INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MGT.
VOL. 4 NO.3 MAR-2018 ISSN: 2166-3193
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DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY FOR THE PERIOD 1981-2016 IN SOUTH-EASTERN BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA
CHARLES L. SANOU1,2*, DANIEL N. TSADO2, ANDRÉ KIEMA3, JULIA O. EICHIE1,2, GILDAS L.M. GUIDIGAN1,2
1 Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria 2 West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use 3 Institut de l’Environnement et la Recherches Agricoles, Région du Centre Burkina Faso
This research work aims to study the variabilities/changes in rainfall and temperature over the last thirty-six years (1981-2016) within Gourma and Kompienga province, south-eastern region of Burkina Faso. In order to achieve this aim, climatic data (1981-2016) was retrieved and analysed. First of all, rainfall categories analysis was done and the frequency of each categories over the last six years were compared to that of the climatology in each province. Standard Anomalies Index (SAI) analysis was conducted on rainfall and temperature data. Furthermore, rain onset, cessation, Length of Rainy Season (LRS) and Number of Rainy Days (NRD) were computed from daily rainfall data. In addition, interannual and seasonal coefficient of variation were computed. Moreover, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out to compared rainfall pattern between Gourma and Kompienga provinces over six periods of six years from 1981 to 2016. Annual rainfall amount was finally computed in both provinces and compared to the values of climatology. The results show a global variability in rainfall categories but more in Gourma than in Kompienga. The period studied was characterized by more wet years (17%) than dry years (14%) while the normal years were predominant (69%) in Kompienga province. While Gourma province was characterized by predominant normal years (72%) followed by dry years (17%) and wet years (11%). The inter-annual temperature showed high anomalies over the 36 years (1981-2016). In addition, rain onset, cessation, LRS varied compared to those of the climatology in both provinces. The results show less (CV<20%), moderate (20%<CV<30%) and high (CV>30%) variability in annual and seasonal rainfall over the period 1981-2016 rather than a change in yearly rainfall. Both Coefficient of variation and PCA showed that the rainfall was highly variable over the different periods but more variable in Gourma than in Kompienga. Over the last six years, annual rainfall amount in Kompienga was found lower than that of the climatology while in Gourma it was higher than that of the climatology in 2012 and 2015.
KEYWORDS: Temperature, Rainfall, Climate Variability, Anomalies, Coefficient of variation, Principal Component Analysis.
EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTION DEFECT ON PROPERTY MANAGEMENT IN BWARI AREA COUNCIL FCT ABUJA, NIGERIA
1 UMAR AUWAL, 2LUKMAN SAID 1 DANIEL RAYMOND, 1AHULA TAVERSHIMA
1 Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 2Department of Physical Planinning and Development, Bauchi State University, Gadau Main Campus, Itas – Gadau LGA, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Defective construction in buildings are numerous and varied, either in the local construction scenario, or in other parts of the world. This problem of defect in new building constructions must be overcome as it severely affects the aesthetics, livability of the environment and the overall management of the property. This study has looked into the nature of defective construction, the factors influencing such construction and the effect it has on property management in Bwari Area council of the FCT. Questionnaires was design and distributed to 136 respondents consisting of building professionals like the Architects, Builders, Engineers, Estate surveyors using survey research design and stratified sampling techniques to choose the respondents. Only 120 responses was retrieved and used for data analysis. The SPSS Package was used for analysis of percentage and mean ranking. The study major findings reveals that; the main constructional defect suffered the most in the study area is defect in roof and walls of buildings while the main factors affecting construction defect are failure to capture maintenance at the design stage, lack of design standards and non-compliance to standards and specifications with resultant negative effects. The study recommended, some preventive measures to defective construction to include; strict supervision, proper construction management and quality control, thorough training and education of artisans, and the use of quality materials. A reduction in the incidence of defective construction will reduce property management cost and risk in investment as well as have positive influence on the economy of Nigeria. As such, Building professionals has to carry out their duties with a greater sense of responsibility, competency and take up the challenge of creating more values in the built environment.
KEYWORDS: Construction, Management, Maintenance, Property, Defects,
RELEVANCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON DEVELOPMENT CONTROL.
ESV ALLI KEHINDE ABDULRASHEED AND ESV AFOLAYAN ABEL OMONIYI
Department Of Est Mgt, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
Geographical Information Systems, GIS is an “application” that provides the framework within which information storage and transmission can be undertaken. Application of GIS can be beneficial, not only to land use planning but also to organisations in the private and public sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the relevance of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Development Control with specific reference to Ilorin as a case study. The paper discusses Information Technology vis-a-vis Geographical Information Systems. It also talks about Development Control in Planning Practice. This is followed by an examination of Development Control under the 1992 Urban and Regional Planning Law. The methodology includes a reconnaissance survey of the study area and visits to relevance planning authorities and professionals and literature review of relevant journals, past thesis, textbooks etc. Based on the findings, the paper then recommends ways to tackle development control with the use of GIS so as to have a good sustainable development.
KEYWORDS: Information Technology, Geographical Information Systems, Development Control, Urban Planning, Sustainable Development.
ANALYSIS OF ANTHROPOGENIC HEAT; IMPACT ON TEMPERATURE FORMATION AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION BALANCE
*TANKO, BINIBONORI SALIHU AND ALIYU TIJJANI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State. Nigeria.
his paper analyzes the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI) and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It concluded by making the three important strategies to minimize the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation.
KEYWORDS: Anthropogenic heat, Energy balance, Energy Consumption, Urban Heat Island
A TRENDS IN COMMERCIAL PROPERTY RENTAL VALUES IN TALASSE, BALANGA L.G.A, GOMBE STATE
HAFSATU JIDERE BALA & ANOSIKE DOMINION
Department of Estate Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
his study was carried out to determine the trends and the factors responsible for the changes in commercial rental values in Talasse, Balanga Local Government of Gombe State. Due to population growth coupled with the fact that trends in property values is an important factor to be considered when the feasibility and viability appraisal of proposed development is to be determined. A set of questionnaire were designed to gain primary data from the respondents about the rental values and causes of changes in trends of commercial property rental values in the study area. The overall findings of the study indicated that there is an upward steady increase in the commercial property rental values in the study area. The market rental value trends give information to the investors and encourage them to invest in commercial properties so as to enhance supply of shop accommodation in Talasse, some suggestions have been made to increase supply of land for commercials development, the need to carry out integrated rural development that is to pursue radical development of the rural economy by eliminating unemployment.
KEYWORDS: commercial property, Rental value, property market.
FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT FOR BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITIES: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
EBENEHI, IBRAHIM YAKUBU1,2, MOHAMED, SULZAKIMIN1, SARPIN, NORLIANA1
1 Department of Construction Management, Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia 2Department of Building Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Gwallameji Village, Off Dass Road, Bauchi-Tafawa Balewa, 0231, Bauchi, Nigeria
Fire safety involves all activities aimed at realising fire prevention, fire detection, and fire control, and to evacuate building occupants during fire outbreak safely. Effective management of fire safety can reduce potential fire danger, assist occupants in reaching the ultimate place of safety in case of fire and regular maintenance will ensure all fire safety provisions in the building can be kept in right workable conditions. Research on fire safety management (FSM) had been conducted in various buildings types. However, very few had been undertaken holistically for buildings in the Higher Education Institutions (HEI). Hence this paper attempts to develop a conceptual framework for effective FSM for buildings in Malaysian HEIs. This research is carried out through intensive literature review to identify the appropriate variables for the proposed framework. The paper revealed that design and management of building fire safety are essential variables necessary for developing effective FSM for HEIs.
KEYWORDS: FSM, Higher Education Institution, Framework development
SOLUTIONS TO INADEQUATE TOILETS USING IEC AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOURIAL CHANGE IN BAUCHI
1SHUAIBU NURU MAMMAN, 2OGWUCHE HENRY AUDU, 3KABIRU ZAKARI AND 4OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
1Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2,3&4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
n furtherance to the well celebrated achievement of Bauchi has one of the states identified with open defecation free environment, the need for affordable toilet design, construction and management of such sanitary facilities are too much of a heavy burden to bear due to some circumstances beyond the control of the masses. Information, education and communication (IEC) combines strategies, approaches and methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health are being proffered as solution. Identifying and promoting specific behaviours and attitudes include interpersonal communication (such as individual discussions, personal and inter personal hygiene, counselling sessions or group discussions and community meetings and events) or mass media communication (such as radio, television and other forms of one-way communication, such as brochures, leaflets and posters, visual and audio visual presentations and some forms of electronic communication) used to play important roles. Others are posters, flyers, leaflets, brochures, booklets, messages for health education sessions, radio broadcast or TV spots, etc. Therefore, this paper is aimed at studying the various IEC concepts in achieving solutions to improved toilets in Bauchi. The respondents contacted showed a positive agreement by carefully correlating general and specific views. The provision of to affordable toilets in Bauchi are geared towards improved sanitation trend, certain innovative constructions, hygienic behaviours and attitudes, cutting-edge technologies, principles, laws and regulations among others. As a result of the above, the paper revisits as well as appraises the IEC issues, challenges and solutions of inadequate toilets to affordable toilets in Bauchi for positive implementation and benefits.
KEYWORDS: Environment, communication, concepts, information, solutions
ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED SANDCRETE BLOCKS IN IDAH, NIGERIA
ESAN, OLUSEGUN AKINTOMIDE1 EBENEHI IBRAHIM YAKUBU2 ADERIBIGBE YINKA WASIU3
1&3Building Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah 2Building Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
his paper investigates the strength characteristics of sandcrete blocks commercially produced in Idah, Nigeria. Three 225mm and three 150mm blocks were randomly selected from each of the ten commercial sandcrete blocks producers and transported to the Laboratory, in The Federal Polytechnic, Idah. The blocks were tested for compressive strength. The test result revealed that the aggregates and water used were suitable for block making, however, the compressive strength of all the sandcrete blocks fell below standard recommended by Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) 87: 2000. The compressive strength of the blocks ranges from 1.1 N/mm2 to 2.5N/mm2 for225mm and 150mm blocks. This was due to the low quantity of cement, inadequate compaction and improper curing therefore, strict cement ratio, adequate compaction and proper curing of blocks were suggested as ways to improve on the quality of sandcrete blocks.
KEYWORDS: Sandcrete blocks, compressive strength, curing, materials, Mix Ratio, Water.
AN ASSESSMENT OF PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN WATER SUPPLY IN NIGERIA.
*LAWAL KABIR TUNAU, **BARTHON NUWARI ATI, **IBRAHIM MAMMAN & *STEPHEN JOSEPH
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa – Nigeria. **Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa – Nigeria.
ater project is one of the Urban infrastructures that have impact on economic development. The importance of water in the life of Cities has been well reported. However, it has been observed that most Urban water projects embarked upon by government hardly achieve their set objectives or yield the optimal result because of poor management of facilities involved both physically and social. It is usually the general expectations and beliefs that government spends public funds on projects to advance the nation’s social and economic objectives. The continued poor management /maintenance culture of facilities are rarely questioned before most water projects are embarked upon for rehabilitation and expansion by various governments. This paper is concerned with an assessment of private sector participation in water supply in Nigeria. In conducting the research, data and information was generated through desk study (journals, textbooks) etc. The paper looked at trends and prospects in private sector participation, Recent trends of private sector participation in utilities Provisions, under which Private Sector Participation in Infrastructures, Private Participation in Infrastructure Development by Region of the World were discussed. Other issues highlighted in the paper were the promise and challenge of private sector participation, private sector participation in water supply in Nigeria, State of Water Supply in Nigeria, The Lagos State Water Privatization Experience, Considerations for Water Privatization in Nigeria, National Policy on Water as well as its Affordability. Lastly, a Proposed Framework on water supply for the Nigerian Environment was made.
KEYWORDS: Water Supply, Private Sector Participation, infrastructure & utilities.
AN EXAMINATION OF PRINCIPAL TYPES OF LANDED PROPERTY IN BAUCHI URBAN CENTRES
1ILEKOIN OLUTOBA AYODELE, 2BHADMUS, RASHEED TUNDE AND 1ANOSIKE DOMINION
1Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Quantity Surveying Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Urban centers are linked with the variety of function where all categories of work, industries and services are present. The variety in roles causes land in urban centers to provide several, and dissimilar functions. This has created growing rivalry and need for land amongst the increasing inhabitants of urban centers. The statistics of people living in urban areas keep on rising all over the world. The world`s urban population is predictable to grow up at an annual rate of approximately double the growth rate of the world`s entire population (UN-HABITAT, 2014).The paper observed that the principal types of landed properties in urban centre in Bauchi are accommodation ground rent, agricultural ,industrial, commercial , recreational and special purpose properties . Factors that affect the values of those properties were also examined.
KEYWORDS: Landed property, urban centers, development, population, Bauchi
APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT [IWRM] IN NIGERIA: THE CURE FOR WATER SHORTAGE AND SUPPLY
*DR. ENGR. GANA A.J, **ENGR. TOBA. A.P, **ENGR. OKIGBO .S. N
*Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara state **Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Pmb 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
his paper Examiners the application of integrated water Resources management in Nigeria, its cure for water shortage and supply. The study consider the WHAT, WHY, HOW, principles, challenges key Integrated water resources management. The study finally proffered strategies for achieving Integrated water resources management and the benefits that will accompany the entire process.
KEYWORDS: Application, Integrated water resources management, cure for water shortage, supply.
EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH HOUSEHOLD WATER PROBLEMS IN BARKIN LADI LGA, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
PETER MUSA WASH, BOT RWANG, VERONICA NANLE AND DAVE GYANG BOTT
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, Plateau Polytechnic Barkin Ladi.
This paper examined the effects associated with household water problems in Barkin Ladi Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Some extend of literature search was done in order to have an insight of the issue at stake and relate to the existing situation in Barkin Ladi. The research reveals the ways of solving inadequate water supply. The major sources of water in the areas studied were well and boreholes which constitute 92.48% and 7.52% respectively. The effects associated with household water problems ranges from Time spent in searching for water, amount paid for water daily, distance to source of water, others are diseases as a result of contamination and extra expenses. The paper recommended some ways of cushioning the effects such as policies and programmes with regards to water supply be implemented to the later, sinking more bore holds, Durable rain harvest and storage, involving the people when planning for water supply and proper environmental impact assessment.
KEYWORDS: Household, Water Problem, Water Supply, Water Demand, Source of Water,
A CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL LAND DEGRADATION IN OKE-OYI KWARA STATE
UWAEZUOKE, NGOZI IFEANYI1, OLADOJA, OLAWALE ISMAILA2 AND ALIYU, AKEEM ALHAJI3.
Department Of Estate Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
ural land degradation in Kwara State is becoming widespread because fallow land are unavailable for agricultural activities due to increase in soil erosion, vegetation degradation and hydrological changes leading to loss of land productivity necessitates this study. One hundred and forty-one(141) questionnaires were administered randomly to crop and livestock farmers while one hundred and thirty eight (138) were retrieved and analyzed using frequency distribution and percentage system. Interview was also used as instrument in gathering data. It was discovered that large proportion of land degradation in the area is caused by natural forces of water, followed by intense land cultivation. The most negatively affected agricultural activities are crop planting with 55.07% ranked 1st, goat rearing 13.76% was ranked 2nd,keeping of local fowls 13.76% ranked 3rd while sheep rearing with 6.52% was ranked 4th and the Indigenous practices majorly adopted in controlling land degradation include: the use of crop residues 115 (83.33%) and 101 (73.19%) carried out sand filling of gullies, as well as minimum tillage while 97 (70.29%) make ridges across slope . It was recommended that government , non-governmental agencies and community leaders should as a matter of urgency educate farmers on the need to use multipurpose tree on crop land and multipurpose wood lot for soil protection in the area of indigenous measures in controlling land degradation.
KEYWORDS: Causes, Effects ,Rural , Land, degradation.