INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (IJETR) VOL. 4 NO.2


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

VOL. 4 NO.2 MAR-2018 ISSN: 1074-4741, (IJETR) MARCH, 2018

Published by:

Mediterranean Scholar Publications and Research International,

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Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro, P.O. Box 16868, Wuse3,

Abuja FCT-Nigeria.

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PAPERS:

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR AND CIRCULAR PATCH MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS FOR WiMAX LOWER BAND APPLICATIONS

MUHAMMAD SANI YAHYA1, ISHAKU ABDUL DALYOP1, ABUBAKAR SALISU2

1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa UniversityBauchi State- Nigeria 2Department of Electrical Electronics Engineeing, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola-Adamawa Sate Nigeria.

Abstract

T

his paper describes the design procedures for both Microstrip rectangular and circular patch antennas at 2.5 GHz for WiMAX lower band application. The performance of the antennas based on reflection coefficient at input port, bandwidth, 3D radiation pattern, 2D radiation pattern in polar coordinate, front to back ratio at both E&H plane were compared and reported. Microstrip antennas have the attractive features of low profile, lightweight, easy to feed and good radiation characteristics. However the antennas may be too large for practical applications at the lower microwave frequency range and may offer only a few percentage of bandwidth. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio is used as an effective tool for 3D electromagnetic simulation of high frequency components.

KEYWORDS: Microstrip, Rectangular Patch, circular Patch, Return loss, VSWR, Radiation Pattern

 

REVIEW OF JATROPHA BIODIESEL KEROSENE BLENDS USED AS FUEL IN A PRESSURIZED COOKING STOVE

 

1 BABAJO, S.A., 2UNWAHA, J.I. AND 3MUSA, A. J.

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State

Abstract

B

io-fuels are liquid fuels that have been derived from other materials such as waste plant and animal matter. Jatropha Curcas is a native tropical plant of America and naturalized throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia and Africa, it seed contains about 38%wt oil. Between 27% and 32% oil can be mechanically extracted from seed using a screw. Jatropha plant had been identified as a very important source of bio-fuels after palm oil. Nigeria has the potential to become the largest bio-fuel market in Africa if the enormous feedstock at her disposal is maximally utilized. Biodiesel is increasingly considered very important in addressing energy security problems, poverty dependency on fossil fuels and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission and PM emission. The blends are made in volumetric percentage and designated as BX where X is the percentage of biodiesel in the blend. For example, B10 has 10% biodiesel and 90% conventional diesel. B100 is pure biodiesel. The benefits of biodiesel include reduction in net CO2 emissions, HC and CO emissions and visible smoke. Biodiesel also contains no aromatics. It has low sulfur content and improves lubricity. Biodiesel is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It benefits of using bio-diesel include the following: energy policy act, economic benefit, environmental benefits.

KEYWORDS: Jatropha nuts, bio-diesel, blends, bio-fuel, pressurized cooking stove

 

SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING: A SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION SETUP FOR NETWORK TRAFFIC ANALYSIS

B.O SADIQ, A.E ADEDOKUN, B.YAHAYA AND S. SULEIMAN,

Department of Computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

Abstract

T

his paper presented a step by step approach to simulating, implementing and analyzing network traffic in Software Defined Networking (SDN). The process of generating network statistics by aiding connectivity and monitoring activities of a real network in software defined networking environment was presented. A network topology consisting of 4 hosts, 2 switches and a POX remote controller was used with a view demonstrating practical implementation and simulation setup of SDN. Wireshark was used as a network protocol analyzer to monitor and sniff packets generated in order to analyzing captured packets. The paper is expected to be a foundation for student researchers in SDN.

KEYWORDS: SDN, Simulation, Network and Traffic Analysis

 

LONG RANGE LOAD FORECAST OF NIGERIAN POWER SYSTEM USING LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

1 A.M. Y. JUMBA, 2HUSSAINI ABATCHA, 1Z. U. DAHIRU, 1 DAHIRU Z. L., 3BALA HUSAINI

1Departement of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Departement of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam Yobe State 3Departement of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse

Abstract

A

steady, reliable and qualitative electricity is the basic infrastructure and driving force for economic and industrial development of any nation, therefore Nigeria current electricity installed capacity that stands between 10,000 – 12,000MW is seriously inadequate,(even if it is equal to the generating capacity) to derive the desire developmental goals and industrial advancement. This research work focuses on long range load forecast of Nigerian power system using linear regression model. The forecasted power for the period under review was 25,582.74MW, therefore for the country to achieve its vision of being among the 20th leading economy in the world; it must Increase available capacity from 6056MW to about 35, 000MW, as well as Increase transmission capacity from 5,838MVA to 25000 MVA and distribution capacity from 8,425MVA to 30,000MVA by year 2035.

KEYWORDS: Long range, Load forecast, linear regression, Economy and Industrial

 

DEVELOPMENT OF A STEAM BOILER FIRED BY AGRICULTURAL SOLID WASTE (FUEL)

1ABUBAKAR M. A., 2 BALA A. M.,2 IBRAHIM I. F.,2 GARBA A. A., 2CHARLSE S. ONATE

1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria 2Department of Electrical and Electronics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

A

250kg/h steam boiler was designed, constructed, and tested. The design started with a review of existing steam boilers, detailed design theory and design calculations were carried out followed by the part drawing. Each component of the boiler was designed and analysed in accordance to standard of specification and assembly. The designed boiler was tested to ensure its efficient workability and temperature of the steam at 1000c was recorded at different time intervals. The design, construction and testing of the steam boiler using agricultural solid waste was conceived to produce steady power supply. The boiler is being power by the agricultural solid waste (wood shaving) which is readily available. The to corrosion, while mild steel was used for the boiler stand because the material may not be in contact with the fluid (water and steam). The cost of constructing the boiler was estimated to be N67,820. After the construction, the boiler was tested the efficiency was 76% compared to the calculated efficiency of 82%.

KEYWORDS: Steam, Boiler, Temperature, Pressure, Solid-waste

 

COMPARATIVE AND HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THREE PHASE MULTI-LEVEL PWM INVERTERS USING MATLAB

ALIYU SISA AMINU1 AHMADU M. ALIYU¹& IBRAHIM ALHAJI2

1Department of Physics, Gombe State University. Gombe, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics, Federal University Kashere. Gombe, Nigeria.

Abstract

T

he ever increasing demand for conversion of DC into AC power presents the need for Multi-level inverters, they are used in many industrial applications because of good power quality, minimum losses and less harmonics contents. This paper analyse and compare three phase two-level single bridge inverter and three phase two-level double bridge inverter using Simulink model of Matlab. The simulation result and FFT analysis both shows that for the six-switch inverter, the first harmonic occur around the carrier frequency with THD of 3.99% whereas for the twelve-switch inverter, harmonic are lower and appear at double of carrier frequency with a THD of 1.75%, as such the load voltage is cleaner for the twelve-switch inverter.

KEYWORDS: Multi-level, inverter, Matlab, Simulink, FFT Tool, PWM.

 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 3KVA INVERTER USING MOSFET

G.N. JOLA1     NJEAKOR UZO O. BASIL 2

1Electrical Electronics Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 2Hash Tonics Satellite Company, No. 2 Tamandu road, Kano, Nigeria

Abstract

I

nverters are used in a wide range of applications, from small switched power supplies for a computer to large electric utility applications to transport bulk power. This report contains details of the design and construction of a modern dc to ac single phase inverter. The system consists of the main inverter circuit which converts the dc input to an alternating signal. A driver stage amplifies this output voltage. The ac signal is then fed to different MOSFET driver stages which drive its output step-up transformer. The transformer provides single phase ac output.

KEYWORDS: Inverter, electric utility, Dc input, Alternating signal, step –up transformer.

 

A SURVEY OF INTERFERENCE MITIGATION TECHNIQUES IN FEMTO-MACRO HETEREOGENEOUS NETWORK

*ABDOULIE MOMODOU SUNKARY TEKANYI & **EMMANUEL ADEWALE ADEDOKUN

*Department of Communication Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria **Department of Computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Abstract

H

eterogeneous Network (HetNet) is a mixed of small based station such as femto, pico, and micro cells within an existing coverage area of macro cell. It has been proposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) to provide a solution for high demand of data by customers. However, one major challenge of HetNet is interference which could lead to low data rate if not mitigated.   In this paper, a review of existing interference mitigation techniques in Long Term Evolution release 10 (LTE rel. 10) is presented and concluded by proposing a new technique to mitigate interference in a femto-macro HetNet.

KEYWORDS: Femtocell, Macrocell, HetNet, Interference, eICIC.

 

A HARMONIC MITIGATION FOR THREE PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) USING SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE

1AMINU HAMISU KURA 2HAMISU USMAN, AND 3MUHAMMAD MUSTAPHA SALEH

1,2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic 2Department of Electrical Technology, School of Secondary Education Technical, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau, Zamfara State

Abstract

T

he proliferation of power electronics, and most switch mode application devices, harmonics plays a significant role due to non-linearity condition of any switching scheme applied. The reasonable losses usually occur as a result of the mode of switching ON and OFF frequently. This report is aimed to investigate the approach used to design Pulsed Width Modulation (PWM) for three phase inverter using modulation techniques faded in order to decrease the total harmonic distortion (THD) of load current. The THD value can be reduced by eliminating the harmonics that are not required. The harmonics elimination pulse width modulation (HEPWM) to the three phase inverter is a modified method of removing such harmonics and reducing switching losses and other losses so that a pure sinusoidal voltage output waveform can be achieved. The analysis of SPWM technique and harmonic elimination is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink model in order to verify the design. The HEPWM inverter is then compared with sinusoidal PWM modulation technique (SPWM) inverter that has similar switching performance to determine the advantage of HEPWM technique over SPWM technique. Simulation results obtained with the proposed technique proven to satisfy the current harmonic limit of IEEE 519-2014 harmonic standard.

KEYWORDS: Total harmonic distortion, Pulse width modulation, IGBT, MATLAB and Analysis.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF A BRAKE DRUM MODEL WITH FINS INCORPORATION FOR HEAT DISSIPATION ENHANCEMENT

BAKO SUNDAY1, BORI IGE2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Federal University of Technology Minna

Abstract

Extreme heat within an automobile brake drum could cause brake failure which could as well lead to death of passengers and lost of properties. One of the ways to dissipate heat faster from an automobile brake drum is by incorporating fin on the outer surface of the brake drum as pointed out in many literatures. This work concerns converting 1/10 0f the overall height thickness of the brake drum into fins for effective heat dissipation by both conduction and convection. During the modified brake drum development process, necessary fin design formulae were taken into account. Modeling and simulation analysis were carried out using Solidworks (2013) software, followed by validation using theoretical Finite Element analysis. The minimum temperatures obtained from the simulation analysis were 4935K and 4927K for the existing and the modified brake drum model respectively. While maximum displacements obtained from the simulation analysis were and for the existing and the modified brake drum model respectively. This implies that the modified brake drum have improved strength and better heat dissipation than the existing model. This is as the result of the circumferential arrangement of the fins on the outer surface of the brake drum.

KEYWORDS: Modified Brake Drum Development and Validation

 

THE STUDY AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY FOR HVAC AND CENTRALISED SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEMS

SIBEUDU C.E, OCHUBA N. & FIDELIS ODIGWE.

Department Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Oko

Abstract

T

he Al Raha Beach Development entail a major new city situated at Al Raha Beach on the outskirts of Abu Dhabi- United Arab Emirates. The Development is currently in the early stages of construction and will involve the creation of a new landmass to accommodate the development of several precincts along a canal frontage with an integrated mix of uses including residential, commercial, retail, tourism, recreation and public spaces. The aim is to create a land area for hotels, resorts, shopping arcades, waterside promenades, apartments and offices to ultimately develop a new waterfront city. This 11km long complex has an area of 6,800,000m2, a total built up area of 12,000,000m2 and comprises 9 subdevelopments, including the highly prestigious Al Zeina development. The Al Zeina precinct is considered as .the strategic gateway to Al Raha. and was constructed at a cost of $510M in 127,190 m2 of land. It provides 1,200 premium Apartments, Townhouses and Villas facing the golden beaches of Abu Dhabi. A large range of facilities within the development, such as swimming pools, private gardens, retail facilities, gymnasiums and libraries are also provided for residents. Pell Frischmann was appointed to provide a full multidisciplinary design service including: architecture, structural engineering, geotechnical and M&E engineering design, fire, vertical transportation, traffic and transportation, construction supervision and the authority approvals. The developer, a joint venture between ALDAR and Laing O.Rourke, appointed Pell Frischmann to design the entire complex based on a previous concept. At the time Pell Frischmann was commissioned, there were no standards or regulations relating to sustainability in place in the UAE. As a consequence, the developer, in recognition of global concerns, specified that it needed to achieve a minimum Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design (LEED) .Silver. rating. Achieving this rating would require design and construction techniques that were very different to the traditional methods of constructing buildings in the UAE. The Al Zeina scheme was procured as a fast-track project with a demanding programme. This was to ensure the scheme would tie in with ALDAR.s Yas Island leisure development. The short programme that was specified meant that design and construction had to go hand-in-hand. The strict program, the client.s sustainable aspirations, and the lack of standard regulations in the UAE led to the key challenges on this project . where the conflicting requirements of our client and the authorities led to considerable design changes. Pell Frischmann acted as arbiter during these discussions to achieve a solution that pleased both the client and the authorities. However, further challenges occurred with the collapse of the global economy, where Abu Dhabi was particularly badly affected, and how we worked with our client through these new and unforeseen pressures. From April 2008 to present, I have been working for Pell Frischmann Consultants, as a senior Mechanical Engineer in building services. Pell Frischmann is a UK based consultant with major operations throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

KEYWORDS: Energy, Practical, Hot, System, Design

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