminu, 1m.A. Dawud, 1a. Ahmed, 1y. Yahaya

1Cereals Research Department, Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria



 Field trials were conducted at Lake Chad Research Institute Wheat Research Farm at Dadinkowa, Gombe State-Nigeria, during 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 dry seasons. The objectives of this study was undertaken to identify and evaluate heat tolerant lines from bread wheat, the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with yield and selected agronomic traits, and to explore the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in improving wheat heat tolerance. One hundred and twenty-six (126) wheat lines were screened in breeding nursery and twenty-four (24) lines were selected based on high yielding during the 2014/2015 dry season. Heat stress was imposed through staggered sowing. Normal sowing (15th November) was non-stress and late sowing (6th January) resulted in terminal heat stress. The selected lines were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in triplicates during 2015/2016 dry season in plots measuring 3×2 m with 6 rows and 30cm row spacing apart. The analysis of variance for individual environment was computed using the General Linear Model (GLM) SAS version 9.2. Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit was used for DNA extraction. 24 lines were selected for DNA extraction. Total genomic DNA was extracted by Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) method. Total of 5 functional markers and 7 linked Random DNA Markers to the traits of interest were used for genotyping the bread wheat cultivars. The means square from analysis of variance for the individual environment for growth and yield characters under normal and heat stressed condition indicated that highly significant differences were observed between genotypes. The results indicated that the number of alleles range from 1- (Dreb-B1) to 9- (Xgwm577), genetic diversity index varied greatly among the loci from 0.0000 in case of Dreb-B1 to 0.8471 in case of Xgwm577. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value were from 0.0000 (Dreb-B1) to 0.8296 (Xgwm577). The lowest genetic distance was recorded between accessions; 4402 and 4401, 4403 and 4401, 4403 and 4402, 4418 and 4417 at genetic distance level of 0.083, indicating that these accessions are closely related to each other. Highest genetic dis­tance was observed between accessions 4409 and 4412, accessions 4413 and 4412, accessions 4414 and 4412, accessions 4420 and 4412, accessions 4406 and 4412, and accessions 4408 and 4412 (0.750). Cluster analysis had grouped the accessions into 5 groups at a genetic distance level of 0.15. In conclusion, this study had extensively investigated and established vital molecular and phenotyphic information for identifying promising genotypes with good breeding values. In this study genotypes 4404, 4408, 4410, 4411, 4413, 4414, and 4420 was identified as top yielder as such could be explored for resistance lines against heat stress.

Keyword: DNA, Genetic, QTL, Wheat



An Investigation of Anti-Enterobacterial Properties of Sub-Fractions of Mirabilis Jalapa Leaves Extracts.


1Mubarak Salihu Bakwai, 1Yusuf Sarkingobir, 2Abubakar Saadu, 3Malami Dikko 

1Department of Biology Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture Wurno, Sokoto state, Nigeria 3Sultan Abdurrahman College of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto, Nigeria.



This paper investigated the anti-enterobacterial properties of Mirabilis jalapa leaves extracts. Soxhlet was used to sub-fractionate the pulverized dried leaves using organic solvents in an increasing order of polarity. Then, each sub-fraction was tested for anti-enterobacterial properties invitro. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration ( MBC) were determined  respectively. The result shows that, ethylacetate posed the highest zone of Inhibition of organisms (B. cereus, E. coli, S. dysenteriae and S.typhi).Whereas, the least MIC and MBC were exerted by 2.5mg/ml and 5mg/ml for ethylacetate Sub-fractions, then the  other sub-fractions had 5mg/ml and 10mg/ml respectively. S. faecalis and V. cholerae were generally resistant to all the tested fractions. Thus, ethylacetate of M. jalapa is active on selected pathogenic enterobacteria.

Keyword: Anti-enterobacterial properties, Mirabilis jalapa, E. coli, S. dysenteriae, Sohxlet extraction,



An Estimation of Profit Efficiency among Aquaculture Catfish Producers in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria


1Tijani, B. A., 1Tijjani, H. And 2Abdullahi, M.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science (CAAS), Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando Road, Kaduna, Nigeria.



This study estimated profit efficiency among aquaculture catfish producers in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Five (5) wards were purposively selected out of the existing fifteen (15) wards in the area. These were areas where fish farmers are predominantly found. The wards are Gamboru I, Gwange, Gamboru II, Bolori and Bulabulin. One hundred and fifty (150) catfish farmers would be randomly and proportionately selected from the five wards for the study. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary information sources. The analytical tools used for this study includes descriptive statistic and Stochastic Frontier Profit Function Analysis. The finding indicates that the coefficient of total kilogram of catfish raised, catfish farm size, cost of fingerlings, cost of hired labour and cost of family labour were all positive and significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while cost of feed was negative and not significant. The result also shows that all the aquaculture catfish producers considered in this study were profit inefficient. The result also reveals that age farmer squared, educational level, catfish farm income and extension contact were negative and significant at 1% and 10% levels respectively, while household size, access to credit facilities and membership catfish producers association were positive and significant at 5% and 10% levels respectively. The study recommended that aquaculture catfish producers should fully participate in the various activities of their association in order to enhance their productivity as well as profit efficiency.

Keyword: Profit Efficiency, Aquaculture Catfish, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Assessment of Entrepreneurial Innovation in Cassava Processing for Value Creation in Abeokuta, Nigeria


*Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo, **Akinyele, Esther Feyisayo & *Elegbede, Timilehin Olamide

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria.



This research seeks to examine entrepreneurial innovation on cassava processing for value creation in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The study examined the impact of process innovation on cassava yield, to ascertain the relationship between product innovation and customer patronage, the effect of service innovation on business market coverage and how creative thinking affects enterprise competitive advantage. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was structures in line with Likert’s six-point scale and was checked for reliability using a pilot survey method. The test of hypothesis revealed that there is statistically significant relationship between process innovation and cassava yield. (r =0.285, p<.002). The second hypothesis revealed that there is a significant relationship between product innovation and customer’s patronage (r =.113, p<.0839). The third hypothesis reveled that there was positive relationship between Service innovation and business market coverage (r =0.423, r=0.068 p<.005) respectively. The study applied correlation and multiple regression approach and establishes empirical support for some conjectures made in the literatures. Given the importance of cassava which serves as a very important food for majority of the Nigeria populace, it then becomes inevitable to carry-out this study. This finding contrasted somewhat with results of comparable earlier studies which had shown that adding value to the production and processing of cassava help improve and increase the yield of the tuber. Since the tuber is one of the major food of an average Nigerian due to its cost. The study therefore has been able to find the different innovations that can be added to the production as well as processing of cassava so as to increase its value, create more jobs and make the economy to be buoyant.

Keyword: Business market coverage, Cassava, Entrepreneurial innovation, Product innovation, Service innovation, Value creation.


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