MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH
VOL. 10 NO.5 (MIJETR) DECEMBER, 2019
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Bayero University, Kano,
PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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ASSESSMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGIES APPLIED BY PRINCIPALS TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA
ABDULBAQI TOYIN ABDULRAHIM1*, IBRAHIM BABA FIKA2 AND AMIN AMIN3
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2Department of Education, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 3Department of Politics and Governance, Kwara State University, Malete, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria.
This study assessed the administrative strategies applied by principals to improve academic performance of private secondary school students in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The research design used in this study is a descriptive survey. The population of the study was all the Principals and Teachers in the seventy five (75) private secondary schools in Maiduguri. Using a systematic random sampling technique, the sample consists of 8 Principals and 48 Teachers. The instrument used for the study was a self-designed research questionnaire. In order to ensure face and content validity of the test, the researcher discussed with specialists in the area of study. Test-retest method was adopted in order to examine the reliability of the instruments and a correlation coefficient of about 0.75 was obtained as reliability index. The results of the study revealed that the Principals of Private Secondary Schools in Maiduguri adopted the following administrative strategies; Vision consciousness, Building a strong team leaders, Knowing and embracing your values, Listening effectively, Communicating effectively, Being a catalyst of change, Being a good motivator, Not being afraid to take hard decision, and Developing leadership skills. It also affirmed that there are adequate teachers and the provisions of teaching learning resources are quite adequate. The Principals facilitated teachers’ development by allowing them to attend seminars and workshops, and also provided an enabling and conducive working environment for staff and students. All these have positive influence on students’ academic performance in Private Secondary Schools in Maiduguri. Further study that seeks to evaluate the impacts of the administrative strategies on students’ performance in which students will also be participants/respondents in the study is been suggested.
KEYWORDS: Administration, Management, Strategies, Academic, Performance.
THE CHARACTERISTICS COMPARISON OF CONCRETE PRODUCED PARTIALLY FROM WASTE GLASS AND BANKORO IN PLACE OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATE FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION
ATOYEBI.O.D, GANA A.J, LONGE.J.E
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara State.
In Nigeria, the rate at which waste is produced daily is very high, which leads to environmental pollution, high cost of disposal. The cost of disposal increases as the rate at which waste is produced increases, so researches derived a method of reducing the cost of disposal by reducing the amount of waste produced. Waste was used as a partial replacement in the production of concrete in civil engineering construction. In this study, agricultural waste (bankoro) and industrial waste (waste glass) were combined as partial replacements for fine aggregate and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete.In this study, waste glass and bankoro replaced fine aggregate and coarse aggregate for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%.120 cubes and 120 cylinders were casted for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate with waste glass and bankoro. The grade used was m15 (1:2:4). Slump test and compaction test was done to determine the workability and consistency of the mix. Compressive strength test and split tensile strength test was Carried out for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% to determine the strength of the cubes. The result from the analysis showed that the 0% (control) had the highest compressive strength of 19.90 N/mm2 at 28 days for the casted cubes. The highest compressive strength gotten from partial replacement of aggregates with percentages of waste glass and bankoro was at 5% having a compressive strength of 18.47 N/mm2 at 28 days and the lowest compressive strength was at 20% having a value of 13.24 N/mm2 at 28days. Also for the split tensile strength, the highest tensile strength gotten was at 0% (control) with a value of 2.37 N/mm2 at 28days and lowest tensile strength was at 20% having a value of 1.64 N/mm2 at 28 days. The highest replacement was at 5% having a tensile strength of 2.07 N/mm2. The result for the slump test and compaction factor test showed that the slump value, which had the highest workability, was at 0% having a value of 74mm and compaction factor value was at 20% having a value of 0.94mm.The result proves that the use of waste glass and bankoro as partial replacement for the aggregates is possible and acceptable at 5% to 15% since it has not exceeded the minimum compressive strength value at 28 days for m15 (mix ratio 1:2:4).
KEYWORDS: Characteristics, Comparison, Concrete, Produced, Partially Waste Glass, Bankoro, Fine And Coarse, Aggregate.
ASSESSMENT OF WASTE METAL CHIPS AND ITS POTENTIALS IN ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF MAIDUGURI)
KOLO, L. A. M.1, HAMMAJAM, A. A.2
1Department of Works, physical planning and Development, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, NIGERIA 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, NIGERIA
The study on the assessment of waste metals chips and its potentials in engineering applications was conducted in some selected workshops in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno state. The main objectives of this investigate is to access waste metal chips for potential engineering applications in Nigeria. Interview and observation approaches were adopted as an instrument for the data collection using a prepared interview guide. The results of the study revealed that there are good quantities of metal chips generated from various workshops in the study area. The majority of the metal chips available are mild steel chips, Cast iron chips and Aluminium chips whereas Brass chips, Copper chips and chips from other metals are rarely obtained. The Aluminium chips, Brass chips and Copper chips are used in casting operation or are rather converted to billet for other uses. The Cast iron chips and mild steel chips are not recycled despite their quantities being considerably high. They are mainly disposed at refuse site or sold to scrap buyers. From the findings of this investigation, an average of 4,800 Kg of waste metal chips is generated in Maiduguri annually. This is due to the insurgency that bedevilling the state but the quantity is far more than this before the insurgency period of Boko haram. If properly harness, this chips have potentials for use in areas such as: production of abrasives (sandpaper), grinding wheels, and automobile brake pads. It is also applied as desulfurizer in biogas desulfurizer and as replacement for row sand in concrete development among others.
KEYWORDS: waste, metals, chips, potentials, recycling.
ROBOT PATH TRAILING IN AN INTERMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT USING A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL
*A. T. SALAWUDEEN **I. F. EGBUJO **M. L. IMAM *N. S. USMAN **K. C. ZAKKA **P. J. NYABVO
*Department of Computer Engineering, University of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State.
This paper presents an optimal path planning technique for a mobile robot in a dynamic environment. One of the major problems in robotics engineering is motion planning. Since robots are not intelligent and have no intelligent means of perceiving its environment, it usually fundamental to develop an obstacle free path capable of guiding the robot from a goal point to a target point. Therefore, this paper presents a computational base model for robot path planning in a dynamic obstacle environment. The simulation scenario was formulated with a constrained robot position and an unknown obstacle position. Simulation were carried out in Matlab R017a and results showed that the proposed method is efficient in comparison with previous techniques.
KEYWORDS: SAO, SDA, Robot, Dynamic Environment, Path Planning
KINEMATIC MODELLING OF ELECTRICALLY INDUCED SIT-TO-STAND MOTION FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY SUBJECTS AFFECTING THE LOWER LIMBS
MOHAMMED AHMED1, 2,*, M. S. HUQ3, B. S. K. K. IBRAHIM4, SALIHU ABDULMUMINI JALO5, UMAR BILKISU BAPETEL5
1) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P. M. B. 0248 Bauchi, Nigeria 2)Advanced Mechatronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia 3)Department of Mechatronic Engineering, School of Engineering Design, Institute Technology Sligo, Ireland 4)School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Automotive Engineering, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom 5,6)Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The work presented enhancement over the kinematic model of aided sit-to-stand (STS) movement using Functional Electrical Stimulation. More accurate models are necessary for making achieving better control systems, and it is expected that such would aid in producing improvement that could lead to achieving clinical acceptance currently still lacking. The work was compared with the STS model proposed by Nuzik et al. which is an effort to equip the physiotherapists with a standard reference. Results revealed that an improvement in the FES induced STS modelling with an average accuracy of 24% was achieved. Therefore, the expectation is not only limited to the enhancement of control system design, but it will also introduce a higher level of flexibility of the model.
KEYWORDS: Induced movement, sit-to-stand, functional electrical stimulation, control systems, kinematic model, paraplegia
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABLE STEP SIZE LMS ALGORITHM
- A. ABDULRAZAQ#1, I. O. MURITALA#2, M.O. MUIDEEN#2, A. R. ABIOYE#3
1Computer Engineering Department, University of Maiduguri, Borno, Nigeria 2Computer Engineering Department, Ahmdu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna. 3Statistics Department, All-Over Central Polytechnic, Otta, Ogun
This paper present a new formulation for adaptive filtering based on the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. LMS is a well known adaptive filtering algorithm with a significant role in optimizing the error between estimated signal and expected signal. However, with minimum mean square error (MSE) and flexibility in applications, LMS algorithm is associated with low convergence speed. In contract to designing LMS filters with fixed step size, variable step size have been introduced to improve it convergence. In this work, an experimental study has been considered to formulate a new method for adjusting the step size of the LMS algorithm. Simulation results are presented and performance evaluation of the formulated variable step size (VSS-LMS) is compare to the conventional LMS algorithm in terms of MSE obtained and rate of convergence speed.
KEYWORDS: LMS adaptive filter, variable step size, convergence speed, mean square error.
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM
1ABDULLAH IDRIS ENAGI, 2 MOHAMMED OLANREWAJU IBRAHIM AND 1KEHINDE DHIKRULLAH OSOKOYA
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, University of Illorin, Nigeria.
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular for remote area power generation applications due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in prices of petroleum products. Economic aspects of these technologies are sufficiently promising to include them in developing power generation capacity for developing countries.” Research and development efforts in solar, wind, and other renewable energy technologies are required to improve their performance, establish techniques for accurately predicting their output and reliably integrating them with other conventional generating sources. “This study summarizes the mathematical modelling of Hybrid renewable energy systems such as solar, wind, and storage devices”. Wind and solar system required special technique to obtain maximum power due to their nonlinear power characteristics. “Due to the integration of two or more different source of power, an hybrid system has a complex control system. Of which its complexity increases with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques used within their subsystems.”We describe methodologies to model HRES components, HRES designs and their evaluation”. “The trends in HRES design show that the hybrid PV/wind energy systems are gaining popularity.
KEYWORDS: Renewable, Mathematical, Hybrid, Energy, System,
THE EFFECT OF A RANDOM ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION ON THE BIFURCATION INTERVAL AND THE TYPE OF STABILITY OF TWO INTERACTING ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES USING A SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION.
*R.E. AKPODEE; 2E.N. EKAKA-A
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
A popular method of describing the interaction between two time-dependent population uses a continuous dynamical system of non-linear first-order ordinary differential equation from which the qualitative analysis of stability as the independent variable hereby called time, t, becomes larger and larger has been studied by several experts. The mathematical construction of this idea is called bifurcation analysis of stability. Since environmental science modeling can be equally challenging and formidable, the complete numerical treatment of the bifurcation analysis of two interacting environmental variables such as the air temperature and relative humidity before now has remained one of the challenging numerical studies of environmental variable interaction. By formulating the interaction between the air temperature and the relative humidity deterministically, we have utilized a continuous dynamical system of a second-order ordinary differential equation to specify the evolution of this complex environmental system modeling of the initial condition data IC(2,4) using a high random environmental perturbation intensity of 2.4 on the bifurcation region.
KEYWORDS: dynamical system, deterministic, bifurcation, environmental perturbation, stability, linearization,
INVESTIGATING THE PYSIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA SEED CAKE WASTE MATERIAL AS A POTENTIAL FOR GREEN ECONOMY SOIL AMENDMENT
1S.J. IJIMDIYA, 2J.O. AJIKASHILE 1D.B. ADIE, 1S.B. IGBORO, 1F.B. FATIMA, 1,3B. ADULLAHI, 1N.I ABDULLAHI AND 4J.DEHAM
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria 2Devision of Agricultural Colleges, Samaru Zaria 3Bioresources Development Centre, Illorin/NANDA, Abuja 4Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineeering
The demand for farmers to provide food for increasing populations has made the use of inorganic fertilizer more competitive as it has been utilized frequently to boost farm produce. However its continuous usage is detrimental to natural healthy state of soil. Based on this, alternative environmentally friendly fertilizer which incorporates Jatropha cake with rich vital soil nutrients as carrier material has been identified as a better farm tool. In the current study, investigations were made on the physiochemical and biochemical analysis of Jatropha seed cake waste as source of soil nutrient. Sample of the seed cake was collected from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria, after biodiesel transesterification process. The cake was air dried for six weeks to stabilize and was ground using a pestle and mortar and then taken to the Soil and Water Laboratory of Institute For Agricultural Research (IAR), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for analysis. 2 g of cake sample was digested and Nitrogen(N), Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) as well as Carbon (C) contents were analysed in the digestate using N Kjeldahl digestation and distillation technique, absorbance measurement of P using calorimeter, K concentration in the digestate using flame photometer and carbon content using the Walkley and Black procedure. Total metal contents (Copper, Zinc and Iron) were also determined by di-acid digestion (nitric: perchloric acid) of seed cake followed by AAS analysis of the digestate. The pH and EC were determined in the sample by inserting digital pH mater and EC meter in the cake paste until the reading in the meters had stabilized. Microbial analysis was carried out using Invic test while microbial count was done with a colony counter. The NPK as well as the C concentrations were 3.33%, 0.46%, 1.2% and 30.52% respectively. These values were within the specified ranges recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for organic soil nutrients. The Cu, Zn and Fe concentrations were 0.05%, 0.09% and 0.02% respectively. These values with the exception of Fe concentration were within tolerable limits of trace metals concentrations recommended. The pH value of 4.9 and EC value of 976dsm-1 are not within specified ranges recommended. Biochemical analysis and colony count revealed the presence of Bacillius spp, Proteus and Aspergillius niger with colony count 5.2× 107 CFU and 6.0× 105 CFU respectively. The study suggests that the waste may not be safe for direct land application. It is therefore recommended that the waste should be subjected to other forms of treatment to eliminate pathogenic organisms before it is used as a soil nutrient.
KEYWORDS: Jatropha seed cake, waste, digestate, analysis, tolerable limit
KINETICS STUDIES OF QUICKLIME PRODUCTION FROM CALCINED OYSTER SHELL USING MAMPEL’S RATE LAW
G.A. AYASHIM, J. ADUKWU, H. UTHMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Infrastructure, Process Engineering and Technology P.M.B 65, Main campus, Gidan kwano, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Calcium oxide (CaO) is accepted as an effective adsorbent of carbon dioxide (CO2), and it is commonly used in biodiesel production. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sources, such as limestones that are obtained through mining and quarrying, usually produce CaO. CaO is produced via thermal decomposition. However, this research has been able to use the vast available waste resources for CaCO3 and CaO in Nigeria, which is Oyster shells. Kinetic study of the thermal decomposition of the Oyster shell using Mampel power rate law. The model was then used to study the effect of Oyster shell particle size, calcination time and calcination temperature on activation energy of the thermal decomposition of the shell in a calciner. It was found that while the activation energy of thermal decomposition of Oyster shell decreased from 169.164958kJ/mol to 128.1852 kJ/mol as the particle size of Oyster increased from 0.3 mm to 2.0 mm, the activation energy of thermal decomposition of Oyster shell decreased from 66.46616491 to 44.3326 kJ/mol as the calcination time of Oyster increased from 60 min to 180 min, and the activation energy of thermal decomposition of Oyster shell decreased from 150.84 kJ/mol to 11.7543332 kJ/mol as the calcination temperature of Oyster increased from 600 oC min to 900 oC. To conclude, a promising source of CaO is the Oyster shell, which provides the largest decomposition rates for small particle size, higher calcination temperature and higher residence time.
KEYWORDS: oyster shell, kinetics, mampel, calcination
A REVIEW ON ANIMAL WASTES AS THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT MATERIALS FOR GREEN ENVIRONMENT
Issa A.K1, M.H Idris2, Tumba J3
1,2,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Nowadays solid waste are becoming serious environmental challenges in Africa and most especially in Nigeria. Many strategies that are employed by local, state and federal government to curb the situation have been jeopardized due to our poor altitude to waste management and corruption. Among these solid wastes are animal waste viz: chicken feather, animal horn, hoof, bone and hair (wool), human hair, silk and so on. These wastes contain keratin and collagen which make them viable for reinforcement materials in developing thermoplastic composite apart from their lighter weight, availability and bio-degradability. This paper presents review on utilization of animal waste as workable alternative to synthetic fibre which are not recyclable and biodegradable. Furthermore, it provides some important data that can facilitate the usage of these animal fibers in order to achieve both economic.
KEYWORDS: Wastes, Reinforcement Material, Thermoplastic, Composite.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MPPT MICROCONTROLLER BASED SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATION
1GARBA MUSA DOKO 2ADEWARA DANIEL OLANREWAJU
1,2Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria.
Nigeria being an over-populated country needs to produce a huge amount of energy to meet its people’s demands. On the other hand, it is quiet impossible to provide the large population with adequate energy with the conventional way of producing energy. About only 65% of our people have the privilege of using electricity. So apart from finding cost effective ways to harness energy, it is required to use the produced energy efficiently. This paper aim to find away to reduce the pressure on grid energy by using solar panels for electricity supply system. In this regard, it also focuses on having a charge controller circuit for ensuring battery longevity. Here AT89852microcontroller has been used to sense different voltage levels and make decisions according to them.
KEYWORDS: Photovoltaic (PV), Boost converter, MOSFET switching, Battery, Microcontroller.
CONCRETE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF USING CATTLE BONE ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT
1AJI A.B., 2AHMAD A. M., 2MALGWI Y. I. AND 2GARBA A.
1Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The study presents the behavior of concrete made with Cattle Bone Ash as a partial replacement of cement. Bulk density, sieve analysis, specific gravity of the ash and aggregate, consistency test, setting time and slump test of fresh paste were carried out to determine the suitability of the material for concrete making. Concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and CBA was used to replace cement at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Samples of concrete cubes and beams were produced and cured for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days to determine their density, compressive and flexural strength. The result of the consistency test shows an insignificant change with varying quantities of CBA It was observed that the percentage decrease in compressive strength of concrete containing CBA increased with quantity of CBA used from an average of 12.04% at 5% replacement level to 52.63% at 20% replacement level. The flexural strength on the other hand showed a rise in strength after 28 day curing period of about 5%.
KEYWORDS: Cattle bone ash, Composition, Concrete, Replacement and Strength.
MODEL SIMULATION OF OPTICAL EDGE FILTER DISGN FOR RAYLEIGH WAVELENGTH OF 405 nm ,532 nm AND 633 nm USING OCTAVE
ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED BELLO1, USMAN. ABUBAKAR2, DAHIRU. DAHUWA3
1 Federal Polythnic Bauchi Science Labrotary Technology Department. 2sokoto State University Physics Department. 3Aminu Saleh College of Eductation Azare Physics Department.
Optical filter by virtue of their special functions to block a particular wavelength or range of wavelength and transmit the rest of the spectrum have received research attention for the past few decades. Recently, optical filter based on multilayer coating are more focused due to potential to manipulate filter properties by changing layer thickness in order to apply in various fields. Quarter wave stack (QWS) model is one of the approaches to design optical filter such as edge filter. However, to obtain desire minimum specification need an optimization. Therefore, in this study aims to design optical edge filter based QWS model by optical matrix methods in Octave software. Prior to the design, MoS2 and Si are being choose for high (H) and low (L) refractive index materials respectively. The optimum twenty-four (24) number of layers are determined by calculating maximum transmittance obtained. The Rayleigh wavelength ( ) of 405 nm ,532 nm and 633 nm are selected and ‘glass|12HL|air’ configuration is set for the design simulation. Then, the cut-on wavelength () and cut-off wavelength ( ) of successful designed optical edge filter are measured. The result shows that the cut-on wavelength of 408.11 nm, 536 nm and 640.25 nm with minimum effective transmission (MET) of 32.3%, 31.3% and 32% respectively are obtained. In conclusion, the result of the present study shows the deviation between them about 0.2 nm,1.7 nm and 1.15 nm for each of 405 nm, 532 nm and 633 nm is determined. But for the value obtained are much higher than the calculated value. The MET of each filter is 32.3% ,31.3% and 32% for 405 nm, 532 nm and 633 nm respectively.
KEYWORDS: optical filter, cut-on wavelength, minimum effective transmission
HYBRID AC/DC SYSTEM MODELS
UMAR MOHAMMED1, BASHIR SADIQ USMAN2, HASSAN ADAMU DAYA3 & SULEIMAN ADAMU4
1&2 Department of Electrical/ Electronic Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria 3Electrical Engineering Department, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria 4Mechanical Engineering Department, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria
The development of AC / DC Hybrid Models in Electrical Power System has revolutionized the Power Industry. The power system as of today has emerged as one of the most advanced technology as a result of these Hybrid Models.
KEYWORDS: Hybrid Models; renewable energy sources; solar energy; wind power; wind turbines; solar panels; inverters; battreies; grid connected systems; power grid; converters; harmonics; frequency; voltage; current; electric power; load management; power demand; High Voltage DC Transmission systems; Flexible AC Transmission Systems;
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF SOME DENSIFICATION PARAMETERS ON THE PHYSICAL AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDNUT SHELL BRIQUETTES
NASIRU SHUAIBU, ABUBAKAR M. A. & ALHASSAN A. M
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Agricultural biomass residues are sources of renewable energy and sustainable biofuels which can contribute significantly to mitigate the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if properly managed and utilized. However, biomass in its natural form is bulky, loosed and dispersed. Briquetting is therefore employed to improve the qualities of the residues such as density, stability, durability and heating or calorific value. Controlling densification system variables can be important to achieving the desired density, durability and quality. In this study, the effect of some densification parameters, namely; particle size, binder ratio and compaction pressure on the physical (maximum density, relaxed density, density ratio, compaction ratio and durability) and combustion characteristics (percentage volatile matter, ash content, fixed carbon and heating value) of groundnut shell briquettes was investigated. The results of the physical and combustion characteristics of the groundnut shell briquettes obtained compared favourably well with those obtained by previous researchers. However, not all the densification variables had significant effect (p<0.05) on the physical and combustion characteristics of the groundnut shell briquettes. This implied that some of the densification (predictor) variables contributed more than others on the predictor variables (physical and combustion characteristics).
KEYWORDS: Densification; combustion; Briquettes; Biomass;Groundnut shell
FAST PYROLYSIS of RICE HUSK IN A FIXED BED PYROLYZER FOR BIO OIL PRODUCTION
1*ALFA, A.Y., 2HABIBU .U., 3TSADO, D.G.
1&3Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor for bio oil production. In this work, Rice husk was characterized for proximate and ultimate analysis and the result shows volatile matter of rice husk to be 70.66% with elemental compositions of carbon and oxygen as 42.68% and 42.41% respectively. Design expert software was used in planning and optimized experimental results. The experimental runs were conducted using a retention time of 60min and the optimum conditions for fast pyrolysis of rice husk with maximum bio-oil yield of 62.8% were at the temperature of 6000C, N2 gas flow rate of 5 L/min and particle size of 1.7mm. Particle size, temperature and N2 gas flow rate all have significant effect on bio oil yield. A retention time of 70 min at a temperature of 600 °C, N2 gas flow rate at 5 L/min and feed particle size of 1.7 mm gave the highest bio oil yield of 64.7 %. The bio oil obtained at optimal conditions was analyzed using GC-MS to identify its compounds. GC-MS peak area percentage showed that the bio oil exhibited a variety of chemical groups and it was determined that the dominant chemical group was phenol.
KEYWORDS: fast pyrolysis, operational variables, rice husk, bio oil, design of experiment.
LOW-COST SYNTHESIS OF WILLEMITE SEMICONDUCTOR NANOPARTICLES VIA A FACILE CALCINATION ROUTE
IBRAHIM MUSTAPHA ALIBE A, *, SALISU NASIR B, KABIRU MU’AZU C , BASHIR INUWA D , ALI MUSTAPHA ALIBE E, BABAKURA MALLAM AJI D
a Materials Science & Technology Division, Pilot Plant Department, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Zaria, P.M.B. 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria bDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, P.M.B. 7156, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria cProduction and Consultancy Department, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Zaria, P.M.B. 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria dIndustrial & Environmental Technology Department, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Zaria, P.M.B. 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria eMechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
A facile calcination route was used to synthesize willemite semiconductor nanoparticles. The impact of calcination temperatures involved on the material structure and optical properties were thoroughly investigated. Thermogravimetric (TG) study shows the decomposition pattern of PVP and further predict the calcination temperature at which willemite may be formed . The presence of carbon-based materials in the sample due to PVP was revealed by the FT–IR analysis, and further confirmed the formation of crystalline structure of willemite nanoparticles after the calcination process. The XRD analysis of the uncalcined samples at ambient condition was found to be amorphous, and upon heat treatment at 800 °C, an α–willemite phase was formed. The FESEM images reveals that an increase in temperature amounts to corresponding increase in the particle size of the willemite formed, which ranges between 26.52–37.15 nm, and this is in conformity with the XRD results. The optical band gap energy of the material was between 5.35–5.15 eV, and it is affected by the increase in the calcination temperature. The facile calcination route used in this study provides a pathway to reduce the high energy consumed in the synthesis of willemite nanoparticles. In addition, the wide band gap energy of the material may have key potential applications for future optoelectronic lighting devices.
KEYWORDS: Semiconductor, Willemite, Nanoparticles, Calcination temperature, Band gap energy
EVALUATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO AND PERMEABILITY OF STABILIZED CLAY SOIL WITH CEMENT KILN DUST
SHETTIMA ALI UMARA1*, FALMATA AUDU MUSTAPHA1, IBRAHIM OGIRI HASSAN2, OGUNBODE EZEKIEL BABATUNDE2
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, 620221, Yobe State, Nigeria 2Department of Building Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria
Soil stabilization refers to the process of changing soil physical and chemical properties to improve strength and durability. It has been used for many years to improve the characteristics of the subgrades with problematic soils. Pavements with stabilized base and sub-base layers have been proven to deliver better performance during their service life. Clay is a type of soil with particles of certain minerals giving plastic properties when mixed with water. Soil has an important role in a construction, besides as a building material in a wide variety of civil engineering works. Basic properties of clay are rock-solid in dry and plastic with medium water content. In high water content, clay becomes sticky like (cohesive) and soften. Therefore, clay stabilization is necessary to repair soil’s mechanical properties. Cement industry is arguably regarded as the second largest producer of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming phenomenon, which contributes by 5–8% of the worldwide CO2 emissions (Mehta, 2004). The major challenges facing the cement manufacturing industry is the reduction of CO2 emission into the atmosphere during the manufacture of Portland cement. Cement production also results in massive quantities of solid waste material called Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), where the quantity of CKD is estimated by 3–4% of the total produced cement (Najim, Mahmod, & Atea, 2014). In this study laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of CKD on clay soil. Presently, disposal of industrial waste products have been a global problem. Their disposal are costly as well as they are harmful to environment. Owing to these problems some researches are being conducted to utilise these waste products in ground construction and modification. To achieve this, a number of mixtures with different CKD contents were used as a stabilizer in improving the properties of clay soil in terms of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Permeability test. The Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics were also determined for the Clay soil and stabilized clay. The results indicates that the clay soil used has liquid limitation (LL) value of 32%, plasticity index of 13.4% and CBR value 9.25%. The results further shows that the 15% CKD gives the un-soaked CBR value of 11.33%.
KEYWORDS: Clay, Cement kiln dust, Liquid limit, plasticity index, California bearing ratio, Permeability
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PARALLEL CYCLONE SYSTEM USING CAPED SOFTWARE FOR KAOLIN BENEFICIATION.
AUDU NASIRU1, A. N. ISAH1, S. I. BELLO1, A.S. YEKINI2
1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa 2Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa.
High efficiency parallel air cyclone systems was designed with body diameter of 0.1m with design capacity of 182 kg/hr using CAPED software package. This was successfully fabricated and used to beneficiate kaolin which contained impurities such as quartz, mica etc. The yield obtained from the air cyclone parallel arrangement was 30.18%. This is an improvement over previous reported average yield of 15% for a single stage cyclone system. The parallel cyclone had an average pressure drop of 746.7Pa and the particle size distribution (PSD) show that the clay content was improved from 46% to an average of 65% after beneficiation. The XRD analysis also showed that the level of beneficiation obtained using the rig improved the kaolinite content in the raw kaolin to an average of 67.8%, the quartz in the feed was reduced to an average of 86.3%, while the mica in the feed was reduced by an average of 56.7%.
KEYWORDS: Design, cyclone, yield, kaolinite, software, analysis, fabrication, parallel, kaolin, beneficiation, feed, quartz, mica.
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SINGLE PHASE H-BRIDGE INVERTER
ABDULLAHI KIRE MUAZU,1 IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD HARRAM2 & AISHATU GARGA ALI 3
1,2,3Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
Most of the available inverters using either PSW or MSW may cause damages to delicate microprocessor controlled electronics due largely to their switching frequency and speed, efficiency, conduction losses, thermal conductivity etc. This necessitates the need for implementation of efficient and more reliable inverter systems. In the first part of this work, Semiconductor devices such as silicon (Si), silicon carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN), are compared. They are considered by previous researches to have high switching frequency, high switching speed, higher efficiency, lower conduction losses, lower switching losses, and thermal conductivity. The devices with such properties can improve the performance of an inverter, and make the implementation of single-phase H-bridge inverter system a reality. The basic principle of inverter system is to convert the DC input power into AC output power at desired output voltage and frequency. The second part is based on the implementation of Single Phase H-Bridge Inverter using Semiconductor Devices and its operation is simulated using PLECS (a software tool for system-level simulations of electrical circuits developed by Plexim). Hence, a single-phase full-bridge inverter with perfect AC output voltage has been realized.
KEYWORDS: Silicon (Si); Silicon Carbide (Sic); Gallium Nitride (Gan); H- Bridge Inverter; Single Phase Inverter.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OFANLP GAS-LEAKAGE DETECTOR WITH SMS FEEDBACK AND ALARM SYSTEM
1ADEJUMOBI, O.K., 2SADIQ, M.O., 2AYENI, M.O. AND 2SAMUEL, A.O.
1Computer Engineering Department, the Polytechnic, Ibadan 2Electrical Engineering Department, the Polytechnic, Ibadan
Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gas is a flammable hydrocarbon gas used as a fuel for many residential, cooking and commercial applications. LP gas liquefied through pressurization and is stored in gas bottles, cylinders and tanks. It can be propane, butane or propane-butane blends’. As useful as LP gas is, its leakage can lead to various accidents resulting into bothfinancial loss and human injuries, including death. This Paper therefore presents the ‘Design and Implementation of an LP Gas-Leakage Detector with Feedback Alert and Alarm System’. Here, the gas Sensor (MQ-6) is used to detect any gas leakage in a particular location; its output is then interfaced with a 12F1840 PIC-Microcontroller programmed in AssemblyLanguage through its ADC Port. A GSM Module with a registered SIM Card is connected to the output of the Microcontroller. The Module is configured to send gas leakage alerts in form of a short message service (SMS) tothe owner’s GSM phone to enable prompt action in the event of a leakage condition – an alarm also blows until the leakages are attended to, to prevent fire outbreak. .In conclusion, the design worked according to specifications. It is a simple, low cost but effective safety device that can be adopted for both domestic and industrial applications. However, it is recommended that the device be modified to incorporate an automatic fire extinguisher in case of sudden fire incident.
KEYWORDS: LPG, MQ-2Sensor, Microcontroller, Leakage, SMS Alert, GSM module
INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF BENZOTRIAZOLE AND AMINE MIXTURES ON THE CORROSION OF GREY CAST IRON IN 0.1M POTASSIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS
- ALAGBE AND D.A. ADEGBITE
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria
Inhibitory effects of triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2], triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N], triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] and triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] on the corrosion of grey cast iron in 0.1M potassium chloride (KCl) solutions have been investigated using the weight loss immersion and polarization methods. The inhibitive potentials of the four inhibitors were evaluated based on a determination of the corrosion rates in the presence and absence of the inhibitors at room temperature. The results obtained indicate that benzotriazole + triethanolamine and benzotriazole + triethylamine were observed to be more efficient than triethanolamine and triethylamine by providing corrosion inhibition at molar concentrations of 10-3M and 10-2M respectively. It was also observed that triethanolamine, triethylamine, triethanolamine + benzotriazole and triethylamine + benzotriazole showed considerable potentials with inhibition efficiencies of about 71.2%, 78.4%, 84.9% and 88.4% respectively in 0.1M potassium chloride solutions for grey cast iron. Polarization data revealed that benzotriazole is acting mainly on the anodic process rendering the passive film more stable and less susceptible to attack by the chloride ions. However, benzotriazole increased the pitting potential, but has a marginal influence on the behaviour of the grey cast iron under cathodic polarization. The results of this work are expected to be used to improve the corrosion resistance of cast iron for automobile and chemical industries in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: corrosion, chloride, cast iron, inhibition efficiency, polarization.
OPTIMIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF LDPE-SANDCRETE COMPOSITE USING TWO-FACTORIAL DESIGN
- ABDULLAHIA, A. A. OTORIA AND A. L. NDAGIMANA
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering. The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
The mathematical model for the determination of compressive strength of Low Density Polyethylene-sandcrete (LDPE-S) composite was developed and optimized by application of 2-level factorial design. The interactive effects Age (7 – 28-day), polyethylene pellet (5 – 15%), cement and sand with constant w/c ratio of 0.5 were investigated. The statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that Age and LDPE- pellet has great effect on the compressive strength of the sandcrete composite. The compressive strength increased as the age and sand components increases with constant cement composition. However, as the mass of LDPE- pellet increases, the compressive strength decreases. The developed predicted model showed that the optimal compressive strength obtained was 3.05835 N/mm2 after 28-day curing at ambient condition. The predicted compressive strength was found to be highly correlated with the experimental with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.077. The quality of the LDPE-S composite at the optimum predicated conditions satisfied NIS of 2007. The developed predicted equation could be used in the design of LDPE-S mix composite in the utilization of structural partitions and waste management.
KEYWORDS: DOE (Design of Experiment), ANOVA (Analysis of variance), Compressive Strength, Factorial Design, LDPE-sandcrete
GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY FROM MUCK BACTERIAL ISOLATES USING COPPER WIRE
1ZARAU ATIKU GWANDU AND 1FASIKU OLUWAFEMI OMONIYI
Department of Remedial Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State. College of Science and Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State.
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) represents a new method for electricity generation. Microbial fuel cells are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from wide range organic substrates. The muck used as the substrate for the MFC set up was obtained from sewage around Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. The MFC was set-up according to the method used by Lee et al. (2008), after the set up; the initial voltage recorded from the copper wire was 0.08v, which progressively increased with time to a peak voltage of 0.49v, before the voltage started to decrease. Of all the bacteria isolated from the muck, only 3 isolates generates significant voltage i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The peak voltage generated by Escherichia coli was 1.62v, Staphylococcus aureus generated 0.06v and Bacillus cereus generated 0.34v. This further shows the fuel cell potentials of E.coli to several other electigens. This preliminary research reveals that electrigenic bacteria, capable of liberating electrons to the anode without a mediator can be isolated from the muck.
KEYWORDS: Muck, Cathode, Anode, Salt Bridge, Electrigenic bacteria.
BIOMETRIC FINGER PRINT EXAMINATION AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM
G.N. JOLA1 AND YUNUSA M.A2
(1&2) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Biometric Fingerprint based exam hall authentication systems assist in the elimination of examination impersonation. The Nigeria institution examination control board is yet to use the fingerprint as mode of identification, thus this has resulted in people sitting for examinations for others who collect the result at the end. With the adoption of fingerprint biometric, this will be eliminated as fingerprint identification will also be used during collection of results and certificates. This target can be mainly decomposed into image pre-processing feature match. Based on the analysis, an integrated solution for fingerprint recognition is developed for demonstration. This demonstration program is coded using visual Basics programming language for the program, some optimization at coding level and algorithm level are proposed to improve the performance of this fingerprint recognition system. These performances enhancements are shown by experiments conducted upon a variety of fingerprint images.
KEYWORDS: Biometric, Examnation, Authentication, Finger, System.
THE EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED TI6AL4V
ALIBE MUSTAPHA ALIA*, SURAIYA ZABEENB, ABUBAKAR JANGA ALHAJIA,C, IBRAHIM MUSTAPHA ALIBED
aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. bFaculty of Engineering and Computing Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Manufacturing Coventry University, UK cDepartment of Manufacturing Engineering Wolverhampton University UK dMaterial Science and Technology Division, Pilot Plant Department National Chemical Research Institute Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.
Electrical discharge machining process can be regulated using parameters such as pulse on time, voltage and current. One of the most important parameter that measures the machining efficiency is the material removal rate. Heat generated during Electrical discharge machining is determined upon by the spark energy, which in turn influences the material removal rate. Essential process parameters of EDM are current, voltage and pulse on time. This research work manipulates these parameters of current, voltage and pulse on time to study the consequence of variation in these parameters on material removal rate. It was observed that MRR increases indirectly with the increases in voltage. MRR have direct proportional relationship with pulse on time up to a certain limit then decreases. MRR increases with an equal increase in current. However, further increase in current results in decrease MRR.
KEYWORDS: machining, process, parameters, metal, current, voltage.