MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES
VOL. 10 NO.9 (MIJPAS) DECEMBER, 2019
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Bayero University, Kano,
PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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MEASUREMENT BACKGROUND COUNTS OF HPGE DETECTOR (GC 2018 MODEL) IN NUCLEAR LABORATORY, UTM.
ABUBAKAR USMAN1, ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED BELLO2, MOHAMMED BUBA3
1Department of Physics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2SLT Department Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. 3SLT Department Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
Background radiation is present everywhere. This will cause serious damage to detector and living tissue. For a successful experimental research, high sensitivity gamma spectrometry should be used with good quality passive shielding. High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is the most distinguished radiation measurement instrument that produced excellent energy resolution. The aims of this study is measure the radiation background detected on n-type coaxial HPGe detector GC 2018 model using IEEE-325 1996 standard procedure. Four (4) standard source 60Co, 152Eu, 133Ba, and 137Cs were used. It covered energies range from 4.3 keV-3194.9 keV. Each source was count for 18000 seconds. The source was placed 25 cm to avoid summing coincident gamma-ray. The result show that the radiation exposes to the detector when source was placed is high compare to sourceless. Result background depend on the thickness, sizes and lining of the shield. It also revealed that 152Eu has high background follow by 133Ba and least one is 60Co. This present work is to improve the proper shield chamber over the detector due variation of radiation exposure.
KEYWORDS: HPGe detectors; resolutions, efficiency, standard source, source holder.
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE DYNAMICS.
1ABDULLAH IDRIS ENAGI AND 2 MOHAMMED OLANREWAJU IBRAHIM. AND 1DEBORAH USHAFA BAKO
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, University of Illorin, Nigeria.
I n this study, we developed a mathematical model for the spread of Zika virus disease. We established the existence and positivity of solutions to the model, Existence and stability analysis of the equilibrium states of the model and evaluated the basic reproduction number of the model. The feasible set for the model equations is given by ()}; . The stability analysis of the Disease Free Equilibrium State (DFE) of the model shows that it will be stable if ..
KEYWORDS: Zika Virus, Existence of solutions, Equilibrium states, Stability Analysis and Basic Reproduction Number.
THE EFFECT OF NOISE POLLUTION ON HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
FAVOUR CHUKUMELA WOKO
Department of Integrated Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt.
Noise pollution is a health hazard and induces both auditory and non-auditory effects. Extensive levels of noise are associated with a high risk of physiological changes such as hypertension, increased levels of heartbeat rate, peripheral vasoconstriction, and thus peripheral vascular resistance. Noise can trigger both endocrine and autonomic nervous system responses that in turn affect the cardiovascular system and maybe a high risk for the appearance of cardiovascular disease. This work provides a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking noise pollution to cardiovascular risk. It considers some fundamental issues concerning noise and its consequences on the cardiovascular system. Sleep deprivation or fragmentation is usually considered the most severe non-auditory effect of noise pollution, which in turn affects the cardiovascular system. Noise exposure is also associated with hypertension and consequently with other cardiovascular diseases, the results from the literature, however, are inconclusive. Noise pollution has many adverse effects on health and especially on the cardiovascular system. Understanding the harmful effects of noise pollution on cardiovascular health will help us to take all the appropriate measures to prevent or to reduce the possible health risks.
KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular Risk, Hypertension, Noise Exposure, Noise Pollution, Sleep Deprivation
ON ONE FIXED POINT IMPROVED SECANT METHOD FOR FINDING ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS.
BAZUAYE FRANK ETIN-OSA1 AND CHARLES TIMINIBIFE NOAH
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
This paper focuses on the construction and implementation of an improved Secant method for finding the root of a polynomial. The Arithmetic mean in the Maroune’s method was replaced by the geometric mean. The result shows that the method converges compete favorably with other methods in literature and efficient as the two points in the conventional secant methods has been reduced to only one fixed point.
KEYWORDS: Root finding, Arithmetic mean, Geometric mean, Polynomial, convergence
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION (MLR) AND REGRESSION WITH ARIMA ERRORS (ARIMAX) FORECASTING MODELS OF BOD5 IN PRODUCED WATER QUALITY.
1*HOWARD, C.C., 1ETUK, E. H. AND 2HOWARD, I. C.
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) which is a key priority water quality parameter that must be tested in any produced water before it can be discharged, takes five days to complete its analyses, which may affect operations of the facility when decisions need to be taken, hence the need for models to predict its values using already established data from the same treatment plant. MRL is one of such models that have been used; however its strength is relatively low. Thus the need to improve on it (strength of MLR), we proposed regression with arima errors (ARIMAX). To investigate the performance of the proposed model, we compared Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Regression with Arima Errors (ARIMAX) in the prediction of BOD5 by statistical measurements which are RMSE, MAPE and MAE. Achieving our objectives of study, five water quality parameters were used i.e. COD, DO, temperature, pH and conductivity. This study was carried out using MLR and ARIMAX model with R software package. The results showed that our proposed model can improve the performance of the model as compared to Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) due to smaller errors generated; error reduced, and increased correlation coefficient for all parameters in RMSE, MSE and MAE respectively. Thus, this result indicated that our proposed model is efficient and more precise than MLR.
KEYWORDS: biochemical oxygen demand, strength, performance, error.
USING SOURCE PARAMETER IMAGING (SPI) AND FORWARD AND INVERSE MODELLING METHODS FOR HYDROCARBON POTENTIALS FOR INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION AEROMAGNETIC DATA OVER CHAD BASIN, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
1BALA G. A., 2WANTE, H.P., 3BUBA M & 3ROMANUS I.O
1Department of Physics, Federal University, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
The High resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data of Chibok and Damboa areas (sheets 112 and 134), north-eastern Nigeria, has been interpreted by applying source parameter imaging (SPI), and forward and inverse modelling methods. Quantitative depths estimates obtained by employing SPI have shown minimum to maximum depth to anomalous source at 72.7m to 5026.8m. Oasis montaj 6.4.2 software, Microsoft excel and potent Q 4.10.07 softwares were employed in the data analysis. The estimated depths from the forward and inverse modelling methods for profiles 1-3 are 2749, 2201, 2088 m respectively. The respective susceptibility values of 0.20407, 0.47779, 7.8043 SI, which indicate the presence of sedimentary intrusions (basalt or limestone), few metamorphic rocks (schist) and minerals (magnetite). It was concluded that this research will help to ascertain a better geophysical detail of the southern part of the Chad-Basin, and further enhanced the full coverage of the whole basin in the exploration activity.
KEYWORDS: High resolution Aeromagnetic (HRAM) Data, Source Parameter Imaging (SPI), Chibok and Damboa.
A NEW IMPROVED ROUND ROBIN CPU SCHEDULING ALGORITHM
UDDIN O. OSEMENGBE¹ AND JOHN TEMITOPE OGBITI²
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Edo University Iyamho, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Edo University Iyamho, Nigeria.
CPU scheduling is the basis of multiprogramming systems. It refers to a set of policies and mechanisms to control the order of work to be performed by a computer system. Scheduling is the method by which threads, processes or data flows are given access to system resources. The need for a scheduling algorithm arises from the requirement for most modern systems to perform multitasking (execute more than one process at a time) and multiplexing (transmit multiple flows simultaneously). The Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm is a fair scheduling algorithm that gives equal time quantum to all processes. The choice of the time quantum is critical as it affects the algorithm’s performance. This thesis proposes a new algorithm that further improved on the Improved Round Robin (IRR) CPU scheduling algorithm. It was observed that the proposed algorithm (i.e. A New Improved Round Robin (NIRR)) compared with the other Round Robin scheduling algorithms, produces best Average Waiting Time (AWT), Average Turnaround Time (ATAT) and Number of Context Switches (NCS) in all categories of the statistical distributions used. Based on these results, the proposed algorithm outperformed other scheduling algorithms for systems that adopt RR CPU scheduling.
KEYWORDS: CPU Scheduling, Multiprogramming, Processors, Simulation
A SCENARIO OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF AN ADDITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION ON BIODIVERSITY OF ECOSPHERIC ASSETS: KALABARI KINGDOM ECOSYSTEM.
1A.G. ELEKI; 2R.E. AKPODEE; 3E.N. EKAKA-A
1Department of Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2,3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt.
We have applied the method of a semi-stochastic analysis at the variations of a low environmental perturbation, a mild environmental perturbation and a relatively high environmental perturbation to predict the extent of biodiversity. In particular, we have found that irrespective of the degree of the random environmental perturbation, the inclusion of an additive semi-stochastic random perturbation is dominantly associated with a varying pattern of a biodiversity gain. In the context of this study, we have also observed a definite instance of a change from a biodiversity gain to a biodiversity loss with respect to the growth of ecospheric assets. The specific results that we have obtained which can be considered major contributions to knowledge are presented and discussed in this work. We will expect these research contributions to provide useful insights on sustainability of ecospheric assets and guide policy formulators on developing appropriate mitigation measures against the loss of ecospheric assets in the Kalabari Kingdom ecosystem of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Dynamical system, Perturbation, Bifurcation, Biodiversity, Semi-stochastic.
ADAPTIVE FUZZY ROAD TRAFFIC CONTROLLER SIMULATION.
ADONU SUNDAY EJIYIME
Department of Computer Science, the Fedral Polytechnic Bauchi.
Automated traffic control is important at road junctions to ease traffic control at all times, without need for traffic control officer. Some metropolis in Nigeria have traffic control lights installed at their junctions, however most of them are not intelligent and as a result cannot change timing for the intersections to cater for varying traffic demands. At times, especially at period of less traffic flow or when a particular event occurs at a part of the city, resulting in increased traffic flow in one direction than others, the fixed traffic timing performance is poor, as allotted time to an intersection will be wasted while the queue on another intersection would have grown very long. This calls for need for modern and intelligent approaches to traffic monitoring and control. This work uses fuzzy logic to control traffic at a four way road intersection. The performance is compared with that of a fixed time traffic control and result shows that the adaptive fuzzy based controller performed better especially when traffic is not too heavy.
KEYWORDS: Traffic Control, Fuzzy, Adaptive control, Pre-timed control
A SECURED ENTRANCE DOOR LOCK SYSTEM USING PASSWORD BASED
ABDULRAHEEM OJO UMAR
Department of Computer Science, FCT College Of Education, Nigeria.
Doors are medium use to keep people out of public and private places. At present, doors under mechanical lock and key are not adequately secured from authorized individual. Mechanical keys are easily destroyed using several tools such as hack-saw etc., thereby providing access to unauthorized individual. Over the years, several security measures have been employed to combat the menace of insecurity of lives and property. In this work a secured entrance door lock system was designed and developed. This system will used a Personal Identification Number (PIN) based door lock system wherein once the correct PIN (Logic 1) is entered, the door is opened and the authorized user is allowed access to the secured areas such as offices or confidential rooms. The entrance door is closed after few microseconds to prevent unauthorized users to gain entrance. Again, if another person arrives, the system requests for PIN. If the PIN is wrong (Logic 0), then the door will remain closed, denying the access to the person. This system will be designed around a AT80S51 microprocessor that will be programmed using Assembly language to control the Electromagnet Lock (EML) opening (Logic 1) and closing (Logic 0) of entrance doors.
KEYWORDS: Door Locking, Security, Electromagnet Lock, Personal Identification Number, microprocessor.
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES: SUSCEPTIBLE; INFECTIONS; RECOVERY (SIR) MODEL WITH DEMOGRAPHY
MUKHTAR SUNUSI HASSAN
General Studies Department, School of General Studies and Management Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, P. M. B 05 Bali, Taraba State.
Under some suitable assumptions, the SIR model provides information about when does epidemic occurs and when it does not. The model incorporates the birth, death and immunization and analyzes the outcome mathematically. Also consider the bifurcation analysis associated with the disease free and endemic equilibrium. The model admits a unique endemic equilibrium if and only if the basic reproduction number(Ro) exceed one, while the trivial equilibrium and disease – free equilibrium always exists. The disease – free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if and only if , disease dies out and has a unique endemic equilibrium if and only if , then each infectious individual creates more than one new case and hence the disease spreads.
KEYWORDS: SIR model; contact rate; free equilibrium; globally asymptotically stable; ; ;Orbital basic reproduction number asymptotical stability:
THE EFFECT OF SOME SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON PERSONAL HYGIENE BEHAVIOURS USING OPTIMAL SCALING REGRESSION.
OMISORE A. OLURIN AND *ADEGBITE I. OLAWALE
Department of Statistics Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria
Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness and it is a science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. This research investigated the knowledge, attitude and practice towards personal hygiene of people living in Boripe Local Government area. The target age group of respondents is of minimum of 18 years. Sample size was 192, arrived at through stratified random sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics of bar charts, Optimal scaling regression tools are employed. The results showed that the knowledge and attitude of the dwellers toward personal hygiene is good, but their perspectives are not encouraging. It was established that number of people living in an household, level of education and type of residence are of importance in that order to the knowledge, attitude and practice of personal hygiene. It is recommended that there is a need to use different strategies and approaches to translate people’s knowledge into practice and positive behaviours.
KEYWORDS: Personal hygiene, Hand washing, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Household.
EXAMINING EFFECTIVENESS OUTCOME OF WEB-BASED AND CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION.
Department of Computer Science, Federal College of Education Zaria, Nigeria.
Web-based instruction (WBI) is becoming a favored training option in industry, government, and higher education. WBI is a hypermedia-based instructional program which utilizes the attributes and resources of the World Wide Web to create a meaningful learning environment where learning is fostered and supported. WBI is delivered via the computer using the Internet, making it capable of instant updating, distribution, and sharing of information. Given its growing popularity, it is important to understand whether or not this delivery medium is effective, whether it is more effective than the classroom instruction, and what contextual or methodological factors moderate its effectiveness. The paper examines the effectiveness of WBI relative to classroom instruction (CI). The data were collected from administered questionnaire by the researcher, which was completed by 130 distinct students and educational instructors. The result shows 62.8% agreed that WBI is more effective for teaching than CI, as presented in in pie chat with discussion of data for each.
KEYWORDS: Web-Based Training, Class Instruction, Internet, Education
ANALYSIS ON THE PRICE OF PETROLEUM AND HOW IT AFFECTS PRICE OF FOOD ITEMS IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY.
ALI GAMBO, SULEIMAN SABO & USMAN HASSAN
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
This study has been carried out to access the statistical analysis on the price of petroleum on how it affects food items in Nigerian economy. This study found on average per capital increment on the various type of food items as the prices of petroleum increases. Data collected on the various types of food item shows 30% and 10% increment on Maize per 5% increase in the price of petroleum in 2001 and 2012 respectively, while there is a little increment on the price of millet compared to that of rice and maize. This research work was carried out with the use of a secondary data to get the information needed for the purpose of the study. Method of data analysis used is multiple regression with the aid of SPSS. The recommendation is that the government should create enabling policies to see to the fact that the price of petroleum does not always affect the prices of food items in the country. To this end government should seek the partnership and expertise of relevant petroleum institutes in the country and make sure that the various refineries in the country are been put in good order so as to allow for adequate production of crude oil.
KEYWORDS: Petroleum, Millet, Rice, Maize and Multiple Regression.
THE SCHWARZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMATION AS A CLASSICAL EXAMPLE OF AN ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSION OF CONFORMAL MAPPING.
1RAKIYA M.K. ADAMU, 2ABDULLAHI M. AUWAL, AND 3ALIYU DANLADI HINA AND
1Computer science Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2,3,Mathematic and statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Solutions to the Schwarz-Christoffel integrand equation are conformal maps from the upper half-plane to circular arc polygons, plane regions bounded by straight line segments and arbitrary arcs of circles. The Schwarz-Christoffel transformation provides a basis for computation of conformal maps onto arbitrary domains by approximating the conformal maps by the polygons and solving the associated differential equations numerically, since Schwarz-Christoffel differential equation cannot solved in closed form except in very special cases, when the polygon involved only two or three vertices. The Schwarz-Christoffel transformation allows many physical problems posed on to two dimensional polygonal regions such as heat flow, fluid flow, electrostatics and many more physical problems to be solved numerically. We develop method for numerically integrating this equation. Particular attention is given to the behavior near corner singularities. We also presented and analyzed the used of straightforward integration by parts for asymptotic behavior of Schwarz-Christoffel integrand, the leading behavior of the integrand was analytically obtained and the conditions for existence of the asymptotic expansion of Schwarz-Christoffel integral have been determined.
KEYWORDS: Schwarz-christoffel transformation, conformal mapping, asymptotic behavior, polygons, and complex plane.
CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT OF COMPUTER BASED TEST (CBT) IN NIGERIA EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.
RUTH HILARY BAKURA
Department of Computer Scince, Federal College of Education, Zaria
There has been a public outcry over the conduct, authenticity and reliability of public examinations among student in Nigeria. In response to these complaints, the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) introduced a full scale Computer-Based Test (CBT) in the 2015 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) to eliminate examination malpractice and to facilitate of CBT in Nigeria and the prospects of full adoption of CBT in all public examinations in educational system. Secondary data sources including relevant journals, conference papers, and internet resource materials among others were mainly used for this paper. Several challenges were identified among student, but the main among them is gross inadequacy of ICT infrastructure in the country.
KEYWORDS: Computer, CBT, Students, Educational System, ICT.
USE OF TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS IN CURBING FINANCIAL LEAKAGES IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS.
AHMED A. M.1, ADAMU G. M.2, OGAH U. S.3
1,2&3Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
This Paper examined the vital role Technology is playing in addressing financial leakages in most financial transactions in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The meaning of Technology was fully discussed in relation to its applications in speeding up all types of transactions and security enhancements that comes with its adoption via it various tools. Despite the success story recorded so far, security of online transactions still appears an issue and proffered solutions were put forward in this paper. It was finally concluded that incorporating Technology in our financial transactions in Nigerian tertiary institutions would bring sanity and help remove some bottleneck usually encountered with manual methods.
KEYWORDS: Information and Communication Technology, Financial Leakages, Financial Transaction, Tertiary Institution
MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR MONITORING DIABETIC POPULATION WITH MINOR AND MAJOR COMPLICATIONS.
GONI UMAR MODU, MUKTAR MODU & MODU MOHAMMED
Department of Statistics, Ramat Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Mathematical model for monitoring diabetic populations with minor and major complications are developed and analyzed in this work. The equilibrium point of the system is shown to be globally asymptotically stable (GAS) using direct Lyapunov method. Some numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the analytical results. It is found that the prevalence/incidence of diabetes is on the rise. Our results are effective in monitoring diabetic populations with minor and major complications. The model can be used to monitor global diabetic populations over time.
KEYWORDS: Diabetes, Model, Complication, Global stability.
IMPROVED INTEGRATED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORK USING A HYBRID CONGESTION CONTROL MECHANISM.
- YAHAYA, Z. M. ABUBAKAR, M. O. MOMOH, Y. IBRAHIM
Department of Computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
In an opportunistic network, information about the context in which users communicate is not available, as there is no dedicated complete path from a source to a destination. This make the design of an efficient routing protocol for an opportunistic network difficult. This research is aimed at the development of an improved integrated routing protocol for the opportunistic network by managing congestion. A hybrid congestion control strategy was developed which combines the various buffer management strategies (use acknowledgment, buffer size advisement, data centric method and duplication avoidance) in the integrated routing protocol. Simulation was carried out using the opportunistic network environment (ONE) simulator. The hybrid congestion control strategy was seen to have outperformed the use of acknowledgment, buffer size advisement, data centric method and duplication avoidance by 58%, 61%, 58%, 52% respectively in terms or delivery probability. In terms of packet loss, the hybrid congestion control strategy outperformed the use acknowledgment, buffer size advisement, data centric method and duplication avoidance by 61%, 11%, 13%, 11% respectively These results showed that proper management of congestion can significantly improve the performance of opportunistic network.
KEYWORDS: Opportunistic network, buffer management, congestion control, integrated routing protocol.
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF Guiera senegalensis (SABARA) IN SOKOTO.
1YUSUF SARKINGOBIR, 1MUBARAK SALIHU BAKWAI, 1NAZIRU HUSSAINI, 2MALAMI DIKKO,
1Department of Biology Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Abdurrahman College of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto, Nigeria
Many traditional medicinal plants, including Guiera senegalensis , a shrub that grows well in sub-Saharan Africa, have been candidates for research because of their potential medicinal properties. To verify medicinal potentials , phytochemical compounds such as, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids saponins, terpenoids and phenols have been used as a method of screening of medicinal plants.Phytochemicals, Alkaloids, saponins, phlobatanins, glycosides, anthraquinones, and flavonoids were analyzed using standard procedures .According to the result of this work ,the three extracts(water, methanol, and petroleum ) Guiera senegalensis contains the important metabolites contains ,alkaloids, tannins. Glycosides ,saponins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones .Toxicity and other safety studies are required to find out the safety of using Guiera senegalensis.
KEYWORDS: Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, Guiera senegalensis
EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF BINDER RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COCONUT SHELL BRIUQETTES.
NASIRU SHUAIBU, ALHASSAN, A. M, JAMILA ADAMU & ORISANNAIRE, B. A
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The paper evaluated the effect of binder ratio (%) on the combustion characteristics of coconut shell briquettes. The combustion characteristics evaluatated in the study were % volatile matter, % fixed carbon, % ash content and heating values of the briquettes. The briquettes were formed with the aid of a fabricated briquetting machine at compaction pressure of 4.5Mpa, binder ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively and particle size of 2.2mm. A dwell time of 120 seconds was observed during the briquettes formation. The results obtained showed that the binder ratio (%) had a positive effect on the combustion characteristics investigated and the values obtained compared well with the work of previous researchers. Moreover, the % volatile matter and heating value remained constant with slight increase in the binder ratio and dropped with further increase in the binder ratio (%). On the other hand, the % fixed carbon and % ash content remained constant with slight increase in binder ratio and increased with further increase in binder ratio (%). Recommendations were put forward for further research.
KEYWORDS: briquettes, combustion, fixed carbon, volatile matter, heating value, binder ratio
RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG FEMALES AND THE USE OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH COUNSELLING STRATEGIES FOR REMEDIATION IN GWAGWALADA LOCAL COUNCIL (ABUJA), NIGERIA.
*DR. YAHAYA MUSTAPHA MAKANTA **DR. USMAN IDRIS GANA
*General Hospital, Minna, Niger State. (Nigeria) **Department of Counselling Psychology, IBB University, Lapai, Niger State. (Nigeria).
Risky sexual behaviuor among females portends many hazards and as a result of libidinal pressure, they become easy preys to tempting sexual advances. Unless adolescents are oriented to develop capacity for bio-physical self-regulation. This study is therefore aimed at investigating reproductive health counselling strategies to mitigate risky sexual behaviour among females in Gwagwalada Local Council of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. All the counsellors and community health workers constitute the population while 150 respondents based on religion, location and gender, were randomly selected from their organizations. They were served with a self-developed questionnaire to determine the possibility of adopting counselling strategies to manage or cope with risky sexual behaviuor. Three research questions and two null hypotheses were raised based on reproductive health counselling strategies. The null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 confidence level using the data obtained. Findings indicated that reproductive health counselling, community-based counselling, cognitive restructuring, individual and group counselling were found to be adoptable by counsellors on thebasis of gender, religion and location. Conclusion and recommendations such as sex and sexuality education, family planning, role play and drama be staged and practiced in schools for females to overcome adverse effects of risky sexual behaviour.
KEYWORDS: Risky Sexual Behaviour, Adolescents, Reproductive Health Remediation, Counselling Strategies.