INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOL. 5 NO.2 (IJETR) JUNE, 2018 EDITIONS
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DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC MINI-CONVEYOR SYSTEM FOR PRODUCT MONITORING.
JOEL EWA BASSEY1, KATSINA CHRISTOPHER BALA2
1, 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
This paper presents the development of an automatic mini-conveyor system for product monitoring aimed at solving relative industrial and manufacturing problems such as product pilferage, inefficient supervision, monitoring and workmanship. . It is also to improve production management system, using ICT based platform to enhance monitoring control and data acquisition (MCDA) system in manufacturing process. ASSEMBLY language was used on a programmable logic controller; (Atmel 89C52) microcontroller for control and monitoring protocol. The method includes; simulation, hardware development; to include; counting and signalling wireless system containing sensors and a wireless radio frequency transmitter and receiver. Design calculation analysis, fabrication and operational tests were carried out on the developed mini-conveyor. The operational and test results show that the product travel along the conveyor through a distance of 0.8m between entrance and exit point sensors was 15.7sec. The developed mini-conveyor system is able to remotely monitor a product on a communication distance of 22metres in which the required information is displayed LCDs and on computer screen on a telnet hyper-terminal platform, through a baud rate of 1200. Therefore, the developed machine has open opportunities for product monitoring control and data acquisition in material handling systems in the industries for more accountability.
KEYWORDS: Conveyor, Product monitoring, Material handling.
EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMBINED DARRIEUS – SAVONIUS WIND MACHINE FOR LOW WIND SPEED REGIMES
¹A.H. NDAGI,² I.GARBA AND³ A.A. ADAMU
¹Centre for Renewable Energy Research Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsin ²᾽³Department of Mechanical Engineering Bayero University, Kano.
Three Wind Tunnel – scaled combined Darrieus – Savonius wind machine models were designed and constructed. The Darrieus – Savonius models; 6 x 3 cm, 6 x 6 cm and 3 x 6 cm high were test run in the Subsonic wind tunnel at the Faculty of Engineering, Bayero University Kano. Comparative performance analysis in terms of self-starting capability, Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and deliverable torque was conducted. ANOVA was conducted using a Statistical tool ‘SAS’ System. It was experimentally and analytically established that; the 6 x 3 cm Darrieus – Savonius model exhibits better self – starting capability at low wind speed of 3.4 m/s. It also exhibits higher TSR values suitable for its adoption for electrical generating applications in low wind speed regimes. It was analytically proved that lower cut-in-speed of 2.06 m/s was achievable by reducing the height of the Savonius to 1.5 cm making the ratio of Darrieus- Savonius to be 4: 1 as against 2:1. For mechanical applications in low wind speed regimes, it was established that the model with 1: 1 ratio of Darrieus – Savonius exhibits higher shaft power and torque which is suitable for such operations. e.g. water pumping and milling operations. The 3 x 6 cm Darrieus – Savonius model exhibit the least self-starting capability, mechanical power and torque and therefore unsuitable for both electrical and mechanical applications in low wind speed regimes
KEYWORDS: Darrieus-Savonius, windspeed, airfoil, start-up-speed and Performance analysis
THE IMPERATIVES OF ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS TO THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
AKHIMIEN, N. G.; ISIWELE, A. J.; AND ADAMOLEKUN, M.O
Department of Architecture, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
This study was aimed at promoting the awareness of energy efficiency in buildings. It is of great importance that the energy efficacy in buildings is analyzed and calculated most especially at the design stage to ascertain and regulate the energy consumption of buildings. Building efficiency must be considered as improving the performance of the built environment designed to provide occupants with a comfortable, safe, and attractive living and work environment. This requires superior architecture and energy efficient design strategies, quality construction practices and intelligent operation of structures. Building performance is an integral part of any building design but most often this important aspect is neglected or skipped, thereby resulting to an inefficient building as it relates to building performance. Hence, this paper will do an assessment of buildings and their energy efficiency. The method of this assessment is descriptive order of analysis, it has been discovered that most buildings are not energy efficient therefore not sustainable. Sustainability in our present time cannot be overemphasized due to the rapid change of the environment and climate due to emissions and other environmental pollutions. This paper explains why it is very important for everyone to consider energy efficiency in buildings. As the demand for energy keeps rising which requires the generation of vast amounts of electricity, thus, changes have been made to make buildings more energy efficient and sustainable. Understanding the use of energy in buildings requires an insight into the amounts of energy consumed and the different type of fuels and their sources. Buildings that could help contribute to their energy demand through the generation of renewable energy would help reduce the amounts of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) being emitted into the atmosphere. Hence to succeed in developing a sustainable society buildings will always need to be improved as technology improves. The objective of this study is to obtain a clear understanding of energy efficiency in buildings outlining what would be the most feasible renewable technique to be adopted. There are many renewable technologies available at present, of which some have succeeded. Therefore the aim is to promote the awareness and construct a review of the most recent consultations on what are the current trends achieved towards making buildings more intelligent, self-sufficient and what could be done to make buildings more efficient. The performance of a building will directly impact on the resale and rental income of the building.
KEYWORDS: Efficiency, Energy, Environment, Performance, Sustainability.
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND TESTING OF BUTT WELD HINGES FOR DOORS
ABUBAKAR U. BABUJE1, EUNICE NNAJI2, JAMILA ADAMU3
1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi 3Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
This paper presents butt weld hinges for doors using Computer Aided Design. The weight of the door, number of hinges and the force acting on each hinge, material used, factor of safety, theory of failure and the geometry of the hinge components were the basic design element considered. A general design for butt weld hinge was developed which can be used to obtain the hinge parameters for different door configurations (that is in terms of door height, door weight, door thickness and door width).
KEYWORDS: Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Numerical Control (CNC), Butt welding, Hinges, Doors
OPTIMAL LOCATION OF FACTS DEVICE (STATCOM) IN SIMPLE INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS NETWORK USING HEURISTIC TECHNIQUE
1NWAOBASI CHUKWUEMEKA, 2NKELEME VICTOR OBINNA
1,2Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State
Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers, such as Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM), employ technology involving power electronic switching devices in electric power transmission systems to improve voltage profile of the system and minimize power losses when optimally placed. Today, there is enormous increase in the demand for power by electric power consumers. This increase in demand stresses power transmission facilities to their upper limits thereby making it impossible to, ordinarily, achieve adequate voltage regulation and minimize power losses. This paper attempts to solve the problem by using simple heuristic technique which involves randomly placing STATCOM until the best voltage profile and lowest power loss is attained. In this paper a 5 bus system is presented as case study and at the end of the paper it will be shown that after steady state analysis of the entire system, placing STATCOM at the weakest bus gives the best result.
KEYWORDS: Load flow analysis, MATLAB, PSAT, STATCOM, FACTS devices.
INVESTIGATIVE STUDY ON THE LEVEL OF AUTOMOBILE FIRES PREVENTION BY MOTORIST
SANUSI SULEIMAN AND MUSA NICHOLAS AKHAZE
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna.
Automobile fires account for the majority of vehicle fires and vehicle fire deaths. It is necessary to address automobile fires if major reductions are to be seen in the overall vehicle fire problem. Any efforts to evaluate the merits of proposed fire safety improvements require an understanding of how many fires and deaths are presently occurring and how many might be prevented with the proposed improvements. In this paper, data from the U.S. Fire Administration’s National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA’s) fire department survey were used to estimate the frequency and associated losses of automobile fires attended by local U.S. fire departments, and the major factors in these fires and losses. The risk of automobile fires, associated deaths overall and from fires resulting from collision or overturn per billion kilometers driven are also included. The majority of automobile fires resulted from mechanical or electrical problems, but three out of every five automobile fire deaths resulted from fires started by collision or overturn.
KEYWORDS: Automobile fire, Causes and Prevention
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF AUTOMATED BIOMASS DRYER FOR CHILLI PEPPER
ABIODUN O. ROTIMI, S. A. AYO., M. A. ADESINA
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of technology Minna, Niger state
This work presented the design and construction of automated biomass dryer drying red hot chilli pepper. It uses the biomass heater for producing hot air that is channelled to the drying chamber accommodating the products to be dried. Performance characteristics of the biomass dryer including system efficiency has been evaluated experimentally based on drying of 5 kg of the chilli pepper. The dryer is capable of producing hot air continuously with temperature ranging between 56 to 79 °C. Performance analysis showed that the moisture reduction from about 90 % to 10 % was achieved within 11 hours in biomass drying and it took more than 24 hours of conventional open sun drying to achieve that. The efficiency of the bio-waste fired assembly, was found to be 43 %. The main features of the dryer was to maintain an average constant temperature in the drying chamber through the use of mechanical temperature regulating device. The entire system is simple in construction and all used materials were locally sourced. Since the dryer does not use electricity and semi-autonomous, it can be very useful in rural areas in Nigeria to dry chilli pepper and other perishable items.
KEYWORDS: Chilli Pepper, Temperature Regulator, Biomass gasifier stove, Moisture content and Nasarawa
DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY CLOTH IRONING SYSTEM AND TEST
*AKINYELURE, S. O.1, OKEGBILE, O. J.1
Federal University of Technology Minna
Charcoal is mainly used in the ironing of clothes in the rural areas. This is non-renewable use of energy resource areas. To replace this non-renewable energy source, there is need to develop a solar cloth ironing system. The iron received its heat from concentrated parabolic reflective dish. The design of the iron was based on the mass of aluminium required to be heated to a temperature of 155 oC in a period of 30 minutes. The sad iron was thereafter casted from a melt of 2.36 kg of aluminium to produce the sad iron according to the designed pattern. Temperature readings of the heated sad iron were taken for a period of eight months. The readings for the first three months (January to march, 2017) were taken from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. Readings from these first three months established that the maximum sad iron temperature readings was at 2:00 pm. Hence, sad iron temperature readings from April to August were taken from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm daily. Readings of time taken of when sad iron was used to iron clothes were also taken from April to May on daily basis as from 2:00 pm. Considering from the economic point of view, the study shows that aside the initial cost of purchase of the sad iron, the sad iron was used at no cost to iron clothes for the subsequently. This work therefore established yet another dimension in the utilisation of solar energy domestically in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Solar, System, Development, Ironing, Energy
A PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF BIOPROSPECTING FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Environmental concern and limited resources of fossil fuel has increased the demand of alternative sources of energy. It has been recognized world-wide that heavy exploitation and use of fossil fuels are leading to foreseeable depletion within several decades. Biofuels come from natural renewable sources like plants, so they have the potential to reduce our reliance on those limited supply of fossil fuels and reduce the risk of climate change. Most biofuels today are made from corn grain that is fermented into ethanol. A potential solution using cellulose is far more abundant than corn grain and takes less energy to produce, in fact is the most abundant organic molecule on planet. Cellulose is the main ingredient found in plant cell wall. Plants generate cellulose from water and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. The solution lies in finding microbes in nature that can produce the kind of enzymes we need to break this cellulose. This process of searching for species in nature that can produce valuable products is called bioprospecting.
KEYWORDS: Biofuels, Cellulose, Enzymes, Micro-organisms, Bioprospecting.
ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL VIDEO COMPRESSION METHODS USING FIREFLY, MODIFIED FIREFLY ALGORITHMS AND DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM (DWT) BASED ON PIXEL INTENSITY
- A. ABDULKAREEM, A. M. S. TEKANYI, I. YAU AND H. A. ADAMU
Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
For decades powerful intelligence optimization techniques have been developed for graphics and video compression with the sole aim of improving the degraded quality of the reconstructed images or videos for effective storage and transmission. This paper presents a comparative study on the three techniques developed for graphical image or video compressions with emphasis on video frame pixel improvement. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the achieved technique. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer. This is with a view to determining the efficiency of the proposed technique. Simulation results showed that, the achieved method is efficient with an improved compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). The PSNR evaluation showed the efficiency and signal quality of the technique. It was also observed that, the enhanced modified FOA (E-mFOA) based technique produced a PSNR percentage improvement of 79.19%, 80.11%, 80.48% and 79.22% over DWT on the NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi and NTA2.avi sample videos after enhancement. For Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi benchmark video frames, the E-mFOA produced a percentage improvement of 78.36% and 77.35% over E- DWT after enhancement.
KEYWORDS: Video frames, Standard FOA, mFOA, E mFOA, DWT, PSNR and Luminance Enhancement
EFFECT OF TYRE RUBBER POWDER ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF 60/70 PENETRATION GRADE BITUMEN
1ABDULMALIK MUSA MALEKA, 2ABDULLAHI DALHAT SALISU, 3ABDULRAHMAN GARBA, 4MANIRUZZAMAN A. AZIZ
1, 2 & 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria. 4Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
The increasing use of tyre rubber powder (TRP) in flexible pavement justifies the necessity for a better understanding of its effect on rheological properties of asphalt binder. Basically, the performance and properties of TRP modified asphalt binder are influenced by the percentage of tyre rubber powder. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of various percentages of tyre rubber powder on the rheological properties; rutting and fatigue resistance of TRP modified asphalt binder. In this study, 60/70penetration grade asphalt binder was blended with five different percentages of tyre rubber powder (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of asphalt binder).Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test was performed on the samples. The binders were aged by Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFOT) to simulate the short-term aging and the Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) to simulate the long-term aging, and tested with the DSR for evaluation of rutting factor (G*/sinδ) and fatigue factor (G*sinδ). The results indicated that the higher percentages of TRP for modified asphalt binders, the higher G*/sinδ before and after RTFO aging and the lower G*sinδ after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to permanent deformation, rutting and fatigue cracking. 10% TRP gave the best rutting and fatigue resistance properties amongst all the samples considered in this study.
KEYWORDS: Modified asphalt binder, tyre rubber powder, rutting and fatigue resistance, rheology, aging.
AN AUTOMATIC VEHICLE NUMBER PLATE LOGGING SYSTEM
G.N. JOLA1, I.F. IBRAHIM2, YUNUSA M.A3 AND B.I. OKORIE4
1,2&3Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technology , Federal, Polytechnic, Bauchi 4Government Secondary School, Kakuri, Kaduna South
The automatic vehicles number plate logging system is a device that senses the presence of a car with the help of infrared source and sensors and conveys the signal within the internal circuitry that sets a voltage fluctuation across the output terminals of the comparators. When all the sensors are simultaneously blocked, the output of an AND gate connected to a transistor is high which triggers the camera to capture the number plate which subsequently stores the data (information). After which statistics on the number of vehicles entering and existing is taken. It also takes in to account plate variations from place to place and can also be used to track unregistered plate numbers entering environment. Applications include unmanned parking slots, safety, and security.
KEYWORDS: Automatic, logging system, Infrared source, sensors, comparators, camera
CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF SOLAR CABINET DRYER
ABODENYI, V. A., ATANU, S. O., ORABI J. AND AKIN E.
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State
A solar cabinet dryer 20kg capacity was constructed using available locally made materials ; mainly glass, wood, metal sheet and fishing net. The dryer has the dimensions of 60 x 57 x 55cm with an air vent of 60x 5cm2, the drying chambers were roofed with glass of 60 x 60cm tilted at the same angle with the solar collector at 100, The dryer was evaluated using fresh fish at initial moisture content of 46.15%wb and weighed 372.2g on day 1 and 9.85%wb at 120g on day 3.
KEYWORDS: solar, drying chambers, fishing net, moisture content , solar cabinet.
IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR FACE RECOGNITION BY USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) IN MATLAB
IGWE, AGU FELIX
Computer Engineering Department, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba
This paper was designed and implemented by using MATLAB (R2016a). This algorithm applied the eigenfaces system based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to ascertain the faces, in which a set of faces are stored in the data base which are used to compare other faces of different persons that may claim to ownership of account or other identities.
KEYWORDS: Face recognition, Eigenfaces, Eigenvalues, Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
CHARACTERISTICS OF CORE AND HAMMER TESTS FOR IN-PLACE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HARDENED CONCRETE
*DR. ENGR. GANA. A.J **ENGR. S.S.C. OKOYE **ENGR. TOBA. A.P.
*Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara state **Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Bida, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State
The application of core and hammer tests for determining the In-Place Compressive strength of hardened concrete has been study. The study consulted several literatures on both test methods and supported the study with actual field data. The application of the two methods fully known to be applicable for in place compressive strength determination, they possess their own deficiencies. Hammer Tests are indirect method of measuring strength and are very sensitive, and requiring Proper calibration on the other hand, core tests are direct in-place strength measuring method. Where core samples that are taken from the actual structure are tested in a similar way to test specimens. The analysis and interpretation of both tests requires professional skills, before testing is carried out. The two tests equally require adequate planning including the method and Eriteria for the analysis, interpretation acceptance and ejection.
KEYWORDS: core and Hammer Tests, In-Place strength, Hardened concrete Interpretation.
THE CORROSION OF LOW CARBON STEEL AS INHIBITIVE PROPERTIES: ALMOND PLANT EXTRACT IN 0.5 MOLAR CONCENTRATIONS OF HCL
1NNAMDI OCHUBA, 2ADESANMI A., 2DAUDA M, 1IWENOFO CHINWE, AND 3DATAU S.G
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
The global campaign for the used of product which are eco-friendly, non-toxic to both human and creatures in our planet, has led many researchers of corrosion inhibitor into the usage of plant extract which are environmentally friendly, non-toxic, biodegradable in nature, cheap and easily available source of raw material for the production of inhibitors, which had been successively used in inhibition of corrosion for mild steel in acid media. In this study, the Inhibitive properties of extract from almond leave on the corrosion of a low carbon steel flat bar dimension 50mm x 20mm x 3mm was investigated using gravimetric measurement in an acidic medium of 0.5M HCl. The inhibitive mechanism of the plant extract on the surface of low carbon steel at different temperature (30-60oC) show that the inhibition efficiency (IE) of the inhibitor increases with increase in its concentration but vice versa with increase in temperature, an indication of a physisorption of inhibitor on the surface of carbon steel. Higher values of the activation energy, enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation which agree with the physisorption nature of the low carbon steel were observed due to increase in inhibitor concentration While the high negative values of free energy of adsorption (between -20KJ/mol – 40KJ/mol) increasing with temperature indicating a physisorption and chemisorption (comprehensive) of the inhibitors on the low carbon steel surface. The trend of adsorption on the low carbon steel surface was in accordance with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
KEYWORDS: low carbon steel, Physisorption, Chemisorption, Langmuir adsorption.