MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
Vol. 9 No. 9 (MJMBP) JUNE, 2019
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A SURVEY OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS USED LOCALLY IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA IN EDO STATE
IYEKEKPOLOR R. M., 0. LYEKOWA, D. O ERHABOR, L. O. EDUWUIROFO, J. O. AKINBOLADE, AND H. OLIGIE
Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City.
Four medicinal plants namely; stigmaphyllon ovatum (Amazon vine) Cav; Euphorbia hirta (cat’s hair), L. Caju (cashew plant), and magnifera indica (Mango)L were investigated for their phytochemical constituents due to their local use in the treatment of malaria in Edo State. S. ovatum (powdered leaves, 89g); E. hirta (powdered whole plant, 34g); Caju (powdered leaves, 62g) and M. indica (powdered leaves, 53g) were extracted with a soxhlet extractor and solvent removed by rotary evaporator. Phytochemical screening was performed with standard methods. Tannins and steroids were not present in S. ovatum and E. hirta respectively. However, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and flavonoids whose medicinal implication are known were present.
KEYWORDS: phytochernical; S. ovatum; E. hirta; Caju, M. indica, phytochemical
TOXICITY STUDIES OF CASSIA SINGUENA IN ALBINO RATS
1*A. A. EBBO, A. M. SANI, 1S.M. ISMAIL AND 2A. BELLO AND 3Y.M. LIMAN
1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, 3Department Of Animal Health, Collage Of Agriculture Sokoto State Polytechnic, Sokoto
Following aqueous extraction that yielded 12.5% yield, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Cassia singuena were conducted on Albino rat. The LD50 was found to be ≥ 5000mg/kg. There were no significant (P≥0.05) changes between experimental groups A, B and C that received 500, 1000 and 1500mg/kg orally and the control group D that recorded in terms of hematological, serum biochemical, electrolyte and gross pathology changes observed. However there was significant decrease in weight (P< 0.05) in the experimental groups in the 1st week of the 28days daily administration of the extract, it can therefore be inferred that the extract is safe by OECD standard, having LD50 ≥ 5000mg/kg orally in rats.
KEYWORDS: Sub-Chronic Toxicity, Ld50, Hematological, Serum Biochemical, Electrolyte, Cassia singuena
IN VITRO ANTICOAGULANT EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ALLIUM CEPA (ONION) ON ALBINO RAT BLOOD
1*A. A. EBBO, 2A. BELLO, 1S.M. ISMAIL, 1Y.M. LIMAN 1 S.B. IDRIS, 1J.I.OGAH, 1A.A. SANI AND 1S. A. YUSUF
1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto,
Blood samples collected from twenty one (21) albino rats were used to study the anticoagulant properties of aqueous extract of Allium cepa. The rats were divided into seven groups labeled A to G. 3 rats /group. Group A was a negative controlled group and was not treated with any agent. Group B to F were treated with 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, 0.8 mL, and 1 mL of the extract/1mL of blood respectively. Group G was a positive controlled group and was subdivided into G1 and G2 and were treated with standard anticoagulants. The highest anticoagulant effect was achieved in 1mL of the extract /1mL of albino rat blood. The results obtained were compared statistically with those obtained from two (2) standard anticoagulants (K3EDTA, fluoride oxalate).The results indicated that there was a highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the value obtained. The study showed that, the aqueous extract of Allium cepa has anticoagulant property and may be used as a supplementary anticoagulant agent to improve and / or prevent cardiovascular diseases.
KEYWORDS: Allium cepa, anticoagulant, albino rat, K3EDTA, fluoride oxalate.
EFFECT OF ACHA AND SPROUTED SOYBEANS FLOUR ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT BASED COOKIES.
1M.O. EKE, 2D. AHURE AND 3N.S. DONALDBEN
1,2Department of Food Science and Technonoly, Federal University of Agriculture. Makurdi, Nigeria. 3Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
Cookies was produced from wheat (Trititum,spp), acha (Digitaria exilis), and sprouted soybean (Glycine max) flour blends. The acha and soybean were processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour at different proportions with 100:0:0 wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour (WASSF) as the control, 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 45:45:10, 40:50:10 and 35:55:10 (WASSF). The functional properties of the wheat, acha and sprouted soybean flour blends, physical properties and proximate compositions of the cookies were determined. The functional properties of the flour samples shows that the bulk density, wettability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and gelatination temperature ranged from 0.63 g/ml-0.99 g/ml, 10.21-12.98 g/sec, 6.53-12.52 g/g, 0.52-0.66 g/g and 63.7-65.1oC respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the values. The proximate composition of cookies sample showed that crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content ranged from 12.14-16.48 %, 2.10-3.74 %, 1.76-2.55 %, 2.75-8.61 %, 9.18-9.50 % and 59.37-72.06 % respectively. The physical properties of cookies showed that the weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio ranged from 15.61-17.11g; 61.59-63.20mm; 9.88-11.99mm and 5.28-6.24 respectively. The reference sample had the highest sensory scores for all the attributes. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the colour, texture and aroma but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the taste and overall acceptability.
KEYWORDS: Cookies, Acha, Sprouted soybeans, Quality and Composite flour.
ASSESSMENT OF THE PHOTOCATALYTIC POTENTIALS OF MAGAMAN–GUMAU ILMENITE FOR USE IN HYDROGEN GAS PRODUCTION
GUSHIT, J. S., ISRAILA J. J., JOCK A. A. AND FRANCIS E. M.
Chemical/Petroleum Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
The photocatalytic potentials of Ilmenite ore for hydrogen gas production was studied by identifying and characterizing the pre-pulverised ore using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Bruneaur-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The XRF result indicated the main constituents of the Ilmenite to be 49.53% and 9.16% of elemental titanium and iron respectively, while the BET provided the surface area of the raw Ilmenite to be 12.8164m2/g. Similarly, the SEM revealed that cleavage planes and fractured surfaces to be prevalent on the surface of the natural Ilmenite ore, which is known to provide much more active sites and slightly higher reactivity than that of its synthetic counterparts with perfect crystal faces. FTIR Spectroscopy spectra showed strong spectral band between 1000 – 900 cm-1 in ilmenite indicating relatively high amount of surface oxygen than in other synthesized TiO2 catalysts. The effect of the ilmenite photocatalyst in the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) in the dark and under visible light irradiation at different selected times was used to assess the photocatalytic potential of the ilmenite. From the assessment, the degradation of 200mL of 30mg/L MO solution using Ilmenite ore at varying quantities of 1.0g, 1.5g, 2.0g and 2.5g was carried out and it was clear that the degradation of MO under visible light irradiation by 2.0g of Ilmenite gave the highest degradation with 35.64%. Absorption test showed that the degradation was solely due to photocatalytic activity.
KEYWORDS: Photocatalytic, Hydrogen Gas, Ilmenite ore, Methyl orange (MO).
COAGULATION EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED IN WATER TREATMENT IN MUBI METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
BUBA, Z.M., ELIHU, A. AND DANLADI, T.
Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
A research conducted on river water samples using Moringa oleifera seed powder was carried out on Coagulation effect of M. oleifera in water treatment in Mubi Metropolis, Adamawa State Nigeria. A Stock solution of 1% was prepared by dissolving 3.0gram of the M. oleifera seed powder (MOSP) in 300ml of distilled water and then filtered through whatman No. 1 filter paper. The clear solution was used in the jar test. The different concentration of MOSP 20mg/l, 40mg/l, 60mg/l, 80mg/l and 100mg/l were used for this research. The results shows that there was rapid reduction in the hardness with the range 149-80mg/l, turbidity with 478-210, phosphate with the range 3.8-0.6mg/l, nitrate with the range of 4.1-0.8mg/l, total solid with range of 152-72mg/l, total dissolve solid with 385-126mg/l as the M. oleifera dosage increases. While there was increase in temperature from 26.21ºC to 26.40 ºC, chemical oxygen demand from 85.55 to 107mg/l, biochemical oxygen demand from 68 to 98mg/l, pH from 7.6 to 8.0 as M. oleifera dosage increases. M. oleifera is not giving any toxic effect; it is cheaper method of water treatment and therefore can be used in rural area where there are no facilities for water treatment.
KEYWORDS: Coagulation, Moringa oleifera Seeds, Water Treatment, Mubi
BIOSORPTION OF ZN2+ ION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING MODIFIED ROSELLE CHAFF
AND H.S. HUSSAINI
Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
The efficiency of using roselle leaf powder to remove zinc (II) ions from waste water was studied. The influence of various process parameters like, the effects pH, temperature, concentration and adsorbent dose were investigated using batch experiments. The biosorbent was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The increase in initial zinc ions concentration led to an increase in uptake by the biomass. For the effect of pH, the concentration increases as the pH was adjusted from acidic to alkaline (4-10). The effect of temperature was observed to be decreasing but a sharp change was noticed at 90 0C which means that the metal concentration was effective at room temperature (300C). As the adsorbent dose increased from 0.5 g to 2.0 g, higher metal ions adsorption unto the roselle chaff was noticed.
KEYWORDS: Modified, Biosorption, Aqueous, Solution, Roselle Chaff.
INFLUENCED OF ORGANIC WASTE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL SUPPLEMENTED WITH FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MECHANIC WORKSHOPS IN MINNA, NIGERIA
1*OSAZEE, EGHOSA; 2ADEBOLA, M. O; 2ABIOYE, O. P.
1Department of Biological Sciences, SuleLamido University, Kafin Hausa, Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State.
Samples of the spent engine oil contaminated soils were collected from Shanchaga, Maikunkele, Shiroro, Tunga and Bosso mechanic workshops located in Minna, Nigeria. Four samples of 0.5kg each per location were collected making a total of 2kg of soil sample per site and 10kg from the five sites. Non-oil contaminated soil samples were collected from Biological Garden of the Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. The fungi were isolated from the mechanic workshop soils using dilution plate method in mineral salt medium. The influenced of spent engine oil on soil properties supplemented with fungi was investigated. Five treatments (25g/kg, 50g/kg, 75g/kg, 100g/kg and 125g/kg) of different weights of cow dung were applied to the soil in the pots measuring 15cm 35cm filled with one kilogram (1kg) of steam sterilized soil. Standard suspension (10.02 104cfu/ml) of each of the pure fungal isolates obtained from the mechanic workshop soils were added to the pots and thoroughly mixed with each of the 5ml of spent engine oil contaminated soil. The contaminated soils were allowed to stand for one week before the application of the different treatments. All treatments were replicated three times and the contents of each pot were watered and tilled twice a week for aeration. The results of the analysis of the soil supplemented with Rhizopus stolonifer revealed that spent engine oil had no effect on the silt, sand and clay properties in all the soils. The increased in concentration of the organic carbon as a results of spent engine oil contamination was significantly decreased in the treated pots when compared to control 2. Significant increased was observed in moisture content, pH, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus in control 2 when compared to CD75. Soils supplemented with Aspergillus flavus showed that spent engine oil had no effect on the silt, sand, clay, moisture and nitrogen content while significant increased were observed in pH, potassium and phosphorus contents of the soil due to spent engine oil contamination. Significant decreased was observed in carbon content of the soil.
KEYWORDS: Contamination, microorganism, hydrocarbon, physicochemical, mycelium
STUDIES OF SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS FROM SELECTED MINING AREAS IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
- D. OPALUWA1*, Y. A. IYAKA2, N. N. NDAMITSO2, I. N. ABDULLAHI3
1 Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, P.M.B. 1022, Keffi 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B. 65, Minna 3Department of Geology and Mining, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B. 65, Minna
The physicochemical properties of soils from areas around galena, columbite and tantalite mines in Nasarawa State, Nigeria were studied to ascertain the effect of mining on the soil properties in question. Forty (40) soil samples were collected using a hand auger, from each site which gave a total of one hundred and twenty (120) and 15 control samples from a location where there was no mining activity. These samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and cation exchange capacity using standard methods. The results obtained revealed that the mean values for physicochemical parameters are lower than the values from the control site due to the effect of mining. The pH of soils from the mining locations varied from moderately to slightly acidic and there are lower than 7.10 – 8.20 that is suitable for crop growth. The mean values for EC are lower than 200 – 800 μS/m that is good for growing of crops. Organic matter mean values are lower the medium range of 4 – 10% and CEC mean values are lower than the moderate value of 12 – 25 Cmol/kg regarded suitable for crop production. It could be concluded that mining actually modified some the physicochemical properties of the soils and this could be a problem as some of the influence increased bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil.
KEYWORDS: Mining, soil, physicochemical properties, bioaccumulation.
ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MATERNAL CARE PRACTICES OF PRE SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DASS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
ADEBUSOYE, MICHAEL SUNDAY1, EMMANUEL SAMUEL 2, LAWAL RUKAYAT AJOKE 2, HAMISU MUSA2
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25years.Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.
KEYWORDS: Maternal care, Nutritional status, Preschool children, Dass L.G.A.
CO-INFECTIONS OF MALARIA, TYPHOID AND HEPATITIS B IN OKO COMMUNITY ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA.
OKECHUKWU CHIKELUBA M.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
A study of the co-infection of malaria, typhoid and viral Hepatitis was carried out in Oko Community of Anambra State between October and December 2013. Five villages of the community were involved in the study. 200 participants randomly drawn from the five villages were recruited for the study. 89(44.5%) prevalence was recorded for malaria, 90(45%) for typhoid and 11(5.5%) for hepatitis B. The prevalence rates of co-infection were 40(20%) for malaria and typhoid, 5(2.5%) for malaria and Hepatitis B and 6(3%) for hepatitis B and typhoid. Only 2 (1%) tested positive for co-infections of malaria, typhoid and hepatitis B. Protection from mosquito bites through the use of insecticide treated bed nets, drainage of stagnant water pools around homes, good personal and food hygiene and proper refuse disposal were suggested.
KEYWORDS: Malaria , Typhoid ,Hepatitis B,
EFFECT OF SUBTITUTING WHEAT FLOUR WITH SWEET POTATO AND SPROUTED SOYBEANS FLOUR ON BREAD QUALITY
1*DONALDBEN N.S, 2EWELIKE I.C, 3AMANZE L
1,3Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State. Nigeria. 2Department of Preliminary Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State. Nigeria.
Bread was produced from wheat (Trititum,spp) sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and sprouted soybeans (Glycine max) flour blends . Sweet potato and sprouted soybeans were processed into flour and supplemented with wheat flour for bread production. Five samples of bread were produced and denoted as Samples W1 to W5. Sample W1 was the control with 100% wheat flour, while Sample W2 to W5 was supplemented as follows; 85:5:10, 80:10:10, 75:15:10 and 70:20:10 wheat, sweet potato and sprouted soybeans flours. The result of the proximate composition showed that protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents increased significantly (p<0.05) by substituting wheat flour with sweet potato and sprouted soybeans from 9.41 % to 14.64 %, 3.24 % to 5.65 %, 1.48 % to 2.70 % and 0.89 % to 2.83 % respectively. The moisture and carbohydrate contents of the bread samples generally decreased significantly (p<0.05) with substituting wheat flour with sweet potato and sprouted soybeans flours. The physical properties of the bread loaves such as the weight increased significantly with increasing levels of sweet potato and sprouted soybeans flours which ranged from 174 to 244 g. The loaf volume ranged from 305 to 181 cm3 while the bread specific volume ranged from 0.744 to 1.75 cm3/g. The result of the mineral content indicated that calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc increased significantly with substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato and sprouted soybeans flour. The result of the sensory attributes indicated that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability but there was no significant difference ((p>0.05) in the taste. The 100% wheat bread recorded the highest scores in all the attributes evaluated.
KEYWORDS: bread, sweet potato, supplemented, sprouted soybeans, proximate, sensory attributes
EVALUATING HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURE AND CONSTRUCTION IN NIGERIA & UNITED KINGDOM
IBRAHIM USMAN KASHIM, USMAN.B. BELLO, ABUBAKAR ISA.
Science and Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria.
This report was carried out in order to review environmental hazards associated with agriculture and construction in Nigeria and United Kingdom. It aims to identify two hazards that serve as challenge to agricultural and construction industries. In recent past, death tolls, permanent disability has been at increase as a result of building collapse and other operational accidents. This report explains the level of awareness of construction and agricultural industry operatives as compared to that of UK. Physiology of human body which revealed how significant these hazards affect and damage human body as regard to health and safety standards. Controls on how to manage these hazards were also given with their legislations. The last part of the report compares agricultural farming industry with other industries which revealed that other industries are more exposed to risk but agricultural industry is more at risk due lack of Health and Safety measures and supervision.
KEYWORDS: Health and Safety, Legislations, Occupational Hazards, Health and Safety Executive, Overhead Power Lines.
IRRADIATION AS FOOD PRESERVATION IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS
ADUBI, AMOS OLADIMEJI
Biology Department, School Of Science, College Of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria
Food is very essential to life, no food no life. In order to make food available every time of the year food must be preserved. Food preservation is one of the oldest technologies used by human beings. The use of food irradiation technology as an alternative food preservation method is yet to reach the stage of commercialization in Nigeria. The reasons behind this are lack of adequate equipment, method of storage, fear of the effects of radiated food and lack of sufficient information on the irradiation preservation of food in developing country (Nigeria). One of the most important limitations of food irradiation preservation is its slow acceptance by consumers. But the most important advantage of food irradiation processing or preservation is that it is a cold process which does not significantly alter physic-chemical characters of the treated product. The author concluded that Nigeria should established more irradiation facilities at strategic locations, so as to enhance easy accessibility from all parts of the country.
KEYWORDS: Food, Preservation, Irradiation, wastages, spoilage
ANTICANCER AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF GRAVIOLA (ANNONA MURICATA) FRUIT
SIKIRU GBENGA KOLA
Membrane Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Graviola (Annona muricata) is an evergreen fruit tree, belonging to the Annonaceae family. It is known to have anticancer and many other bioactivities. Fruits of A. muricata were collected from FRIN and dried. Fruit sample was subjected to Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents. Quantitative analysis for phenol was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. The antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric ion reducing power assay, and phosphomolybdenum assay. In vitro anticancer activity on DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines was evaluated by (3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazole-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. The total phenolic content was found to be (72.23 ± 0.15) mg/g GAE for methanol extract of the fruit. Also, the extract showed IC50 value more than 500µg/mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Cytotoxic evaluation of all extracts against the cell lines showed IC50 values of 5230.44 ± 42.07g/mL and 549.55 ± 33.52 respectively. Methanol extract was found to induce cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3.
KEYWORDS: Annona muricata, Anticancer, Antioxidant, Apoptosis, Methanol
PRODUCTION OF WEANING FOOD USING LOCAL CROPS: TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS), HUNGRY RICE (DIGITARIA EXILIS) AND WATER MELON SEED (CITRULLIS LANATUS)
*DR GIDEON ONUOHA AND **AKAGUOJONOMA GRACE
**Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State **AminuSaleh College of Education, AzareBauchi state
Weaning food was formulated from locally available crops such as Tiger nut, hungry rice and water melon seed. The grains were cleaned and processed into flour. Water melon seed was defatted using hot water press before processing, hungry rice was malted for 72hrs and used for processing. All the grains were milled into flour and mixed into four (4) different portions. The samples were mixed in the ratio 20:50:30, 50:20:30, 40:30:30, 30:40:30 (tiger nut, malted hungry rice and defatted water melon seed), the defatted water melon seen was kept constant because of the protein content. Proximate, functional and sensory evaluation was carried out on the weaning samples. The protein content varied from 14.1 to 15.6, fat (27.3 to 30.8%), ash (2.81 to 3.22%), moisture (2.5 to 3.2%) and carbohydrate (48.68 to 52.34%). All the result obtained for the proximate analysis falls within the recommended daily intake for children between 0-3 years. The result for functional analysis varied from 0.57 – 0.63 for bulk density, 6.6 -8.2% for water absorption capacity and 4.41 x 10-6 – 5.32 x 10-6nm-2) for viscosity. The result obtained tallied with results obtained by other scholars making the samples acceptable for children. The weaning samples were evaluated by 20 nursing mothers using a 9point hedonic scale, 80% showed acceptance of the product. The result was analysed statistically using ANOVA and there was no significant difference in the consistency and overall acceptance of the weaning samples. The slight difference obtained in the taste and colour is as a result of the quantity of malted hungry rice added. All the four (4) weaning samples can be used as alternatives to commercial weaning food.
KEYWORDS: Local Crops, Production, Weaning, Food, processing