INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL. 5 NO.1 (IJPAS) JUNE, 2018
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LOAD BALANCING IMPROVEMENT IN VARIOUS USER DISTRIBUTION LTE ADVANCED HETNETS THROUGH A HYBRID CHANNEL-GAIN ACCESS-AWARE CELL SELECTION SCHEME
*AJAGBONNA BABATUNDE, **ABDOULIE TEKANYI, MAN-YAHAYA, **MOHAMMED ALIYU GADAM
*Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, **Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) deployment was introduced to address the increasing demand for Quality of Service (QoS), high data rates, and coverage extension. However, load balancing still remains a critical problem in HetNets. Adopting the conventional Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP)-based cell selection in HetNets causes most user equipment (UE) to connect with the Macro eNodeBs (MeNBs) due to their higher transmit power as against that of the Pico eNodeBs (PeNBs), thus leading to serious load imbalance in HetNets. Therefore, this hybrid algorithm combined the channel gain-aware and the access-aware cell association metrics as a single metric for UE to base station association in LTE-Advanced HetNets deployment scenarios. The scenarios considered are the HetNets configuration 1 with uniform user distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 25 uniformly distributed UEs and configuration 4b of hotspot distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 30 UEs, two-third of which are clustered around the PeNBs as defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard. The developed Hybrid Channel Gain Access Aware (HCGAA) scheme improved load balancing performance by 25.4% and 12.1%, respectively compared with the 3GPP RSRP and RSRP +CRE cell selection. Also, an enhanced pico connection ratio of up to 1.40 times and 1.21 times that of the RSRP and RSRP +CRE cell selection schemes was achieved by the HCGAA algorithm. These improvements translate to the efficient utilization of the network resource and prevent crowding of certain cells in the network.
KEYWORDS: Heterogeneous networks, LTE-Advanced, cell selection, load balancing, pico connection ratio, uniform and hotspot LTE configurations
PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAIT-BASED FRAUD PREVENTION SYSTEM IN ATM TRANSACTIONS
1ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI, 2ISMAILA FOLASADE. M., 1BABALOLA OYENIYI
1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria
Knowledge-based and token-based automatic personal identification approaches have been the two traditional techniques widely used. Because knowledge-based and token-based approaches are unable to differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor who fraudulently acquires the token or knowledge of the authorized person. This paper investigate the use of Physiological traits in online transactions using particle warm optimization. In this experiment 120 tongue images and fingerprints of different individuals were acquired using digital camera and webcam. The traits were preprocessed using segmentation scheme and particle swarm optimization was used to select salient features. Three testing scenarios were created; (i) testing with all images in database and (ii) testing with another selected pose of images in database and (iii) poses of images not in database but captured in a bad illumination. The decision to recognize or classify the images was determined by threshold at 0.50. Scenario 1 results showed that the experiment produced sensitivity of 94.6%, specificity of 95.7% and accuracy rate of 94.6% for tongues and sensitivity of 87.2%, specificity of 81.4%, and accuracy of 90.1% for fingerprints. Scenario 2 results showed that the experiment produced sensitivity of 78.6%, specificity of 74.7% and accuracy of 93.3% for tongues while fingerprints has sensitivity of 65.2%, specificity of 69.4%, and accuracy of 75.5%. while scenario 3 results produced sensitivity of 0.6%, specificity of 0.77% and accuracy of 0.0% for fingerprints and sensitivity of 22.6%, specificity of 18.4%, and accuracy of 20.7% for fingerprints. However, using tongue along with PSO will enhance better performance accuracy for this automatic identification and authentication in ATM system.
KEYWORDS: Physiological traits; Tongue; Particle swarm optimization; Fingerprints; ATM system.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POWER GENERATING COMPANIES UNDER THE NIGERIA’S POWER SECTOR REFORM.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Portharcourt, Rivers State.
This paper proposes a novel approach to the modeling and analysis of power generating companies under the Nigeria power sector reform. In particular, a model that describes the relationship between the generating companies was presented using the Lagrange multiplier method regarding the Kuhn-Tucker conditions without taken into consideration the transmission limitations and losses. The numerical experiments indicate the five GENCOS with different cost functions. The optimal solution of power output from each generating company is presented.
KEYWORDS: Gencos, Power reform, Optimization. Kuhn-Tucker, Lagrange Multiplier, Optimal solution
THE IMPACT OF ICT USAGE AMONG ACADEMIC STAFF OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
AUWAL AHMAD1, ALHAJI KAWUGANA2, FAIZ IBRAHIM JIBIA3, YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA4.
ICT/MIS Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria1,3,4Bursary Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria 2
The invention and development of computers appears to be one of the greatest innovations in the history of mankind. The contribution of computers to the growth and development of human society has been very significant that eventually every human activity is being computerized today. The objective of the study is to determine whether the available ICT infrastructures are capable of encouraging ICT usage. The challenges to ICT usage and acceptance among academic staff ranges from, lack of funds, no opportunity for training, lack of sponsorship by the school management, inability electricity supply, lack of ICT knowledge, insufficient time due to workload, lack of interest in learning, and lack of time for practice. Cross sectional survey research was adopted and a structured questionnaire will be distributed for the study. The research study is geographically limited to Bauchi state of Nigeria, and involves the academic staff of the eleven (11) Public higher institutions in the state, In addition, there is no any private university or polytechnic located in the state. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and infrastructural capabilities were considered useful factors for successfully promoting the ICT usage among the academic staff of tertiary institutions in Bauchi state, Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Usage, ICT, Academic Staff, Higher Institution, Infrastructure
PRODUCTION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF TABLE WINE FROM WATER MELON AND PINEAPPLE JUICE
1IRUOLAJE, F. O., 1OGBEBA, J., 1MARKUS K. AND 2DOGO, B.A.
1Federal Polytechnic, Department of Science Laboratory Technology Bauchi. 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun state.
A clean and acceptable table wine was produced from water melon and pineapple juice using Baker’s yeast. Baker’s yeast was found to have the essential features for wine production. It was employed in the production of wine at a regulated temperature of 150C ± 20C. The sensory evaluation of the wine was carried out with respective to brix level, pH, alcohol content, colour, testure, flavor and taste. The result obtained revealed a brix level of 5.2 %, pH 3.00, alcohol content 9.56 %. The colour was pale yellow, taste was sweet and flavour was generally acceptable. There was no significant difference in the values obtained from the tested sample when compared with that of the standard wine. From this work, the blend of watermelon and pineapple juices can be used as an alternative to grape juice which is commonly used for wine production. Finally the wine produced would be a good alternative to foreign wine that has dominated our local market and reduce cost.
KEYWORDS: Melon, Production, Quality, Wine, Pineapple Juice.
AN EFFICIENT VIDEO COMPRESSION METHOD USING ENHANCED DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE
- A. ABDULKAREEM, A. M. S. TEKANYI, I. YAU AND H. A. ADAMU
Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Development of an improved method of video compression using discrete cosine Transform (DCT). A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the name technique. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer. Compression of the video frames was achieved by assuming that the image frames of the entire sample video datum contained both real and even functions. Therefore, the DCT was derived from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the enhanced output. After the DCT, the output block is divided into two sub-bands: Low frequency sub-band, which is used to store the important part of the image and the High frequency sub-band, which is used to store the other details and texture of the image. Emphasis was only on the low frequency sub band because it contains the actual object in the image. The coefficient of the high frequency sub band is usually very close to or equal to zero in some instances and it was removed entirely from the algorithm for the purpose of efficient compression. The output compressed result was then enhanced using a brightness enhancement model in other to determine the efficiency of the proposed technique. Simulation results showed that, the proposed method is efficient for the respective individual sample video frames of NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi, NTA2.avi and, also that of bench mark. It achieved 7.10%, 3.40%, 4.94%, 3.71%, and 4.05%, 5.92% PSNR percentage improvement over the ordinary DCT compression method on these video frames.
KEYWORDS: Video frames, Brightness enhancement compression Technique, DCT, DFT.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOAP PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS (PALM KERNEL, SHEAR BUTTER, OLIVE AND SOYA BEANS OILS)
AYAHAYA MOBMI MUSA, BIDRIS WADA, CTANKO GARBA AND DSAKE JOHN SHEKARA
aBasic Studies Department Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi BandCScience Laboratory Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi dRafin Zurfi Bauchi, Bauchi State
Soaps play an essential role in our daily live for cleansing and also removal of germs to keep us safe. Soaps were produced from the various vegetable oils (Palm Kernel, Shear Butter, Olive and Soya Beans Oils. Physical and chemical properties of the soaps such as saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, latherability and total fatty matter were carried out to determine the quality of the soaps produced. The result obtain shows that saponification value range was (167-170mg/KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter ranging from 1.1 to 2.5g/Kg, foaming ability or latherability 70- 100% and total fatty matter was in the range (60-78%). These parameters explains the quality of soap like high total fatty matter, high saponification value, high latherability and low unsaponifiable matter. The results indicated that the soap produced was good soap as. Also, the physical properties of the soaps agreed with the chemical properties of the soap.
KEYWORDS: Chemical, Olive, Vegetable, Comparative, Properties
APPLICATION OF QUEUING THEORY IN OUT-PATIENT DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH INSTITUTION
1LASISI K. E, 2 ABDULAZEEZ K. A AND 2IBRAHIM GONI SANDA
1Mathematical Sciences Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria 2Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, Baga, P.M.B 1060, Maiduguri Borno State
This study investigated the reliability of application of queuing theory in out-patient service delivery in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Clinic, Bauchi. Data was collected for six (6) weeks and an Exponential Distribution was employed for the queuing system on the specific number of patients for medical consultation. The results obtained showed that the traffic intensity or probability that the system is busy () found to be 0.808 signifies high possibility that patients have to wait on the queue for them to be served. Also, it shows that there will be queue since the average time patients spend in the queue (Wn=29) is less than the average time patients spent in the system (Ws=36). It was recommended that additional medical doctors be employed so as work simultaneously in order to reduce waiting time of patients.
KEYWORDS: Patients, Queue, Arrival, Waiting, Healthcare, Delay
ICT AND THE TWIST ROLES OF LIS PROFESSIONALS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: THE ACCEPTED CHALLENGE
ALIYU MUSA1, YAKUBUNUHU DANJUMA2
1Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Technology is fast becoming an essential tool in Library and information service delivery. Information technology is used for many activities in Libraries, Archives, publishing houses, Government and other Organisations. With the emergence of Information Technology, new twist has evolved in the field of library and information science in last two decades due to ICT impact and digitalization of library resources and totally change the earlier meaning of library from document preservation to knowledge management. The nature of the use of Library collection is beginning to change or has changed in the wake of increasing investments and availability of Information Technology. The library professionals are facing new challenges because of unprecedented explosion of information and its availability in different forms which are created by globalization, privatization and liberalization of every aspect of human life in one way and emergence of ICT and its application in generation, communication and access of information in another way. To cope with these problems, the LIS Profession needs to be change in their philosophy and practices from custodian of document to information provider. There has been a paradigm twist in the way libraries used to manage as traditional store house to access providers. Therefore, the twenty-first century environment has brought a lot of changes not only on the library and information services but also on the roles and expectations of the library professionals to satisfy their user’s information demand.
KEYWORDS: Library and Information Science Professionals; Challenges in Libraries; Twenty-first Century; Twist, Roles of Library and Information Science Professionals.
A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF INHIBITARY EFFECTS OF AQUOUS EXTRACTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis BARK ON GERMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF Zea mays(Maize), Glycine max(Soybean), Arachis hypogea(Groundnut) AND Sorghum vulgare (Sorghum)
*G. ADAMU., **Y. HARUNA., * I. A. ALIYU AND **I. A. ABUBAKAR
*Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Agricultural technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
The allelopathic effects of aqueous bark extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. at 15, 30 and 45% (w/v) concentrations was tested on soybean (Glysine max),groundnut (Arachis hypogea), maize(Zea maize) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) seed for germination and seedling growth (shoot and root length). The treatments were containerized laid out in randomized form with four replications. Results showed that the aqueous bark extract significantly inhibited seed germination, shoot length and root elongation of the crops. The germination percentage, root and shoot growth decreased with increase in extract concentration. It was suggested that integrated tree and crop management practices should be designed and employed to harness the benefit of both tree and crops to sustain production of the crops.
KEYWORDS: Allelopathic, aqueous bark extract, soybean, groundnut, maize sorghum
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF FRESH AND DRIED GARLIC EXTRACT (SPICE) AGAINST BACILLUS CEREUS IN RAW AND COOKED COUSCOUS (STARCHY FOOD).
SADIYA SALIHU UMAR1, HARUNA HAMISU SANI2, FATIMA MUHAMMAD WADA3
Department of Pre- ND Science and Technology, School of General studies, Kano State Polytechnic.
This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of dried and fresh form of Garlic (Allium sativum) extract against the starchy food spoilage bacteria Bacillus cereus. As such Bacillus cereus strains 10, 110 and 555 obtained from the bacterial stock of Kano State Polytechnic were prepared and tested on agar and in couscous (raw and cooked) using the agar radial diffusion, MICs and MBCs procedure via tube dilution assay at variable temperatures and salt (+/-) concentrations so as to determine the antimicrobial activity of the plant extract (garlic). Results indicated less than 6hrs mean generation time for all the three B. cereus (10, 110, and 555) in Tryptone soya agar and broth growth media with less growth on TSA containing cooked couscous and high contamination in raw couscous. Agar diffusion results shows high zone of inhibition for B. cereus 555 of 48mm/dm at 20% concentration of aqueous dry garlic extract followed by relatively low activity at 1.25% and 0.625% respectively. While low inhibition was found using aqueous extracts of fresh garlic. However MBC, MIC and ½ MIC values 0.625, 0.156 and 0.078% w/v concentration of aqueous dry garlic extract proves to be antimicrobial on B. cereus found in cooked couscous with or without salt. Furthermore, results indicated the effect of cooking temperature of 100oC capable of killing the pathogen and 40C capable of growth inhibition. Optimum growth temperature of B. cereus was discovered at 30oC with slow and steady growth in between 15- 25oC. Thus, overall results indicated that dried garlic aqueous extract concentrations exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values of 0.039%, 0.155%, 0.078% and MBCs of 0.3%, 0.625%, and 0.3% against B. cereus 555, 110 and 10 respectively in cooked couscous with no significant inhibition using ½ MIC dilution assays. Hence, it is concluded that dried form of garlic extract could be potential candidates to be used as natural preservatives to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus and subsequently increase the shelf life of cooked couscous be it in the presence or absence of salt.
KEYWORDS: Bacillus, Couscous, Antimicrobial, Cooked, Garlic
IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR FACE RECOGNITION BY USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) IN MATLAB
IGWE, AGU FELIX
Computer Engineering Department, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba.
This paper was designed and implemented by using MATLAB (R2016a). This algorithm applied the eigenfaces system based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to ascertain the faces, in which a set of faces are stored in the data base which are used to compare other faces of different persons that may claim to ownership of account or other identities.
KEYWORDS: Face recognition, Eigenfaces, Eigenvalues, Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
MEMORY PAGE REPLACEMENT USING LEAST RECENTLY USED ALGORITHM ON VARIABLE REFERENCE STRING
1ISMAIL ZAHARADDEEN YAKUBU., 2IBRAHIM FAROUQ IBRAHIM, 3AHMAD ATIKA JIBRIN, 4FATIMA ABUBAKAR
1,3,4Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria) 2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)
The Main Memory of a computer is a limited resource even though common amount of memory has increased some decades back. The size of a program code, data, and stack may be greater than the size of the main memory; as a result the modern general purpose operating systems use virtual memory to solve the problem of size mismatch. Virtual memory system requires an efficient memory page replacement algorithm to decide which pages to evict from memory as a result of a page fault. Many Memory page replacement algorithms have been proposed with the aim of minimizing the page fault rates. This research work simulate the Least Recently Used Algorithm on variable reference string and determine the page fault of the algorithm.
KEYWORDS: Main Memory, Program Code, Data, Stack, operating System, Virtual Memory, Algorithm, Page Fault, Variable, String.
DETERMINATION OF RADIOBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF X-RAY SOURCE AND EVALUATION OF DOSE ABSORBED DURING X-RAY EXAMINATION. AREMU S.O., HAQUE M.F., NDAWASHI M. ODELAMI A.K.
1Federal polytechnic Bauchi. 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 3Sheu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Kaduna.
An estimation of the photon energy flux densities and fluencies for patients undergoing diagnostic x-ray examination was carried out at three different hospitals in Nigeria. Different anatomical organs were considered for estimation. These include foot, elbow, chest, ankle, forearm among others. The average photon fluence was estimated to be 1.237×1016 photons/cm2. The mean effective dose absorbed by different organs due to a point source x-rays was found to be 0.018mSv for an average photon flux of 153.95 x 1014 photons/cm2s.
KEYWORDS: Radiobiological, Examination, Evaluation, Determination, Absorbed.
HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING
1ANTHONY ATIMA UMUKORO, EDINO KENNEDY & JOSEPH OKORODUDU
Dept. of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe
High Performance Computing most generally refers to the practice of aggregating computing power in a way that delivers much higher performance than one could get out of a typical desktop computer or workstation in order to solve large problems in science, engineering, or business. High-performance computing (HPC) is the use of super computers and parallel processing techniques for solving complex computational problems. HPC technology focuses on developing parallel processing algorithms and systems by incorporating both administration and parallel computational techniques. High Performance Computing (HPC) has become an essential tool in every researcher’s arsenal. Most research problems nowadays can be simulated, clarified or experimentally tested by using computational simulations. Researchers struggle with computational problems when they should be focusing on their research problems. Since most researchers have little-to-no knowledge in low-level computer science, they tend to look at computer programs as extensions of their minds and bodies instead of completely autonomous systems. Since computers do not work the same way as humans, the result is usually Low Performance Computing where HPC would be expected.
KEYWORDS: High Performance Computing, Complex Computing, Algorithm, Researchers, Low Performance Computing
INVITRO EFFECTS OF ETHANOL FRACTION OF FUNTUMIA ELASTICA ROOT ON LIVER MITOCHONDRIA MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE AND ATPASE ACTIVITY
SIKIRU GBENGA KOLA, OBIDOLA S.M, EMEFIENE M.E, OLADEJO A.O, OLORUNDARE O.O
Federal college of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria
The present study evaluated the effects of ethanol fraction of the root of Funtumia elastic (EFFE), a medicinal plant with proven antioxidant and anti- inflammatory properties, on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore. The effect of the fraction on MMPT pore was monitored spectrophotometrically as changes in absorbance at 540nm. In the absence of Ca2+ , varying concentrations (200, 600, 1000, and 1400μg/ml) of EFFE did not have significant inductive effect at lower concentrations but induced pore opening at 1000 and 1400µg/ml by 2.44 and 3.51 folds, while in the presence of calcium pore opening was inhibited by EFFE in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations of 200, 600, 1000, and 1400µg/ml, the percentage inhibition was 9.43, 24.04, 36.48, and 50.14% respectively when compared with the effect of spermine, a standard inhibitor which gave 71.58% inhibition. The EFFE also enhanced mitochondrial ATPase activity in a concentration dependent manner, and the enhancement at 200, 600, 1000, and 1400µg/ml was found to be 9.8± 0.009899, 12.93±0.028284, 23.83± 0.006364, and 26.97±0.002121 respectively. This finding suggests that EFFE contains bioactive agent(s) that induced the opening of the pore. This fraction will therefore be useful for the structural elucidation of the bioactive principle in the plant and for further studies in diseases that require increased apoptosis such as cancer.
KEYWORDS: Funtumia elastica, Mitochondria Membrane Permeability Transition, Apoptosis, ATPase Activity