Hummingbird Journal of Management Science & Entrepreneurship (HUJMSE) Vol.19 (7) December, 2019

Hummingbird Journal of Management Science & Entrepreneurship (HUJMSE)

Vol. 19 (7) December, 2019. ISSN: 2370-9878

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997



Impact of Occupational Health and Safety Standards on Productivity of Employees


Okpe Sunday Alewo & Dr. Makinde .J.

Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65 Minna Niger state, Nigeria.



In organisations today, human resources have become the major asset for productivity in its maximum since machines do not have the capacity to operate it selves. In Nigeria, industrial workers lacked the right information to work safely which has exposed many employees to potential risk and workplace hazard that may have a partial or permanent disability and sometime may result to fatality at work site, this could be as a result of ignorance to the correct practice or people still trying to gain earns meet for survival due to the low job opportunity in the country. This paper will highlight the standards operational procedure at workplace to enlighten organisational workers the duty of care of the employers to them while they carry out an assigned job, the paper will also cover the identification of health risk and safety risk and the required preventive controls to reduce risk to as low as reasonably practicable in the workplace, safe work environment and practices are major factors to be considered before accepting job offers. The research was carried out at Olam rice factory at Nasarawa state and Lake rice factory at Kebi state in Nigeria. The research reveals the selected organisations has a working occupational health and safety practices but has an average management commitment to the safe work practices of employees. The data was collected via questionnaire using a four Likert scale procedures for analysis and descriptive survey method. This study is majorly concerned with the impact of occupational health and safety on the productivity of employees.

Keyword: occupational safety and health, standard operational practices, health and safety standards.



Does Level of Information Asymmetry Determines Dividend Smoothing Behaviour? Evidence from Listed Goods Firms in Nigeria


Nuhu Abubakar*

*Department of Accounting, A.B.U. Business School, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.



 Following the work of Lintner (1956), subsequent studies have established the existence of dividend smoothing behaviour among firms. However, the influence of information asymmetry has largely been ignored in Nigeria. This paper examines the dividend smoothing behaviour based on symmetric dividend smoothing models and assessed whether the behaviour depends on the level of information asymmetry.  It utilizes panel data from sample of 20 listed consumer and industrial goods firms in the Nigerian Stock Exchange with records of dividend payment for the period of 2009 to 2018. Fixed and Random Effect regression techniques were used in estimating the modes and the best fitted model was selected based on the level of speed of adjustment (SOA) coefficient. The empirical results revealed that net earnings and previous dividend have significant effect on dividend changes and smoothing behaviour exist in the firms. When firms are categorized into the small and large, dividend smoothing is only presence in large firms not in small ones. Therefore, in consistent with signalling theory, the study concludes that the level of information asymmetry determines the smoothness of dividend in listed consumer and industrial goods firms in Nigeria.

Keyword: Dividend Smoothing, firm size, Speed of Adjustment, information asymmetry. Goods firms in Nigeria



Human Resource Development Strategies for Corporate Entrepreneurship Survival in Nigeria


S.O. Onimole & A. B. Adebusoye

JABU Dept of Entrepreneurship, College of Management Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University.



In this study, Human Resource Development (HRD) is considered as one of the several important strategies and determinants of productivity and efficiency in any Corporate Entrepreneurship venture. The study also considers Corporate Entrepreneurship as an organizational process of transformation, diversification, innovation, renewal and venturing effort resulting into birth of new businesses, product, market, production process and organizational systems. The study examines Human Resource Development Strategies for Corporate Entrepreneurship survival in Nigeria with a view to improving HRD practices and policies in Nigeria. The research adopted survey and documentary analysis method. The research involved the collection of data from existing records, and findings through the use of structured questionnaire. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the 385 respondents for the study. The instrument was validated and pilot – tested to ascertain the internal consistency. The sample for the study comprised selected entrepreneurs 120, human resource practitioners 135, trainers and supervisors 130 in the study area. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach Alpha. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.76. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, frequency count, percentages and one – way analysis of variance. A large proportion of the respondents indicated that human resource development as implied by the study will require drastic organization transformation in HR policies and practices. It also implied that HRD strategy must satisfy a number of needs for its survival. Participant’s indications strongly pointed to the fact that human resource development activities have made positive change in the productivity of their organizations. There is also wide acceptance in corporate entrepreneurship ventures that systematic human resource development strategy is necessary and that it is one of the many viable ways to bring about change, transformation, innovation, renewal and development for corporate entrepreneurship development survival. Based on the findings it is recommended that programs for HRD strategies on management of change, must be suitably tailored to the needs and understanding of various levels of the organization employees.

Keyword: Human Resource Development strategies, Corporate, Entrepreneurship, Training and Development, Operational Performance, Systematic HRD.



Agency Banking, Mobile Money Operations and Financial Inclusion in Jos Town, Nigeria


*Nwachukwu Kingsley **Agim Levi Okechukwu ***Gyang Dalyop Francis *Monulu Racheal Uju

*Department of Banking and Finance, University of Jos **National Youth Service Corp HQ, Abuja ***Department of Economics, University of Jos.



This study aims to investigate the relationship between agent banking, mobile money operators and financial inclusion in Nigeria. For the purpose of this study, a descriptive research design was used. The study population were operators of agency banking and mobile money services located in Jos town and environs. Primary data was gathered through structured questionnaires. Test-retest technique was employed to determine the internal consistency of the instruments by computing Cronbach’s alpha. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.619 and above was taken as acceptable reliability. Linear regression was used to analyse the data to determine, if agency banking, mobile money operations had a significant relationship with financial inclusion and to indicate the relative strength of the independent variables on the dependent variables. Findings revealed that, that cybercrime and reduction of cost of banking services had a statistically insignificant and negative relationship with financial inclusion, while geographical coverage and illiquidity had a positive, but insignificant relationship with financial inclusion. This study concludes, that agent banking and mobile money is gaining wide acceptance, however this has not engendered, more financial inclusion. This study recommends, that the government should create an appropriate regulatory context in which innovation can thrive. In addition, more coordination is required between banks and operators, in terms of Risk, Training, deployment of technology, cash movement and profit sharing arrangements.

Keyword: Agent banking, Mobile Money, Financial Inclusion, Illiquidity, Cybercrime.



Audit Committee Independence, Auditor Type and Compliance with Accounting Standards in the Nigerian Insurance Industry


Yahaya Umar Usman & Hamza Aliyu

Department of Accounting and Finance Technology, Faculty of Management Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.



The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of audit committee independence and auditor type on compliance with accounting standards by the Nigerian insurance companies. The study covers ten-year period from 2007 – 2016, data was generated from annual report and account of sampled companies, regression analysis was used to analysed data, findings reveals that audit committee independence and auditor type have insignificant impact on compliance with accounting standards in the Nigerian insurance companies.

Keyword: Audit Committee independence, Auditor type, Accounting Standards, Nigerian Insurance industry.



Incrementalism in Human Resource Development: The Case of Bayelsa State Civil Service


Tambou, Joseph Tambara

University of Africa, Toru-Orua, Bayelsa State, Department of Public Administration.



This study examines the suitability or otherwise of the incremental model in human resource development in the Bayelsa State Civil Service. The study investigated among others; the extent application of the incremental model impacts on human resource development in the civil service, evaluated the effects incremental model on staff training and productivity of the civil service and the consequences of incremental model on personnel development on public service delivery in Bayelsa State. The incremental model which operates from the premise that the decision maker is not really interested in completely new solutions that are radically different from previous decisions instead his interest lies in improvements on previous decisions is considered the best model to be utilised in human resource development particularly in bureaucratic organisations like the civil service and this model was also adopted as the theoretical standpoint of the study. The findings of the research revealed that, the non-application of the incremental model in personnel administration is accountable for civil servants’ non exposure  to  regular training  workshops  and  refresher  courses  required  to  cope  with  job challenges  and  organizational  changes in Bayelsa State.  Hence,  they  are  denied  the opportunity  of  acquiring  the  relevant  skills  and  knowledge  needed  to perform  tasks  effectively  and  these  have direct effect on the productivity of the service. It was recommended among others that; government should adopt the incremental model in managing its human resources by exposing its employees to regular training and development programmes in order to enhance and sustain their motivation and morale for high productivity and effective service delivery in Bayelsa State.  .



Firm Life Cycle and Earnings Management Practices in Nigerian Quoted Companies


Bello, Bilikis Modupeola

Department of Accounting, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between firm life cycle and earnings management behaviour of quoted companies in Nigeria. The study employs the ex-post causal research design for the study. The sample for this study consist of 30 manufacturing companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock exchange with data from the period 2009-2018. The simple random sampling was employed in selection. In this study, secondary data, by way of annual reports and accounts of the sampled manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The panel regression technique is used to estimate the specified model. Before the regression analysis, we conducted some diagnostic tests to address some essential assumptions that were fundamental to regression analysis.The findings of this study reveals that; (i) Introductory life cycle stage does not significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria., (ii) Growth life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria., (iii) Mature life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria and (iv) Decline life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study recommends the need for effective corporate monitoring so as to discourage earnings management at all stages of the firm’s life cycle..

Keyword: Earnings management, Firm life Cycle, Panel Regression, Quoted Companies



Effect of Board Composition and Independence on Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria


*Dr. Helen Afang Andow **Dr. Nasamu Gambo

*Department of Business Administration, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Kaduna State **Department of Business Administration, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State.



This study examines the effect of Board composition and independence on Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria is to determine the influence of corporate governance of board independence and board composition on the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The research adopts the agency theory which posits that in the presence of information asymmetry, the agent (i.e. director and managers) is likely to pursue interests that may hurt the principal, or shareholders. The source of data used is a secondary source that explored the use of financial statement and annual reports of the deposit money banks. The data were analyzed using both multiple regression analyses of panel data series which reveals that there is a weak relationship between board of directors’ structure and financial performance of the deposit money banks. The study finds out that at 95% confidence level, there is a positive but statistically insignificant relationship between the board independence and financial performance; and negative and statistically insignificant relationship between the board composition and financial performance in deposit money banks in Nigeria. The research therefore recommends that the deposit money banks should improve on the board independence in order to improve on their financial performance.

Keyword: Board composition, Board independence, Corporate governance, Financial performance.



Financial Liberalization, Financial Development and Economic Performance: The Sub-Saharan African Experience


1Njimated, Godfrey Forgha, 2Yakum, Ivan Mboambogoh & 2Fozoh, Isiah Aziseh

1Professor of Economics, Deputy Director, HITL, University of Bamenda 2Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University of Bamenda.



Financial Liberalization and Financial Development have gained grounds in the provision of green light in directing economic performance in advanced economies of the world today. Therefore, this paper aim at investigating into the extent to which these drivers of economic performance among others have been able to enhance the present levels of economic performance in Sub-Saharan African Countries using the Arellano and Bond Panel GMM estimators, to examine the causality between financial liberalization, financial development and economic performance. The data collected from World Development Indicators ranging from 1980 to 2016 due to availability of data. The findings reveal that there exist long run causality between financial liberalization, financial development and economic performance in Sub-Saharan African countries. Specifically, the paper observes a negative causal link between financial liberalization and financial development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it confirms the fact that in Sub-Saharan Africa, financial development negatively influence economic performance but economic performance positively influence financial development. The paper also confirms that financial liberalization positively influence economic performance while economic performance negatively influence financial liberalization. These finding are the true reflection of Sub-Saharan African countries and their low levels of financial development as well as their dependency. Based on the above, we recommend financial discipline in Sub-Saharan Africa and guided financial liberalization practices as a spring board for economic performance.

Keyword: Public Relations, Insurance, Patronage



Firm Life Cycle and Earnings Management Practices in Nigerian Quoted Companies


Bello, Bilikis Modupeola

Department of Accounting, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between firm life cycle and earnings management behaviour of quoted companies in Nigeria. The study employs the ex-post causal research design for the study. The sample for this study consist of 30 manufacturing companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock exchange with data from the period 2009-2018. The simple random sampling was employed in selection. In this study, secondary data, by way of annual reports and accounts of the sampled manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The panel regression technique is used to estimate the specified model. Before the regression analysis, we conducted some diagnostic tests to address some essential assumptions that were fundamental to regression analysis.The findings of this study reveals that; (i) Introductory life cycle stage does not significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria., (ii) Growth life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria., (iii) Mature life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria and (iv) Decline life cycle stage significantly affect earnings management behaviour of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study recommends the need for effective corporate monitoring so as to discourage earnings management at all stages of the firm’s life cycle.

Keyword: Earnings management, Firm life Cycle, Panel Regression, Quoted Companies



Fiscal Policy and Unemployment: Evidence from Nigeria


Usman Saad1 and Abdullahi Ibrahim Ahmad2

1 Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Federal University Dutse 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Yobe State University, Damaturu.



This study examined the impact of fiscal policy shocks on unemployment in Nigeria based on Lerner’s framework by employing Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) methodology to analyze annual time series data on the relevant variables from 1985-2018. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for unit root results shows that all the variables were found to be integrated of order one and Johansen cointegration test confirms the absence of long-run convergence among the variables. Vector Autoregression (VAR) residual LM test shows no serial correlation among the error terms. Findings of the SVAR model shows that shocks in public capital expenditure attributes stable negative impact on unemployment. Increase in public recurrent expenditure was found to have positive effect on unemployment while shocks in money supply was found to have insignificant impact on unemployment in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should reschedule its budgeting system by allocating more funds to capital expenditure and less to recurrent expenditure so as reduce unemployment.

Keyword: Unemployment, expenditure, money supply, Nigeria, fiscal policy



The Relationship between HRM Practices and Teachers Turnover Intention: A Case Study of Bauchi State Teachers Service Commission (TSC)


Ahmad Muhammad Jarmajoa, Garba Bala Bellob, Abdu Ja’afaru Bambalec, Dahiru Mohammed Yoled.

aDepartment of Business Education, Aminu Sale College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. b&cDepartment of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship,Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. dDepartment of Banking and Finance,ModibboAdama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.



For decades organisations all over the globe have seen a new momentum of employees switching off from one organization to the other. However, this may be attributed to lack of fair organisational politics, perceived training and development, perceived compensation practices and perceived career growth. However, this conceptual paper proposed a framework that may help in reducing the problem of attrition among teachers of Bauchi state teachers services commission (TSC). The study provides assumptions that help in future research and suggestions for future research are made.

Keyword: Turnover intentions, perceived organisational politics, perceived training and development, perceived compensation practice and perceived career growth, Nigeria



An Investigation   into Solid Waste Management Practices in Some Selected Hotels in Bauchi State


Florence Elma Lagasi **Joseph Elma Lagasi *Choji    Dorcas   Ndong

*Department Of Hospitality Management Federal Polytechnic Bauchi Nigeria **Department Civil Engineering Federal Polytechnic Bauchi Nigeria.



This study is mainly an investigation into practices of solid waste management in some selected hotels in Bauchi state. The study made an audit of the types of solid waste generated in large, medium, small and unclassified hotels; Thus, solid waste management practices in some selected hotels in Bauchi state have been established. In this study, six hotels were sampled out of thirty-six registered hotels within the study area. Quantitative survey method was adopted and questionnaires were administered to three units of the hotels. The result revealed that 55% of the volume of waste generated is from food. 21.1 %, others account for 23.9%. 20% of the hotels have waste disposal policy against 20% that do not have policy on waste disposal. The study also revealed that 75% of the hotels do not have policy on waste disposal. The study recommends that the hotels develop waste management policies that can guard against indiscriminate disposal.  Bio-degradable waste generated should be processed and used as nutrient rich food for plants..

Keyword: Waste, Management, Bio-degradable, nutrient, Hotel.



Effect of Capacity Building on Operational Capabilities of Public Sector Organization.


*Danjuma Abubakar Umar, **Baba Shuwa Goni and ***Ashigar A.K. Satomi

*Department of Industrial and Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri Borno State. **Department of Business Administration & Management, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri Borno State. ***Department of Languages & Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri Borno State.



Organizational effectiveness rests on the efficient and effective performance of workforce that makes up the organization. The efficient and effective performance of the workforce, in turn, rest on richness of the knowledge, skills and abilities possessed by the workforce. Thus, the main objective of capacity building is to increase efficiency of employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity. There have been deliberate efforts by the government to encourage capacity building. One of these efforts was the establishment of Industrial Training Fund (ITF) with a view to ensuring that there is adequate manpower with the requisite skills in the country. However, the major problems facing capacity building and development have been that of low morale, insufficient information difficulty in the application of the concepts, and principles in real-life situations and non-evaluation of the outcome of capacity building. To enable effective capacity, Government should ensure effective enforcement of manpower policies as well as enhancing the confidence of its workers through capacity building. This, therefore, calls for continue increase in budgetary allocation to education, training civil servant so as to march skills and abilities to enhance effective performance and ensuring that performance is in line international standard.

Keyword: Capacity building, Performance, effectiveness, workforce, organization



Entrepreneurial Skills Acquisition in Soap Making Production among Small Scale Enterprise (SSES) Performance in Abeokuta, Nigeria


Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo **Akinyele, Esther Feyisayo & *Jaiyeola,  Rotimi  Ademola

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria



Globally, entrepreneurship skill acquisition programs introduced into educational institutions were meant to provide the level of education or knowledge needed to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities which could help the economic development of such countries. The major objective of the study is to assess entrepreneurial skills acquisition in soap making production among smaa scale enterprise performance in Abeokuta, Nigeria.A sample size of 126 was used to conduct the research study. A structured questionnaire was administered and respondents responses were tested using descriptive statistics and pearson correlation. There is a significant positive relationship between youth empowerment and economic development and also there is a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and employment generation. The findings derived from the research work recommend that there should  be entrepreneurial and skill acquisition centers to support business start-ups and should be set up by universities and must be provided with increased access to networks, finance and international markets and also entrepreneurship education should go beyond material taught and mentoring activities, workshops and conferences should be incorporated into the curriculum.

Keyword: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial skills,  Educational  institutions,  Entrepreneurial opportunities,  Soap making,  Knowledge,  Skill acquisition.



The Effect of Inventory Conversion Period (ICP) on Return on Net Assets (ROA): Evidence from Conglomerate Firms in Nigeria


Bashari Hadiza1, & Mohammed Rabiu Mohammed2,

The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,



The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between inventory conversion period and return on net assets (ROA) for firms in the Nigerian conglomerate sector using historical panel data analysis. To evaluate the relationship; an ex-post factor research design was employed. Data were generated from secondary sources, specifically, the annual reports and accounts of quoted firms from 2006 to 2017. The population of the study consists of six Conglomerate companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, as well as fixed-effect and random-effect generalized least square (GLS) regression techniques and Hausman Specification Test as the decision rules were utilized as tools of analysis in the study. The findings of the study revealed a negative correlation between Inventory Conversion Period (ICP) and return on net assets (ROA) of Nigerian conglomerate companies. The study recommends that companies should sufficiently plan and control their operations, amend the shortfalls whenever identified, consider the principles of finance in their decision making, utilize the services of professionals in complex business areas and perform periodic stock taking..

Keyword: Inventory, Inventory Conversion Period, Return on net assets and Conglomerate



Perceived Effects of Servant Leadership Style on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction in Selected Tertiary Institutions in Adamawa State, Nigeria


Kaigama Nana Aisha

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state



The study examines the effects of perceived servant leadership style on job performance through the mediating role of job satisfaction in selected tertiary institutions in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The study adopted an explanatory survey research design in which questionnaire was administered using a Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The sample size for this study was conducted on three hundred and fifty-one employees drawn from the selected institutions. Correlation and regression, as well as Sobel mediation analysis was employed with the aid of SPSS V.22 for the purpose of the study analysis. The findings of the study reveal that servant leadership and job satisfaction positively and significantly affect job performance among employees of the selected tertiary institutions in Adamawa State. It also reveals that job satisfaction significantly mediates the relationship between servant leadership and job performance within the selected institutions in Adamawa State. Conclusion was drawn from the study that job satisfaction as a predictor and mediator helps in achieving higher productivity among staff in higher institutions of learning in Adamawa State. It was also recommended that policy makers and administrators in the institutions should give more priority to employees’ satisfaction in order to improve job performance among employees and the overall productivity of the institutions.

Keyword: Employee performance, Job satisfaction, Servant Leadership style, Leadership style, Mediation



Trainers’ Skills Possessed for Utilization of Facilities in Teaching Office Technology and Management in Polytechnics in North-East Nigeria


1Cephas N. Leka, 2Gibson J. Godobe, 3Murjanatu Mohammed Ubayo and 2Daniel John

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Registry: Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



The study was carried out on Trainers’ Skills possessed for utilization of facilities in teaching Office Technology and Management in Polytechnics in North-East Nigeria.   The main objective of the study was to determine the trainers’ level of skills possessed for utilization of infrastructural and Information Communication facilities for training in OTM in Polytechnics in North-East Nigeria.  The researchers postulated two Research Questions.  Literature related to the Infrastructural and Office Information Communication facilities was reviewed. The study adopted Descriptive study as its designed.  The population of the study was made up of all the trainers in both Federal and State Polytechnics in North-East Nigeria, and it was 87.  A questionnaire with Four-Point rating scale was designed and administered; it consisted of 30 items.  The instrument was validated by experts in Business Education and Office Technology and Management.  The questionnaire was administered by the researchers, with the support of Research assistants in all the Polytechnics in the study area. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (Mean), using SPSS.  It was found among others that, trainers in Polytechnics possessed the skills for utilization of infrastructural facilities for training students in OTM.  Based on conclusion it was recommended also among others that, Management of the Polytechnics should send their OTM trainers on training on trouble shooting in computer, download and installation of software. It was also recommended that Polytechnic managements should organize training for OTM trainers on how they can improve in the skills of saving documents on the internet and incorporating graphics into reports to improve in the utilization of Office Information Communication facilities.

Keyword: Office Technology and Management,  Skills, Utilization.



Non-Monetary Compensation and Organizational Performance of Employees in Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu Yobe State, Nigeria


Maimuna Bulama

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria



Compensation is a vital part of human resource management, which helps in encouraging employees and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to find out the effect of non- monetary compensation on organizational performance of employees, by taking Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu Yobe State as a case study. The study relies heavily on observation, textbooks and journal articles for reviews and findings. The study also reviewed Vroom expectancy theory of (1964), which base and support the concepts on rewards and performance. It was found out that non-monetary compensation has a positive impact on employee performance in Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu as one of the tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study recommended that the management minimizes its emphasis on monetary rewards like bonuses, and consider other non-monetary rewards such as promotion, recognition, flexible working hours as well as career development of employees. These forms of rewards are likely to boost employee performance to a great extent, and in turn enhance organizational performance. The study also recommended that organizations should evaluate the reward systems that are currently in place as well as the kind of influence they have on employee performance.

Keyword: Non- monetary compensation, Recognition, Promotion, Flexibility, Career development



Entrepreneurship Development: An Antidote to Insecurity in Ondo State, Nigeria


Alabi, Ezekiel

Department of Business Administration and Management, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.



This paper examined the effect of entrepreneurship development on the level of insecurity in Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from one hundred and twenty five participants through purposive sampling method. Inferential statistics was used to analyze the data, specifically linear regression method was used with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) in order to determine the effect of independent variable (entrepreneurship development) on dependent variable (crime rate). The result showed that entrepreneurship development has significant effect on the level of insecurity in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study also revealed that entrepreneurship development programmes as well as providing a model on how entrepreneurial opportunities could be effectively and efficiently utilized jointly predict better national security which accounted for 60% variance of insecurity reduction in the study area. It was therefore, recommended that citizens should be exposed and motivated to develop interest in the skill-based activities towards self employment which can encourage them to identify entrepreneurial opportunities in order to reduce the rate of criminal activities..

Keyword: Entrepreneurship, Insecurity, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Development



Relationship Between Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Company’s Reputation


Mohammed Alhaji Nuhu1 and Abubakar Adamu Shehu2

1&2Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State



Business ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) play essential role in determining how responsive corporate organizations are to their stakeholders. Consequently, corporate organizations use several mediums to communicate their ethical values to their stakeholders as corporate image or reputation constitute public perception of the organization  this essay  discusses the relationship between ethics and reputation by reviewing ethics in organizations, and provided an insight into the relationship and importance of ethics on reputation, and explained CSR as a driver or indicator of corporate reputation then concluded that it is important to build a strong corporate culture by developing set of ethical values which transcend into code of ethics that will be infused into the organization while leadership of the organizations provides the moral drive to enable walking the talk and prevent or reduce unethical behaviors in order to protect  the image  and reputation of organizations..

Keyword: Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Organization, Reputation



Determinants of Inventory Managements as a Component of Working Capital in Ensuring Companies Profitability-A Conceptual Approach.


Iklimatu Adamu Umar **Naziru Suleiman and **Muktar Haruna

*Accountancy and Taxation Department, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Accounting and Finance Technology, Faculty of Management Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.



Inventory plays a significant role in the growth and survival of a Company, in the sense that ineffective and inefficient management of inventory will mean that the Companies loses customers and sales will decline which leads to decrease in profitability. business depends upon its inventory management performances. Too much and too low inventories bring down the level of profitability of a company. There is need to properly manage the inventory in order to be profitable. This paper thoroughly reviews of the literature that examined the relationship between inventory and profitability. The findings from the relevant literature establishes a disagreement results on the impact of inventory on the profitability of companies. Whereas the majority of the literature presents a positive relationship, while few others provide the opposite. Hence, the paper recommends more research into the area to further unearth the field.

Keyword: Component, Profitability, Capital, Management, Determinants,



Effect of Liquidity Ratio on Money Deposit Bank in Nigeria


Yahaya Tukur

Department of Accountancy, School of General Studies and Management Technology, Federal Poly Technic Bali, P.M.B. 05 Bali, Taraba State Nigeria.



This paper is aimed act appraising the liquidity  problems in commercial banks in Nigeria with a problem in commercial banks in Nigeria  with a view of determining how these problem  affects commercial banking business as well as determining  whether the policies imposed by the central bank has actually solved the liquidity problem of commercials banks or not.  In doing this we want to classify the period under review (1980- 1989) in the Pre-SFEM period and the Post-SFEM period.   On other words the study interns to discuss the Pre-SFEM and Post-SFEM experience of banks and offer useful suggestion as how to these problem could be alleviated if not eradicated. For this purpose an empyreal survey and history research was carried on and the statistical tool used is percentages.  The source of data for this study is primary and secondary sources. While the primary source consists of questionnaires and oral interview the secondary source is in the form of books journals and news papers. The research revealed that prior to the introduction of the structural.  Adjustment programme with the second tier foreign exchange (SFEM) as its main feature the structural adjustment programme (SAP) brought about the present liquidity crutch in banking system.  It was further found out that both excess liquidity and shortage of liquidity affect the banks loans and advance as well as their profits.  Further more it was observed. That the policies imposed by the central bank have not solved the  (excess and shortage ) liquidity problem of commercial banks. As a result of these it is suggested among others that banks should intensify their efforts   towards acquiring more deposit-  drive for deposits (as it is popularly know )in order to alleviate the present problem of liquidity shortage in system. More so there should be effective supervision of the follicles impose by the central bank to combat the liquidity problems of commercial banks to ensure that the policies are adequate implement other measure to alleviate either the excess or shortage of liquidity problem include adjustment of interest rate adjustment interest ratio, diversification of commercial banking service establishment of more rural banks to mobilize rural saving and so on. The essences of these are to maintain adequate liquidity and at the same time to ensure profit for the share holders.

Keyword: Liquidity, Deposit, Ratio, commercial



Food Security a Resource for Growth and Development in Nigeria


Masara, Martha Joshua

Department of Home Economics, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto.



Food security is an issue that needs the attention of stakeholders who are the leaders of this great Country Nigeria at various levels. From the Federal down to the local government rural farmers need support to boost and increase food production as well as the security and the safety of their lives. This is necessary because many rural farmers especially in the Northern parts of Nigeria are migrating to urban areas for safety due to the crises going on in the country which have left many homeless and jobless due to constant attacks. Crises of any kind affect food supply which may eventually lead to food insecurity. Insecurity of any kind can hinder or slow down growth and development of an individual or nation. Having enough food for all is what is needed for growth development in Sub- Sahara Africa and indeed Nigeria. This paper attempted to look at the concept of food security, Food security as a resource for development, causes of food insecurity which include; inefficient policies and corruption, urbanization population growth, drought and floods as well as the role of government in ensuring that Nigeria is food secured country.

Keyword: Food security, Resource, Growth and Development



How Customer Relationship and Management Lead to Increase in High Rate of Turn-Over.


Usman Adamu Ibrahim

Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.



The paper tries to examine how customer relationship management lead to an increase in the profit making as a result of influx of customer patronage. In olden days, many company believed that is better to stick to old customer than the new customer, however, companies have gained better understanding of importance of customer relationship and adopted it as a high priority operational goal. The sources of this research were mainly drawn from secondary data. i.e. journals, textbook, newspaper, magazine and published materials. The study revealed that customer relationship management is very important and it serves as a means of increasing the rate of turn over which is the goal and objective of an organization. A recommendation was made as follows, that organization should embark on periodic customer survey and rewarding of higher patronage of the gears so as to be abreast, of the current trends in CRM in an organization or firm should have a special complain unit for a customer modern to listen to their problem.

Keyword: customer, relationship, Management, rate of turnover, increase.  



Working Capital Management and Performance of Consumer Goods Companies Listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange


Samuel Ramon Mohammed & Abimbola Abosede Joshua

Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro.



A poor and inefficient working capital management leads to tying up funds in idle assets and reduces the liquidity and profitability of a company. The consumer goods companies in Nigeria are expected to maintain adequate working capital management in order to be more efficient and stable in the face of economic challenges. This study examined the effect of working capital management on the performance of consumer goods companies listed on the Nigerian stock exchange. The study adopted descriptive research design method. The theoretical population of the study was 30 companies in the consumer goods sector out of which 15 were having valid listed dates. The sample frame of this study was therefore, the 15 listed consumer goods companies with valid listed dates. The sample was purposive and a sample size of six (6) companies were selected based on personal judgmental qualitative factors. The annual published accounts of six companies were selected covering a period of 5 years from 2013 to 2017. Using a cross sectional panel data analysis, the study employed GLS regression and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between efficient working capital management and profitability of consumer goods companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange while working capital significantly affected their financial performance. It was concluded that the effect of working capital management on profitability and financial performance of consumer companies either positively or negatively would depend on how effective and efficient the working capital has been managed.

Keyword: Working capital management, Firm size, Leverage, Profitability, Financial performance


Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *