JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (JPAS)
Vol. 10 (1) 2017 ISSN – 2278-8779-1
Hummingbird Publications and Research International,
Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18, Justice Sowemimo Street,
Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro. P.O. BOX 16868, Wuse 3,
Copyright © 2017 Hummingbird Publications and Research International
ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS ON IMMUNE SYSTEM: A REVIEW
Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Nigeria
Antioxidants are first line of defense against damage which is caused by free radicals and play an important role in immune function. Exposure to pollutants, drugs, cigarette smoke, stress, illness can increase the production of free radicals in the body. Several antioxidants like Vitamin E , Vitamin C and β-Carotene play an important role in immune responsiveness, health and can affect immune responses. These antioxidants increase the activity of cells which are involved in immunity. This review article focus on the effects of antioxidants on immunity and how immune system depends on antioxidants.
Keyword: antioxidants, immunity, free radical, vitamin c
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION, THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPING PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA
1A.O.J. ADEBOWALE 2H.A ADIMULA (Phd)
1Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria 2Research and Development Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
Agitation, militancy, pollution, oil theft, relative instability – these are probably the aspects for which Nigeria’s Niger Delta region is best known. This work attempts a dispassionate examination of the challenges faced in developing Nigeria’s Niger Delta region, home to most of the nation’s extensive hydrocarbon reserves. It has been argued that improved development of the region would help bolster its stability, improve the health and environment of its citizens, as well as bolster the Nigerian economy. The history of oil exploration in the region is examined, the impact of petroleum exploitation on the Nigerian economy, the agitation for increased revenue allocation and resource control in the region, and the negative impacts of petroleum exploitation on health and the environment are all discussed. Finally, workable solutions are proffered.
Keyword: Petroleum, Niger Delta, Development, Militancy, Pollution, Resource Control
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS
1YELWA, S. I., 2KUTAMA*, A. S., 3MALLAM, I. AND M.L. AND 4HARUNA
1Department of Biological Sciences, Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso College of Advanced Studies, Tudun Wada, Kano 2Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Dutse 3Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University, Dutse 4Department of Geography, Sa adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano
It is pertinent that in most institutions of this country, sanitation of the environment is a serious threat to so many aspects of livelihood in the institutions. Although similar scenario prevails in the whole country, the situation is actually pathetic and require an immediate general overhauling. Poor sanitation is the common cause of so many contagious diseases such as diarrhea, syphilis, dysentery, bilhaziasis, ascariasis, candidiasis, gonorrhea e.t.c. accounting for more than 10% of global diseases annually. Although challenged by so many handicaps such as insufficient sources of water, rudimentary or archaic methods of sanitation and handling of wastes, inadequate professionals/ experts to manage and handle the job, etc, it is evident that proper sanitation raises the standard of living of any community, it is vital for proper health, maintain the sanity of the environment, and improve the economic status of the community. In this paper, issues of the challenges, impacts and benefits of environmental sanitation in Nigeria and F.U.D are discussed.
Keyword: environmental sanitation, impacts, challenges, benefits, Nigeria/FUD
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF GUEIRA SENEGALENSIS AND MANGIFERA INDICA ON LOOSE SMUT PATHOGEN (SPORISORIUM CRUENTUM)
1RABI, R.A, 2MARDIYYA AUWAL YAKASAI , 2MUSA, H., AND A. S., 3 KUTAMA,
1 Department of Science., Laboratory, Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State 2Department of Biology, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil 3 Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Dutse.
Methanolic extracts from two different plant species were tested at concentrations 250, 125, 62.5 and 31.2mg/ml as potential sources of antifungal agents for the fungi Sporisorium cruentum. The plant species were Guiera senegalensis (leaves) and Mangifera indica (leaves). The objective of the research was to determine the antifungal activities of leave extract with methanol as solvents on the most frequently occurring sorghum pathogens of the loose smut (Sporisorium cruentum) in Nigeria. All extracts exhibited moderate to good activities on the tested fungi with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The test organism was sensitive to the G. senegalensis extracts, with 14mm and 10mm in diameter at 250mg/ml and 125mg/ml, respectively. The test organism was sensitive to M. indica leaf extract with 12mm in diameter at 250mg/ml. The results showed that all the plants exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration against the test organism. Therefore, it is concluded that extracts of G. senegalensis and M. indica could be used in controlling the fungal pathogen of loose smut (Sporisorium cruentum).
Keyword: Methanolic extracts, antifungal Mangifera indica, G. senegalensis, activities, Sporisorium cruentum
PERSPECTIVES ON AGRICULTURAL BANKING WITH BIAS FOR FINANCING FISHERIES PROJECTS IN NIGERIA.
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
The persistent self-insufficiency in fish production in Nigeria despite the immerse natural and human resources could be traced to poor funding of agricultural activities(especially fisheries projects) by the banking institutions. This paper gave a historical review of agriculture in Nigeria starting from the period when agriculture was the mainstay of our economy in the 1960’s. The present and future expected role of Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN) as a monetary policy formulator and apex lending institution since inception was examined and compared with that of the developed economics like the European Union and United States of America. The various key policy instruments used to date in stimulating institutional supply of credit for agriculture were compared with the Common Agricultural policy (CAP) of the European Union members’ like The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom etc. The issues and challenges facing agriculture banking include poor policy implementation, poor monitoring of banking activities, apathy towards agriculture especially Fisheries sector (which is regarded as a ‘no go area’ due to inadequate technical-know-how of the lenders), mismatch of loans, performance of non-banking or ultra vires transactions like trading and importation by the banks (before the withdrawal of licensing of non- performing banks) and others. The recent agricultural transformation agenda of the Federal Government gave more emphasis on culture fisheries (which is becoming the most profitable agricultural venture) as a way of diversifying from the monolithic oil-dependent economy into agriculture. By and large, there is a need for public enlightenment of culture fisheries especially among the rural dwellers. Agricultural lenders need to be more competitive in provision of innovative services and products. There is a need to adjust her agricultural lending programmes to become more competitive. Bankers in the future need to emphasize sound agricultural loan analysis rather than focusing on portfolio growth. The CBN as the apex monetary body needs to ensure strict compliance with the bank regulations by the banks with appropriate sanctions for deviants if Nigeria is to come out of the current acute food crisis. Nigerians should not suffer in the midst of plenty.
Keyword: Project, Financing, Perspective, Banking, Agriculture.
ON THE EFFECT OF VARYING THE FIRST ORDER DECAY RATE CONSTANT FOR INSULIN IN THE PLASMA ON THE GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION LEVEL USING A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH
- N. EKAKA-A: & U. C. AMADI
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nkpolu, Nigeria
This study has examined the impact of varying the first order decay rate constant for insulin in the plasma on the glucose concentration level indexed by a time variable from 6 minutes to 144 minutes. To the best of our knowledge we have utilized a proven MATLAB ODE numerical scheme to tackle this challenging application of numerical Mathematics to the discipline of medicine. The implications of our pioneering analysis have proposed an urgent need to carefully maintain the extent of varying the first order decay rate constant for insulin in the plasma. The novel contributions of this research output have not been seen elsewhere; these are fully presented and discussed in this paper.
Keyword: computational approach, glucose concentration, insulin in the plasma, decay rate constant, effect of variation, first order.
PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS FED VARYING LEVELS OF LOCAL FISH MEAL DIETS
SA’IDU I., YAKUBU, N AND SHARHUDDEN, Y.
Bauchi State College of Agriculture, Bauchi, Department of Animal Production Technology
Forty-nine days experiment was carried out at poultry unit of Bauchi State College of Agriculture to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed varying levels of local fish meal (LFM) diets. Five experimental diets were formulated for both starter (23% cp) and the finisher (20%cp) phases. Coded as diets 1 (0%) 2 (25%), 3(50%), 4 (75%) and 5(100%). Two hundred and ten (210) broiler chickens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times with fourteen birds per replicate. The result of this study indicated most of the performance attributes at both starter and finisher phases as well as the overall performance were not significantly influenced by the dietary levels of LFM. However starter final weight, initial weight were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary levels of local fish meal. It can be concluded that LFM can completely replace imported one with no adverse effect on the performance attributes.
Keyword: Broiler Chicken, Local Fish Meal, Imported Fish Meal
ETHICAL HACKING: SKILLS AND TOOLS
MBING ISAAC & OBASA ADEKUNLE ISIAKA (PhD)
Department of Computer Science, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria
The rapid emergence of new technologies is always accompanied with new threats and risks. The web is fast developing and data of all kind is made available to everyone’s request. This has made positive and negative impact on the society. Government, organizations, institutions and all data users are faced with security problems the most serious of them being known as hacking. Hacking is the act of finding the possible entry points that exist in a computer system or a computer network and finally entering into them. Hacking is usually done to gain unauthorized access to a computer system or a computer network, either to harm the systems or to steal sensitive information available on the computer. Ethical hacking is an emerging tool used for testing network security. The security risks and vulnerabilities in a network can be recognized with the help of ethical hacking. This paper attempts to enlighten the reader on the science or Art of ethical hacking, its skills and tools and also attempts to familiarize readers to this emerging and challenging area of data communication.
Keyword: Ethical Hacking, Hackers, Hacking Phase, Hacking toolsm White hat hacker, Black hat hacker
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS AMONG RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.
A.S. SAMBO AND I. ZAGI
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, School of Agricultural Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Samaru-Kataf Campus.
The study analyzed food security situation among rural farming households in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for selecting samples for the study. In the first stage, four Local Government Areas were purposively selected based on their large concentration of farming households, from which two rural communities were each selected. The last stage involved simple random selection of 20% of the farming households from each rural community selected in stage two, to give a total of 120 households as the sample size for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, household food security index and binary logistic regression model. Results of socio-economic characteristics of farming households showed that the mean age of household heads in the study area was 39 years, majority (87.5%) of the households were headed by males and 83.3% of the households’ heads were married. Major occupations of the household heads were farming and trading representing 40% of all the household heads and over 59% of them had secondary school education. The results further show that average household size in the study area was 11 persons. Also, 40% of the household heads had farming experience of between 14 and 22 years and mean annual households income was ₦557,783.00. Majority (55.8%) of the household heads claimed not to have access to extension services. Results of food security status of farming households revealed that 67% of the households were food secure and 33% were food insecure. The Mean Per Capita Food Expenditure (MPCFE) and food security line were ₦3,549.61 and ₦2,366.41 respectively. Results of logistic regression analysis reveal that coefficients of farming experience and access to credit were positive on households’ food security status and significant at 5% level of probability; while those of household size and monthly income were also positive and significant at 1% level of probability. The results further shows that the most common food insecurity coping strategy used by farming households was borrowing money to buy food items, which was used by 60% of the households and ranked 1st. The study concluded that majority of the farming households were food secure. It recommends that low interest credit should be made available and easily accessible by commercial banks and other lending institutions to farmers since most of households rely on borrowing money to purchase food items in situations of food insecurity.
Keyword: Socio-economic, Assessment, Food Security, Farming households, Kaduna State.
THE RESPONSE OF WATERMELON AT DIFFERENT RATES OF POULTRY MANURE IN BAUCHI, GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA
*CHIMDI G. O, **ABUBAKAR I., ***HARUNA Y. AND ****JIBRIN, M.S.
*,**,***Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. **** Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Bauchi State, College of Agriculture.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of watermelon to five different rates of poultry manure. The study was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments were 0, 3, 5, tons of poultry manure per hectare. The parameters measured were vine length, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using LSD. The results of the study showed that plants that received highest rate of poultry manure (5 tons/ha) were superior in the parameters tested with vine length of 196.9 cm at 8 weeks, mean number of leaves of 67.4 , number of branches/plant of 7.6, and mean number of fruit of 145,043 /ha). Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that farmers in the study area apply 5 ton/ha of poultry manure for increased growth and yield of watermelon.
Keyword: Zone, Poultry, Response, Guinea, Watermelon
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF MOMORDICA BALSAMINA LINN ON HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
KABIR, N1, UMAR I A2, ATIKU M K3, JAMES D B2, INUWA H M2, 4USMAN M M
1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa Nigeria 2Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria 3Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University Kano, Kano Nigeria 4Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano Nigeria
Oxidative stress has been reported as one of the heterogeneous etiologies that produces the multiple biochemical sequelaes of diabetes mellitus. Hence the urgent need for the development of antidiabetic drugs that can target the multiple etiologies of diabetes. The current study evaluates the protective effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Momordica balsamina Linn (MB) on hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oxidative stress status of STZ-induced diabetic rats treated orally (28 days) with 200 mg/kg of the aqueous leaf extract of MB was evaluated using some hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers. STZ induction resulted in a significant decline (p<0.05) in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione s transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, significant increase (p<0.05) in the degree of lipid peroxidation measured as TBARS was observed. However, significant elevation (p<0.05) of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and significant decrease (p<0.05) in the degree of lipid peroxidation after repeated oral treatment with MB was observed compared to diabetic controls. These findings demonstrate the protective potentials of MB against oxidative stress induced liver damage and its probable potency as an antioxidant and antidiabetic agent.
Keyword: Momordica balsamina, Streptozotocin, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, Diabetes
Class-Related Urban Spatial Development in Nigeria: Implications towards Social Exclusion and Urban Marginalization in Owerri, Nigeria
Ven. Egesi Jonathan Chidoberem, Alaneme Justina Chika (Mrs) & Cynthia Ejiogu (Mrs)
*Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo Ohaji **Department Of Social Studies Aifce, (Owerri)
Urban spatial development with reference to urban residential and recreational planning including development have hugely been class – related in outlook since the beginning of colonial era even after independence. It is true to mention that in many cities of Nigeria, Owerri of Imo State inclusive in the South-Eastern part of Nigeria, the issue of urban development planning and policies have simply been skewed in favour of upper-political and middle class. The above have given birth to the division of the city into different Nuclei and suburbs, the better of which have been developed into Government Residential Area for the bourgeoisie, super rich and government functionaries. There are equally other high class areas which have been developed for the members of the middle class of the society majority made up of the elite class members, the technocrats and the industrialists. There are also some other areas or sections of the city ear-marked for members of the lower class, members of the poor, most of these structures are shantified and poorly built and this have given them the hew of shims or shanty – foron. Some of these shanty towns can be found in uratta, Amakohia, Ogbaku, Umuguma, Okuku areas among others. As a result of this arrangement, there have been exclusions and urban marginalization of these areas in terms of access to the best of social amenities and infrastructural facilities. This usually affects urban social relations and security. So, in this study we shall examine the case of class similarities of urban spatial development and use in Owerri and the different implications it shows for social relations with a view to abridging the gap.
Keyword: Development, Implicatons, Towards, Excluson, Marginalization.
Consumption Behaviour and Nutrient Appreciation of Foods Produced From Millet in Kaura Namoda Local Government Area, Zamfara State
Ibe, U. O.
Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1012 Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.
This research work highlights the result of the survey conducted to identify the extent people living in Kaura Namoda appreciates millet consumption and its nutritional importance, 120 questionnaires are prepared and distributed to 120 respondents who indicated the knowledge of millet foods, its nutrient composition and the role the nutrient plays in the body. The questionnaires consisted of the following variables; Variables for the respondents personal biodata, and other variables such as the reason of millet consumption, frequency of millet consumption, nutrient classification of millet, variables for the presence of antinutrients in millets, The questions and answers were collated and analyzed using percentages and presented. The variables for the occupation of the respondents were as follows: 25% are traders, 6.7% are farmers, 23.3% are civil servants and 45% are students. Variables for the sex of the respondents are as follows: Male, 35% and female 65%. Females in Nigeria and especially in the Northern part of Nigeria are generally the caregivers in the family as well as the fact that they cook the food consumed in the family, while the males provide for the household. The survey shows that 95% of the people in Kaura Namoda consume millet while 5% do not consume millet. This result agrees with the result in the work in which only 5% are aware of millet. This result seems to suggest that awareness of the crop and consumption of the crop are synonymous. A large number of the respondents, 50.8% said they grew up consuming the crop, while others said it was because foods made from the crop is tasty (25%), cheap (5%), a source of nutrients (14.2%). Only 5% of the respondents have no idea of the crop. The study indicates that a wide cross-section of people living within the region know and consume millet. Majority grew up consuming it and it is consumed every day. The survey also indicates that the majority of the respondent know that millet is rich in carbohydrates but are unaware that it contains antinutrients.
Keyword: millet, variable, questionnaires, survey
Assessment of Nitrate Levels in Underground Water Sources and Selected Foods in Gusau Local Government Area of Zamfara State
Hassan A.B1, Samaila .I.2, Alli Abbas 3, Umar Ahmad4, Tanko O.O5 and Kutigi .A.6
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda Zamfara State.1-4 Department of Food Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda Zamfara State5-6
A study of the concentration of nitrate in underground waters and foods was conducted in Gusau metropolis of Zamfara State between April and June 2016. A total of 10 underground water points (6 boreholes and 4 dug wells) and 3 types of food were sampled. The samples were collected and analyzed using Phenoldisulphonic acid method for water analysis and modified microkjedahl methods for foods. The depth of the boreholes and dug wells were obtained from the locations and they varied in depth from 15.35 to 58.40 metres. The distance from pollution sources of nitrates varied between 8.00 to 15.40 metres. The results showed that the average nitrate values of dug wells ranged from 21.9mg/I to 36.5mg/I while the boreholes ranged from 14.0mg/I to 21.3mg/I. However, these values did not exceed the World Health Organisation (WHO) normal value of 45mg/I for nitrate (NO3) or 10mg/I for Nitrate-Nitrogen. There are statistically significant correlations between nitrate values and (a) depth of dug wells and boreholes and (b) distance of dug wells and boreholes from the septic tank. Of the three types of food (Green beans, Garbage, and Carrot) studied, green beans had the highest nitrate value of 0.98/100g and carrot has the least value of 0.1/100g. The public health implications of nitrates in waters and foods are discussed.
Keyword: Government, Underground, Assessment, Sources, Selected.