INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES
VOL. 6 NO.1 (IJPAS) SEPTEMBER, 2018
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COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN WAVELET TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE AND MODIFIED FIREFLY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR VIDEO COMPRESSION USING PIXEL INTENSITY ANALYSIS
- A. ABDULKAREEM, A. M. S. TEKANYI, A. D. USMAN, K. A. ABU- BILAL, I. YAU AND H. A. ADAMU
Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Video processing is considered as one of the most important research areas in digital signal processing. Video compression has been extensively investigated and due to the high amount of size usually associated with it, these sizes which are usually a challenge for storage and transportation still posed a big problem. This paper presents a comparative study on wavelet transforms compression technique and modified firefly optimization technique for video compression using pixel intensity analysis. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in the form of images in a buffer. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the developed techniques. The research also achieved an FOA based compression technique using the light intensity and attraction behavior of fireflies. This optimization technique was further modified by nullifying the effect of long distance between any two pixels in an image using the inverse square law relation. The standard transform technique FOA and the modified FOA (mFOA) were used on a total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data to achieve better results in terms of image quality. The performance of the enhancement model was initially evaluated on the sampled video frames. Thereafter, it was applied to enhance the output of the compressed data.
KEYWORDS: DCT, DWT, LWT, FOA, mFOA, luminance pixel intensity and PSNR
EVALUATING THE COMPUTING PRINCIPLE, OPERATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ANDROID TECHNOLOGY
*AMANNAH, CONSTANCE IZUCHUKWU AND **IGWELA, JENNIFER N.
*Department of Computer Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria. **Department of Library and Information Science, Rivers State University Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that include an operating system, middleware and key application. Android software platform and operating system for mobile devices is based on Linux operating system and developed by Google and Open Handset Alliance. The study investigated the computing principles of Android technology and also ascertains its mode of operations. The study is recommending that Android users have a strong flexible understanding of Androidphones by studying the Android operation performance either on Android handbook or online research so that their use of Android smart phones in optimized. The study reviewed that when all the necessary instructions are implemented Android smart phones will perform more efficiently. Thus it will enhance effective use and management of Android smart phones.
KEYWORDS: Evaluation, Computing, Principle, Operations, Constraints Android, Technology
GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND PROXIMATE PROFILE OF DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR) CULTURED IN CALABAR – HUMID ZONE OF NIGERIA
ANYA, M. I. AND AYUK, A. A.
Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
A twenty-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the growth characteristics and proximate composition of duckweed (Lemna minor) cultured in a concrete pond (33,975.43 litres) with a pond depth of 40cm and dilution of 25% piggery effluent. Observation revealed that biomass increase occurred every day. Harvesting was carried out every four days for five times successfully and total yield was 14.72 kg. The growth of duckweed harvested and that obtained from a natural pond were sun-dried and representative samples taken for proximate analysis. The proximate composition of the two samples were compared, the results obtained showed that the grown duckweed contained crude protein (42%), crude fibre (28%), ether extract (1.5%), ash (8%) and nitrogen free extract (10.5%) fractions; while the duckweed from the natural pond had crude protein (21.87%), crude fibre (20%), ether extract (1%), ash (11%) and nitrogen free extract (46.13%), respectively. The proximate composition of the cultured duckweed appeared higher in all fractions beside the nitrogen free extract. However, irrespective of the medium where the duckweed was harvested, the crude protein value obtained suggested that duckweed can be incorporated into livestock feeds as a protein supplement, particularly when grown on nutrient rich mediums.
KEYWORDS: Duckweed, proximate, pond, biomass, livestock
PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF THE CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER NIFEDIPINE ON HUMAN EMBRYONIC KIDNEY CELLS
JAMIL L AHMAD1, HEATHER M WALLACE2
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria AND Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom. 2Heather M. Wallace –Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a positive as well as negative associations between chronic use of calcium channel blockers and the increased risk of developing cancer. However, these associations were immersed in controversies with the absence of laboratory based studies to back up those claims. Our aim was to determine in mechanistic terms the association between the long term administration of nifedipine and the increased risk of developing cancer with the aid of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. Cell counting using the Trypan blue dye exclusion and 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effect of nifedipine on the growth pattern of HEK293 cells. Nifedipine had a proliferative effect on HEK293 cells growth and this proliferation is more profound at low concentrations of nifedipine than high concentrations and the proliferation was statistically significant (p<0.01). The chronic use of nifedipine is associated with increased proliferation of cells with concomitant elevation of polyamines concentration and elevated polyamine levels have been incriminated in many malignant transformation and hence, these provide possible explanation on the link between long term use of nifedipine and development of some human cancers.
KEYWORDS: Polyamines, cancer, proliferation, nifedipine, protein content
STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CEMENT SOLD AT ASHAKA CEMENT COMPANY
*BASHIR ALHAJI MUSTAPHA **IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD HARRAM
*Department Of Statistics, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria **Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Tech., the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
The problem at hand which calls for this work is the issue of quality with regards to the monthly cement sold in tones for period of five years and to find out whether the cement sold at that period within a specific acceptable range. Base on the result of the analysis obtained, the cement sold at that period is not within the specified standard. Anova result shows that at 5% level of significant there exists a significant difference between monthly and yearly cement sold.
KEYWORDS: Cement, Statistical Quality, Control, Sold
MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Zanha golungensis (Hiern) LEAF AGAINST INTERMEDIATE HOSTS OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AND SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI
SIKIRU GBENGA KOLA, OLADEJO AFOLABI O, JOHN WATER C, OBIDOLA SKAKIRDEEN M
Federal college of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria.
Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatulachistomiasis known as snail fever and bilharzias, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosom-es. Schistosomiasis is considered as one of the most important trematode disease of man. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Zanha golungensis against intermediate hosts of schistosoma haematobium and schistosoma mansoni. Molluscicidal activity of Z.golugensis aqueous extract was tested against the Bulinus forskalii, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni respectively. The effect of sulphate compound on the species of snails mentioned above as a positive control was also evaluated. The snails were exposed, in groups of ten (five replicates) for 24 hours, to concentrations of each of the tested materials: plant leaf extract and CuSO4.5H2O (positive control) and were prepared directly in a series of concentrations that permit the computation of LC50 value. The present work revealed the cumulative mortality after 24hours exposure periods to Z.golugensis aqueous extract. The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of saponins or alkaloid in this plant. In addition, further investigations should be done in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. Based on the World Health Organization’s guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of this plant extract may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting Schistosomiasis in tropical and Third World countries.
KEYWORDS: Molluscicidal activity, Zanha golungensis, Bulinus forskalii, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Biomphalaria glabrata, Haematobium,Mansoni, Saponins
BIOFORTIFICATION OF TOMATO, SPINACH AND ONION WITH FE, CU AND ZN FERTILIZERS
1NASIRU, H., 2AHMAD, U. U. AND 3ZAKARIYYA, U. U.
1Department of General and Applied Science, ShehuIdris College of Health Science Makarfi Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology Kano State, Nigeria. 3Kano State Ministry of Education, G.G.S.S Kabo.Kano State, Nigeria.
Iron,zinc and copper deficiency are most prevalent nutrient deficiency worldwide.Biofortification of some vegetables may be an effective solution. In this study, field trial were conducted to investigate the biofortification of tomato,spinach and onions with essential nutrients. Fertilizer of Fe, Zn and Cu were applied to soil independently on three portions while manure was applied to one portion of the soil as control. The concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. the application of these fertilizer to the soil was effective in increasing Fe, Zn and Cu concentration in all targeted crops. The result showed that tomato contains highest level of iron while onions had the least amount of iron. It was also observed that onions has the highest uptake and highest concentration of the metals in comparison with the other vegetables. The level of copper was found to be low in tomato when compared with the other vegetables.
KEYWORDS: Biofortification, tomato, spinach and onions, Fertilizer, essential nutrients
FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY
ANTHONY ATIMA UMUKORO, EDINO KENNEDY & JOSEPH OKORODUDU
Dept. of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe
At one of the most successful application of images analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past few years. Facial Recognition Technology (FRT) has emerged as an attractive solution to address many contemporary needs for identification and the verification of identity claims. It brings together the promise of other biometric systems, which attempt to tie identity to individually distinctive features of the body, and the more familiar functionality of visual surveillance systems. This report develops a social political analysis that bridges the technical and social scientific literatures on FRT and addresses the unique challenges and concerns that attend its development, evaluation, and specific operational uses, contents, and goals. It highlights the potential and limitations of the technology, noting those tasks for which it seems ready for deployment, those areas where performance obstacles may be overcome by future technological developments or sound operating procedures, and still other issues which appear intractable. Its concern with efficacy extends to ethical considerations. Face recognition technology may solve this problem since a face is undeniably connected to its owner expect in the case of identical twins. It’s nontransferable. The system can then compare scans to records stored in a central or local database or even on a smart card.
KEYWORDS: Facial Recognition, Technology, Identification, Identity
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SOFT, FRIED AND DRIED SOYBEANS CHEESE (TOFU) PREPARED WITH SOYBEANS COLLECTED FROM MARKETS IN KADUNA, NIGERIA
1AHMED, U. U. 2 NASIRU, H. 3Prof., S.I. AJAYI, 3Prof. T.O. OJO And 4ZAKARIYYA, U. U.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano State Polytechnic. 2School of General and Applied Science, Shehu Idris College of Health Science and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State. 3Department of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 4 Kano State Ministry of Education, GGSS Kano, Kano State Nigeria.
The study set out to assess the nutritive value of soft, fried and dried soybean cheese (Tofu). It revealed that macro nutrient average composition present in three forms of soybean cheese (Tofu), STB (soft Tofu), FTF (fried Tofu) and DTB (dried Tofu) were found to contain: Moisture: 9.67%, 4.22%, 6.22%, Ash: 3.37%, 3.34%, 3.79%, Protein: 29.79%, 20.48%, 21.46%, Fat: 23.26%, 24.26% and 19.73% respectively. The result of mineral analysis indicates that STB (soft Tofu) had the highest composition of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Phosphorus respectively followed by FTF (fried Tofu) and DTB (dried Tofu). The result of vitamin concentrations were analyzed as mg/L, for Vitamin A, B, and C, the FTF or fried Tofu was found to be more in Vitamin A concentration than the two other forms of Tofu, but FTF or fried Tofu and DTB (dried Tofu) had similar concentration of Vitamin B and differs in Vitamin C concentration with STB (soft Tofu) having more concentration than others. Soybean cheese (Tofu) is a plant protein that plays a significant role in the diet of a consumer.
KEYWORDS: Soybeans, Soft Tofu, Fried Tofu, Dried Tofu and Consumer.
USING MUSKINGUM TO CALCULATE RIVER KADUNA FLOOD OUTFLOW
SHEIKH YUSUF, HAMZA, A, SALEH, M.A
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna. Nigeria
Flood is now a global nuisance that need a solution in order to save the lives and properties of communities living in flood prone areas. Communities living near River Kaduna, in northern Nigeria, have experienced almost yearly occurrence of flood in their areas. Lives and properties worth millions have been lost in recent years, which mean that there is urgent need for some mitigation measures to be taken, to avoid further catastrophe. For this reason, research work was carried out in order to see how the flood in the river can be routed, so as to give the people certain period of time to evacuate some of their properties and run into safety. The routing of the flood was carried out using Muskingum, and an equation was developed to calculate outflow in the river. A routing period of 6 hours was obtained. The model equation was used to calculate some outflows and the values obtained were compared with the measured values in m3/sec. as follows: after 6 hours, measured value is 1028.9 while calculated value is 1036.2, after 12 hours, measured value is 1172.14 while calculated value is 1182.2, after 18 hours, the measured value is 1424.5 while calculated value is 1424.8, after 24 hours, measured value is 1582.5, while calculated value is 1592.0, after 30 hours, measured value is 1586.5, while calculated value is 1593.8, after 36 hours, measured value is 1480.45, while calculated value is 1480.9, after 42 hours, measured value is 1345.0 while calculated value is 1341.5 and after 48 hours, measured value is 1216.0, while calculated value is 1209.6. This concludes that the model equation is effective and can be successfully used to calculate flood outflow, especially if the values are missing.
KEYWORDS: Flood outflow, River Kaduna, Muskingum, Model equation, Calculated value.
PECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BORON IN THE ENVIRONMENT (RIVER, WELLS AND BOREHOLES WATER) IN SOME SELECTED AREAS OF CENTRAL TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Thirty (30) water samples were collected from the selected locations in Bali, Gasol and Gashaka local Governments Areas of Taraba States. Ten (10) samples were collected from rivers, 10 samples from wells and 10 samples from boreholes. The water samples were collected using 500 ml polyethylene bottles. The concentration of boron was determined by ultra violet visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS spectrophotometer), using a UNICAM UV/VIS spectrometer using two techniques. The techniques used were the ferroin method at 516 nm and at 410 nm by the Azomethine-H method. The concentration of boron was slightly higher in some of the river water from gashaka (0.006 to 0.09) mg/L. the concentration of boron in the samples from Gasol ranges from 0.004 to 0.03 mg/L while that of the samples from Bali ranges from 0.005 to 0.08 mg/L.
KEYWORDS: Boron, well water, river water, Ferroin method, Azomethine-H method, UV-Visible.