HUMMINGBIRD PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
PROCEEDINGS/ABSTRACTS OF THE 17TH ACADEMIC CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITIES IN 21ST CENTURY: MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH. VOL.17 NO.1,
DATE: 17TH – 18TH AUGUST, 2017.
VENUE: SIR JAMES MANCHAM INTERNATIONAL HALL, CENTRE FOR PEACE STUDY AND DIPLOMACY, UNIVERSITY OF SEYCHELLES, UNISEY, SEYCHELLES.
EVALUATION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST TERMITE INFESTATION ON TRIPLOCHYTON SCLEROXYLON WOOD IN DAMATURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT, YOBE STATE OF NIGERIA.
AKWARANDU KARACHE E*., ALABI ADEDAMOLA S**., FILANI GBENGA S.***, ADEBISI ATILADE A.**, ALKALI USMAN U* AND SULEIMAN GAMBO S*.
*Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba, PMB 1104, Damaturu Post Office. **Department of Forestry Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igbo Ora, Oyo State ***Department of Forestry, Ministry of Environment Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Termites’ attack on wood in use has been an issue of great concern in the Forestry and Wood industry. The non-durable but economically important wood of Triplochiton scleroxylon (obeche), which is one of the readily available and affordable woods in the construction and furniture industry today, will in a place like Damaturu, Yobe state of Nigeria, where termite attack on wood and wood products is very high (Olufemi et al., 2014, Oroke, 2014), be of little or no importance if adequate preservation measures are not taken to protect it; while at the same time, considerations have to be given to the economic, environmental and health cost of wood preservation. Equal number of wooden blocks from the same timber of obeche were subjected to three types of treatments namely treatment with Solignum, immersion in Neem extracts and Untreated or Control (N, S and C respectively) by immersing some of the blocks in a mixture of neem (Azadiratcha indica) seed oil and neem leaf extract, a mixture of solignum (chemical) with spent motor oil, and untreated (control) respectively and placed randomly inside an abandoned termite infested structure in Damaturu metropolis, Yobe state. After eight weeks, results showed that while there was a 27.82% reduction in weight in the untreated wood (C) due to destruction by termites, there was only 11.59% in S, while the least affected was N, with 10.28% reduction in weight. Though both the use of solignum and neem extracts showed very significant reduction in the level of termite attack, neem extracts (seed oil + leaf extracts) when compared to the control (untreated wood), N showed a slightly higher, but insignificant resistance compared to S at 5% degree of freedom. The results show that N is more effective in preservation of Triplochiton scleroxylon wood under the study period and condition. It is suggested that the use of solvents in diluting neem seed oil, scarification or incision of wood surface and hot treatment during application can make the wood to absorb preservatives better, thus making possible the use of the economic, environmental and health advantages of the neem products organic preservative.
Keywords: Azadiratcha indica, Scarification, Solignum, Obeche, Wood in use
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION, THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPING PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA
1A.O.J. Adebowale 2H.A Adimula (Phd)
1Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria 2Research and Development Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
Agitation, militancy, pollution, oil theft, relative instability – these are probably the aspects for which Nigeria’s Niger Delta region is best known. This work attempts a dispassionate examination of the challenges faced in developing Nigeria’s Niger Delta region, home to most of the nation’s extensive hydrocarbon reserves. It has been argued that improved development of the region would help bolster its stability, improve the health and environment of its citizens, as well as bolster the Nigerian economy. The history of oil exploration in the region is examined, the impact of petroleum exploitation on the Nigerian economy, the agitation for increased revenue allocation and resource control in the region, and the negative impacts of petroleum exploitation on health and the environment are all discussed. Finally, workable solutions are proffered.
Keywords: Petroleum, Niger Delta, Development, Militancy, Pollution, Resource Control
INFLUENCE OF MODULAR CONSTRUCTION ON SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS IN BAUCHI IDP CAMPS
1OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED 2ALIYU ABUBAKAR MUNKAILA 3RASHEED TUNDE BHADMUS 4KHALID ABUBAKAR MUNKAILA
1&2Department of Architectural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 3&4Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
For better future of building construction processes and procedures in Bauchi internally displaced persons’ (IDP) camp, hence the paper assesses the possibilities of selected modular construction for perfection of materials, technology, cost effectiveness, waste reduction, speedy construction among others of load and non-load bearing walls (internal or external), waste to wealth, useless to useful, nothing to something and sustainability. It also appraises the recent development at this juncture which implies the recent trend in the modular design and construction that are sustainable to the environment. As a result, it was suggested that stakeholders should be cognizance of the application of modular construction with standard material make-up along with the construction technologies so that the current obstacles being faced IDP building construction would be greatly revamped in the building developments in Bauchi metropolis.
Keywords: Building, construction, future, modular and sustainability.
STUDY ON POVERTY AND THE NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1 NJOSI JUSTINA ANWILIKA & 2 ADEBOWALE A.O.J
1 Department Of Industrial Safety And Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B 20 Effurun – Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. 2 Department of Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences
Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B 20 Effurun – Warri, Delta State, Nigeria.
Nigeria has long been facing severe poverty challenges for decades. The root causes of poverty in the country in relation to the Nigerian environment include, environmental degradation, population growth, unequal land distribution, excessive resources consumption, fixed natural resources of crude oil coal and goal, unemployment, jobs loss, uneven development, deficit of infrastructural facilities insecurity, terms of trade, inflation environmentally blind economics. The paper however examines the effects and implications of poverty on the Nigerian environment and possible ways of alleviating poverty challenges affecting the socio-economic well being and development of citizens welfare in Nigeria. Nigeria has been rated one of the poorest countries in the world and so widespread poverty abounds even in the midst of abundant resources. Thus poverty has been identified as the principle driving force behind environmental degradation and miss management of our natural abundant resources in Nigeria. Also, recommendations are suggested on how to curb the phenomenon of poverty and its resultant effects on the Nigerian environment for sustainable development.
Keywords: Poverty Effects, Nigerian Environment and Sustainable Development.
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND SURVIVAL OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES (SMES) IN DAMATURU METROPOLIS
Federal Polytechnic, School of Management Studies, Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, Damaturu
This study examines the effect of poor financial management practices of small and medium enterprises on collapse of Business innovations in Damaturu Metropolis. The study involves 100 business owners currently in businesses and 100 others who failed their businesses before 5years of their start up. Thus the samples constitute 200. The sampling technique used was the simple random to give every member of the population equal chance of being selected. Two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study viz: Ho1: The SMEs failure rate in Damaturu has no relation with poor accounting and record keeping practices. Ho2: The SMEs failure rate in Damaturu has no relation with indiscriminate/excessive withdrawals of cash and other material from the business. The two hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence interval using the chi square test. The result showed a significant value of 0.000 for all the variables. This value indicates a high significance being far less than 0.05, significance level. Thus, the two null hypotheses were rejected and the alternative ones accepted. It implies that SMEs failure rate in Damaturu are affected by the indiscriminate/excessive drawings and poor record keeping. Recommendations were offered as to improve on good accounting practices and to avoid unnecessary withdrawals of cash or material until projected profits are duly realized.
KEYWORDS: Cash drawings, Financial Management, Materials drawings, Survival of SMEs
MANAGING UNSAFE WORK CONDITIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
- M. UMOH, PhD
Directorate of Engineering, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun – Delta State, Nigeria
The nature and prevalence of workplace-induced injuries, diseases, psychological ill-health and environmental impacts signify that there is an urgent need by stakeholders in the oil and gas sector to review measures to manage these hazards. Given the perilous nature of the oil and gas industry, the need for implementation of an efficient Occupational Safety and Health Management System is important for improving safety and health performance. Oil and gas companies represent a significant portion of wealth among the world’s major industries; however their efforts toward sustainability still require improvement. This paper outlines safety incidents one should look out for in the Oil and Gas industry as well as the key safety and health hazards associated with the upstream, midstream and downstream segments of Oil and Gas industry. An attempt is also made to enumerate occupational safety and health risk management procedures by identifying and assessing safety and health hazards existing at the workplace and also defining appropriate control and remedial steps. A systematized approach involving solution model based on the Plan–Do –Check –Act (PDCA) cycle is used for managing occupational safety and health hazards. The key steps involving general risk management process in the oil and Gas industry as well as the significance, features, components and benefits of an effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) have also been highlighted.
Keywords: Oil and Gas Industry, Occupational Safety, Health Management System, Hazards, Risk Management.
L’ENSEIGNEMENT DE FRANÇAIS, LA TRADUCTION ET L’INTERPRETATION: DES IMPERATIVES POUR LE NIGERIA ET LA CEDEAO.
- (MRS) DINATU IWALA
Department of French, Nasarawa state University, Keffi, Nigeria.
Le monde vit au rythme de la mondialisation, elle s’accentue de plus en plus et affecte tous les domaines .Cependant on oublie bien souvent de parler des véhicules de la mondialisation, sans lesquels, la mondialisation elle serait une utopie : c’est la traduction et l’interprétation. Ces deux activités sont l’oxygène de la mondialisation. En effet dans un contexte de diversité linguistique le monde n’a pas d’autre choix que d’y recourir. Dans cette course, le Nigeria, un géant en Afrique et la CEDEAO, une organisation dont il est le pivot se trouvent de la même optique. L’activité traduisante et l’interprétation sont un passage obligatoire pour survivre dans un contexte mondialisant. Dans ce travail, nous abordons les titres suivants : La position géographique du Nigéria en Afrique et l’importance du Français au Nigéria, le Nigéria, la CEDEAO : de la nécessité du français. Oui, l’activité traduisante s’impose.
MEASUREMENT OF ULTRA-VIOLET (UV) SOLAR RADIATION AT ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Physics, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
The UV solar radiation on earth depends on geometrical factors such as altitude, latitude, solar zenith angle and other atmospheric parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to study the variation of the intensity of UV solar radiation with time for the period of three months for Ilorin located in the North Central part of Nigeria (8o30’N, 4o33’E). The maximum and minimum values of UV solar radiation recorded during the period of study were 67 Wm-2 and 0.4 Wm-2 respectively and for the daily average obtained as 7.7 Wm-2 and 2.1 Wm-2 respectively. The maximum and minimum values of the UV solar radiation at sunrise and sunset were obtained and they gave 1.5 and 0.4 Wm-2 respectively at sunrise and 17.2 and 0.4 Wm-2 respectively at sunset.
Keywords: Solar radiation, Ultra-violet, Sunrise, Sunset, PACE UV sensor, Ilorin
THE CONCENTRATIONS OF HEAVY METALS IN FISH SAMPLES FROM DUKKU RIVER IN KEBBI STATE OF NIGERIA
- J. HASSAN, M.S. ZUBAIRU AND U. B. UWAISU
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria
The concentrations of Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Lead (Pb) were determined in gills and muscles of Catfish (Clarias garipienus) obtained from Dukku River in Kebbi State of Nigeria using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A.A.S.) The mean concentration of heavy metals in gills and muscles were; Cd (0.167+ 0.029 and 0.133+ 0.058), Pb (8.433+ 4.032 and 9.570+ 3.286), Cr (0.500+ 0.259 and 0.284+ 0.076) and Cu (0.417+ 0.189 and 0.350+ 0.150) respectively. The order of decreasing heavy metal concentrations in the gills and muscles were Pd > Cr > Cu > Cd and Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd respectively. With the exception of Pb, gills were found to have higher concentrations of all the heavy metals analysed. Hence, it could be concluded that the fish (Catfish) in Dukku River was polluted with Pb.
Keywords: Heavy metals, catfish, river
RHF AND DFT THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE BENZENE AND HYDROXYL BENZENE MOLECULE GROUP IN GAS PHASE.
*A. MUHAMMAD1, L .S. TAURA1 AND C.E. NDIKILAR2
1Department of physics, Sule Lamido University Kafin-Hausa, Jigawa State 2Department of physics, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State
The Benzene ring is an important example of conjugated molecule, and also an important building block of many organic semiconductors (OSC). However a single benzene ring is not yet large enough to bring the band-gaps Eg into the OSC regime. The molecular geometries of the Hydroxylbenzene group have been studied using ab-initio Quantum chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatree-fock (RHF) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Also Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP have been carried out at the same basis set for inclusion of electron correlation. The electronic properties calculated are Bond length, Bond angle, total energy, energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, electrophilic index, Hardness and softness. Some of the properties computed like bond lengths and bond angles by DFT are in good agreement with experimental values but those computed from RHF over estimated the results. The energy gap decreases with the substitution of OH radical in the Benzene molecule. The study was performed using Gaussian 03W software.
Keywords: Benzene, Bond length, Energy gap and DFT, RHF
THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA.
JOSEF BAMIDELE BOLARINWA,
Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
A study of the icthyofauna resources of the coastal waters of Ondo State of Nigeria conducted for 18 months (June 2011-December, 2012) revealed the presence of 67 finfish species with the clariids(especially Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) and cichlids(especially Oreochromis niloticus and Coptodon zilli) dominating the stock accounting for 42% and 16% respectively. Other predominant families were A high ’Claroitedae’(Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) with 9.2% contribution, ’Channidae’(Parachanna africana) with 8.7%, Osteoglossidae (Heterotis niloticus) with 7.1%, Gymnarchidae( Gymnarchus niloticus), Mugilidae (Mugil cephalus) and Clupeidae (Ethmalosa fimbriata). Lausanne Index of Abundance was 89.7% while Margalef.s index( a measure of species richness) was 5.18. The Length-weight relationships of these predominant fishes showed negative allometric growth pattern. A high level of heterogeneity of stock was observed as revealed by Simpson Index and Shannon-Weiner Index of General Diversity (H i) which were 0.13 and 0.35 respectively. A lot of similarity in species composition existed as revealed by Evenness Index(E) of 0.20 and Berger-Perker Index of 0.88. There was comparatively higher catches of fish in the dry season than the wet season probably due to reduced water volume which concentrated the fishes for easier catchability. The author recommends the need to protect the existing stock especially the monospecific families like the Osteoglosidae and Gymnarchidae through regular monitoring of the physicochemical parameters of the coastal waters which are highly susceptible to crude oil pollution, Ondo State being a crude oil-producing area. More funds should be committed by the government to researches on population dynamics and biomass estimate of our coastal waters.
Keywords: Species composition, diversity indices, coastal, allometry, Length-weight relationship, icthyofauna, predominant.