INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE VOL. 7 NO.1 (IJAPS)


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE VOL. 7 NO.1 DEC-2018 ISSN: 1660-5332

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PAPERS:


REMOVAL OF COPPER (II) IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING PLANTAIN STALK POWDER AS A NOVEL ADSORBENT

EBIEKPE, V.E.

Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Veritas University, Abuja – Nigeria

Abstract

T

he removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions using plantain stalk powder (an agricultural waste) as a novel adsorbent was investigated using batch method. Factors influencing copper adsorption such as initial copper ion concentration (1.0 – 6.0 mg/l), pH (3 – 10) and contact time (1 – 5 hrs) at constant temperature 30o C (303 K) were investigated. The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was established within 2 hrs. Maximum adsorption of 89.9% for Cu2+ ions was found to occur at around pH 5. The equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using different adsorption isotherm models. The result was best described by the Langmuir model with R2 value of 0.98. The maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption process calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 250 mg/g. The high value of the adsorption capacity indicated that plantain stalk powder can be used as an excellent alternative for the removal of Cu2+ ions from waste-water

KEYWORDS: Adsorption, Plantain stalk powder, Aqueous solutions, Agricultural-waste, Langmuir model

A PROPOSED MODEL FOR USERS’ AUTHENTICATION OF ATTENDANCE SYSTEM TOWARDS CURTAILING FRAUD IN PUBLIC SECTOR

IDRIS ISMAILA1, ILYAS ADELEKE JIMOH2, ISHOLA D. MURAINA3

1,2Federal University of Technology, Minna Nigeria 3School of Computing, University Utara Malaysia, Sintok Malaysia

Abstract

F

raud in the public sector is endemic and requires immediate attention. Users’ Authentication (UA) remains the most viable system for fraud management globally. The conventional Users’Authentication (UA) utilizes the biometrics and authentication of an attendance system such as GPS, RFID and therefore identified with certain limitations. Therefore, this study integrated biometrics, authentication of attendance system, national identity database (NID) and or Bank Verification Number (BVN) as a framework for financial management in the public sector. A system-to-system integration approach will be adopted to reduce human interference and errors. Verification and authentication of each users biometrics from the NID / BVN will serves as the major input parameters. The collection of daily biometric data of attendance will be passed to central payroll application which in turn forms the output of the model at the end of the month. The integration of biometric authentication of attendance system, National Identity Database and BVN can provide a more reliable and effective framework for the management of financial leakages in public sector. The developed framework is therefore recommended for use in public sector.

KEYWORDS: Users’ authentications, Attendance system, Fraud in public sector

ON THE IMPACT OF INITIAL CONDITIONS ON THE DIVIDENDS OF TWO INVESTORS TRADING IN AN UNSTABLE AND UNCERTAIN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

E. N. EKAKA-A   AND N. M. NAFO

Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Abstract

W

e have used a numerical method to investigate the extent of the differential effects of the initial conditions otherwise called the initial investments on the dividends of two stock exchange investment interval (1.2 million naira, 1.4 million naira). When the initial investment of the first investor is either decreased or increased, the first investor is associated with a dominant increase in the dividends while the second investor is relatively vulnerable to a dominant depletion of the dividends and some few instances of an increase in the dividends. Under other simplifying assumptions, we have found that the two investors can be vulnerable to the depletions of their dividends. We should expect these novel contributions that we have not seen elsewhere to provide some insight on how to manage the issues of wealth in the context of an unstable and uncertain economic system.

KEYWORDS: Numerical method, initial dividends, competition, wealth, economic system.

EVALUATION OF TOXIC ELEMENT CONTENTS IN INFANT FOODS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IN GOMBE TOWN, NIGERIA

HANKOURAOU SEYDOU1 AND SARAH BILLAH MARGA2

1,2Department of Physics, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Abstract

T

his study was aimed at analyzing heavy metals in some selected infant food formula in Gombe Town. The infant samples were five different infant food formulas obtained from Gombe market. The sample were digested using hydrochloric (HCl) acid and nitric (HNO3) in the ratio of 5:1 and analyzed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ASS) for determination of heavy metals concentrations. The mean concentrations obtained were compared with the maximum tolerable values reported by WHO. Lead was not detected in all the samples. The heavy metal concentration levels was found to be within safe limit except for copper (0.100 to 0.400 mg/kg), nickel (0.100 to 4.500 mg/kg) and Magnesium (18.600 to 31.700 mg/kg).Sample B and D give values above WHO for Cu. Sample A, B, D and E give values above WHO for Ni. Sample A, B, C, D and E give values above WHO for Mg. The higher concentration may be due to the environmental mismanagement such as improper disposal of electronic waste and application of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. All samples showed lower intake values when compared with the value the WHO values with exception of Cd which gave values ranging from 0.01 to 0.09 mg/day while the recommended value is zero.

KEYWORDS: Heavy metals, Infant Food Formula, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Gombe Twon

DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF WEB-BASED CAREER MINING AND RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL COLLEGE STUDENTS USING CHI-SQUARE CASE-BASED REASONING (CBR) MODEL

A.D. ADENIYI1, S.O. OLADEJO2

1,2 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, P.M.B. 127, Gombe, Nigeria.

Abstract

I

n recent time, there is an increasingly growth in the volume of information available in electronics forms and databases for online registrations, this therefore makes locating relevant information to be strenuous, tedious and time consuming. To alleviate this limitation, this paper present a simple but promising hybrid recommendation model called Chi-square Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) recommendation model. This is aimed at identifying a candidate’s navigation pattern on a courses selection and registration website, based on the candidate’s current behavior by acting upon her click stream data in order to provide personalized information to the individuals without explicitly asking for it and to ease navigation on the site without too many choices at a time. The proposed recommendation system powered by CBR model has the potential to overcome computational inaccuracy, scalability problem, inefficient search time and the challenge of finding a good similarity metric common to most traditional recommendation system.  The implementation of the proposed Career Mining and Recommendation System using  model is achieved through the use of an in-house developed PHP program experiment with XAMP/Apache HTTP server as hosting server.  Performance evaluation of the present system shows capability to provide accurate, faster and efficient recommendation to the clients consistently.

KEYWORDS: Recommendation, On-line, Chi-square distance, Case-Based, click stream.

BIASED CONSTRAINT-BASED CULTURAL ALGORITHM COURSES TIME TABLING SYSTEM

1 ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI., 2 ISMAILA FOLASADE. M, 3 BELLO ONIYIDE A., 4 OGUNJINMI T. OMOTAYO

1,4Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Tech., Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria 3Department of Computer Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Abstract

C

onstraints are relations over problem variables that define the space of solutions by specifying restrictions on the values that the variables may take simultaneously. A timetable is essentially a schedule which must suit a number of constraints. Constraints are almost universally employed by people dealing with timetabling problems especially university course timetabling. However, lecturers’ requests are not factored into constraints because they are regarded as been biased. This work employed cultural algorithm to generate course timetable which considered lecturers’ requests as float constraints. Strong and weak constraints were formulated with lecturer’s requests as float constraint. The system was coded and simulated in C++ language. The float constraint was experimented under both strong and weak constraints. The results showed that the CA timetabling system with float constraint (as strong) produced constraints violation of 6.5% better than GA timetabling system with float constraint (as strong) of 15.7%. The CA timetabling system float constraint (as weak) produced constraints violation of 11.8% better than GA timetable system float constraint (as weak) of 23.3%.

KEYWORDS: Strong Constraints, Cultural algorithm, Constraints Violation, Weak Constraints

I.T RELEVANCE IN PIGGERY FARMING SYSTEM

ANTHONY ATIMA UMUKORO & JOSEPH OKORODUDU

Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe. 

Abstract

T

aking a look at the interest in information system, we have experienced increasing assistance from the advancement of ubiquitous mobile technology to advance information systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a system for managing pig farm anywhere, anytime via information system to ultimately establish ubiquitous farming environment and improve livestock farms productivity. In this system, wireless environmental sensors and CCTVs are installed in pig farm that will collect data on livestock breeding environment such as illumination, humidity, temperature and gas to allow gathering and monitoring of pig farm environment. This system not only allows users to control and monitor pig farm facilities remotely but also helps to create optimal records through the implemented piggery information. To maximize the resources of a farm, it is recommended that information system should be employed in farms and in agricultural activities generally to increase productivity.

KEYWORDS: Information System, Mobile Technology, Livestock farm, Piggery, CCTV.s

IMPACT OF WEB‑BASED SOLUTIONS ON STUDENT RELATED SERVICES: CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA

OJO OLUWASESAN ADEBUSUYI

Department of Computer ScienceUIIECEST Bama, P.M.B 16 Bama. Borno State, Nigeria

Abstract

I

n the crusade towards delivering world-class services, universities are relying increasingly on web-based solutions such as web-sites for information dissemination and web- based portal solutions for student university interactions to make their operations more cost-effective and timely, and to reach a wider audience. In Nigeria, several universities have adopted web-based solutions in the delivery of student related services and this paper examines the extent of use and the impact using the University of Maiduguri (Unimaid), Nigeria, as a case study. The data collected includes the identification of the various student related announcements/services on the Unimaid website over a 12-month period as well as identifying what students go to the Unimaid website to do and how the various stakeholders perceive the web-based solutions. Of particular interest is the identification of the use, if any, of web-based services such as e-payments and web-to-mobile phone services. From the analyses of data collected, conclusions are reached regarding the impact of the various web-based solutions on key student related services while recommendations are made for enhancement and future research.

KEYWORDS: web-based solutions, portal, information dissemination, student services, service delivery, University of Maiduguri.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC TIMING CONTROL SWITCH (ATCS) USING ATMEGA328 MICROCONTROLLER TOWARDS SOLVING PROBLEM OF ELECTRICAL POWER WASTAGE

SALAKO, E. ADEKUNLE

Department of Computer Science, FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract

P

reserving electricity has become progressively significant as energy rates and shortages have increased. People can strategically deploy a number of techniques to make reduction on the electrical usage. Any organization that wants to advance must therefore embrace time management and proper conservation of electrical power supply. This can be achieved through controlling wastage in the limited power supply. The wastage of electrical power cannot be over-emphasized in FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja as many lighting bulbs, street-lights, electrical fans are always ON even when not in use. One of the principal problems is attitude to always ON these electrical appliances when needed and OFF when not in use. In the ideal case, the electrical appliances should be switched OFF when not in use, but the real case in the College community showed that electrical appliances such as electric bulbs and fans are always ON from the morning to the night. Humans are prone to forget things easily. The college community is characterized with electrical power wastage. However, the motivation for this research was to curtail the electrical power wastage and reduce high cost of electricity. Even, if the management had employed someone with responsibility of switching ON and OFF the appliances, the monthly salary of such employee could never be justified with what this research had achieved. This research was designed to control ON and OFF time of any electrical appliance connected to its output and can as well be used as a digital clock. The objective of this research was to control the ON and OFF state/time of an electric bulb. The design included a microcontroller (ATMEGA328) that will be programmed to achieve the timing operation: The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) displayed the ton (Time ON) and the t0ff (Time OFF); four buttons set the hour and the minutes; and the relay was activated whenever the time set elapses, causing the load (electrical appliance) connected to its output to be energized/dis-energized automatically. The developed system accommodated five daily plans for each day in a week. A time of 16:30 in GMT was set to test the ON switching. An electric bulb connected to the developed system was activated at exactly 16:30. Also, a time 18:46 was set to de-activate the already ON electric bulb. The electric bulb was switched OFF at exactly 18:46.

KEYWORDS: Automatic, Timing, Switch, Microcontroller and Electrical Power

THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGIES ON SOCIETY: A REVIEW

YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA1, YAMUSA IDRIS ADAMU1, IDRIS YA’U IDRIS1

Computer Science Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

Abstract

T

his research deals with the effects of misusing modern technologies on members of the society and their negative influences on economic, religious and social aspect, as well as their impact on people’s behavior and the responsibility of the society in monitoring the children who are in need of attention by everyone through the guidance of appropriate educational ways. Moreover, this research shows the need of joining all efforts collectively in order to protect the entire society from the dangers of modern technologies and work together to take advantage of its resources properly. This usually starts from the family and schools and ends with the universities, mass media and the various institutions that guarantee the rights of children from all different areas. However, this research emphasizes the fact that everyone should take his/her responsibilities towards using these methods properly whether at home or outside.

KEYWORDS: modern technologies, negative effects, impact of technology.

ROLE OF ICT TOOLS IN TACKLING NATIONAL TERRORISM IN NIGERIA

AYOADE, OLUSOLA BAMIDELE

Computer Science Department, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Nigeria.

Abstract

R

ecently, Nigeria society is engulfed by terrible violent acts of terrorism such as bombing, shooting, armed robbery, kidnapping, hostage-taking and bank-robbery. The high threat of terrorist attack, high risk of kidnapping, unprecedented security situation and the heightened risk of violent civil unrest become a subject of concern in the country. Even the insurgency of Boko Haram in northern part of the country poses major impediments to peace and security of the citizens in the country.  Different counter measures being used by the Nigerian government in curbing terrorism acts in the country are not sufficient and there is need to apply the use of ICT tools to strengthen the effort towards curbing the terrorism acts in the country.  Reports shown that some ICT tools such as Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), Electronic Road Pricing System (ERP), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology, etc. used in UK, USA and  Singapore successfully curbs terrorism acts in these countries.  Therefore, this review study discussed the concept of terrorism, ways through which terrorist use ICT to perpetuate their acts, typologies of terrorism, overview of terrorism in Nigeria and different ICT tools to combat terrorism.  Finally, the study recommends that government should provide adequate awareness training to the citizen on how to use ICT to report every suspicious transmission, movement, communication within the circle of reach of every citizen to the nearest and appropriate authorities for prompt action to be taken.

KEYWORDS: ANPR, Boko-Haram, CCTV, Crime, ERP, GPS, ICT tools, Insurgency

REVERSE SURFACE MODELING, MOULD DESIGN & VALIDATION OF A DEODORANT BOTTLE

ORISANAIYE BRUNO AKINJIDE

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

R

everse engineering provides a huge advantage compared to the use of traditional measurement methods of modelling that requires creating the object from the scratch.  The significance of this task is to use Reverse engineering to capture a digitized image of an existing model using a Faro Laser Scanner, which is then converted to cloud points and then modeled Using CAD tools like Geomagic and NX. Its application cuts across different engineering fields, from rapid prototyping of engineering parts in industry to medical applications like reproduction of bones for patients with ambulatory needs. The resulting image from the scan usually comes with defects, hence should be subjected to optimization. The first stage of optimization is to transform the points from the Digital image acquired from the scans into a mesh. Next, the Mesh doctor is used to correct defects such as overlapping and spiked points, to give it a fine finish. The resulting polygon from this process can then be relaxed to give the surface a smoother finish, but also taking into account, the preservation of the original shape of the object. This process seeks to reduce surface noise to the barest minimum. The Mold design and construction is dependent on the accuracy of the surface reconstruction and selection of Mold parameters.

KEYWORDS: Modeling, Reverse, Deodorant, Surface, Validation

SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY ON ZN-DOPED LEAD CHALCOGENIDE (PBSE)100XZNX THIN FILMS COMPOSED OF NANOPARTICLES

1BUBA MOHAMMED 2ALHAJI MUSTAPHA ISA 3ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED BELLO

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, PMB 035 Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Civil Engineering technology, Mai Idris Alooma polytechnic, P.M.B 1020 Geidam, Yobe State Nigeria 3Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, PMB 0231 Bauchi State

Abstract

T

he effect of laser-Irradiation on the optical properties of Zn-doped PbSe chalcogenite thin films composed of nanoparticles has been studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest the formation of nanoparticles of average size of 50 nm for all the studied Zn compositions. XRD studies show that the as-prepared thin films are polycrystalline in nature. The formation of nanoparticles of Zn-doped PbSe has been confirmed by indexing the crystal planes as observed in the XRD spectra. The addition of Zn in (PbSe)100xZnx thin films result in the blue shift in photoluminescence spectra, this blue shift is associated with the narrowing of the band gap. Optical absorption measurements reveal a direct band gap for the present samples, which decreases on increasing the Zn content. The same trend has also been observed for the samples irradiated with laser. Further, the calculated values of Urbach energy are found to increase with the increase in Zn contents for the as prepared as well as laser-irradiated samples. All the above observations agree well with the results of optical band gap and suggest that the decrease in band gap may be due to increase in band tails, defects and particle size.

KEYWORDS: Lead chalcogenides,Thin films, Nanoparticles, Optical band gap, Urbach energy.

APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PUBLIC LIBRARY: ADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS

ALIYU MUSA1, YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA2

Department of Library and Information Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 1, Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2

Abstract

T

his paper has in the process of its study discussed the ”information and communication technologies” in public Library. It threw more light on the concepts of information technology, public Library and technology itself. Techniques/technologies used in the storage, processing, and retrieval of information (such as magnetic disc, diskette e.t.c.) among others were fully highlighted; the need to apply technology and the rationale for its application  especially in public Library were silently appraised. Some modern information technologies such as database technology, microforms technology e.t.c. were also identified and areas of application highlighted, advantages and problems of the application and usage of the technologies in public Library were identified and solutions proffered.

KEYWORDS: Information, communication, technology, public Library, database

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE VULNERABILITY TO A DOMINANT DEPLETION OF THE CUMULATIVE CONCENTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE DUE TO A CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION: NUMERICAL METHOD

EKAKA-A, E. N, ESEKHAIGBE E

Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

Abstract

W

e have systematically investigated the semi-stochastic differential effect of the random environmental parameter on the cumulative concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere using ODE45 numerical simulation. The novel results that we have obtained have not been seen elsewhere; these are presented and discussed quantitatively within important environmental policy implication.KEYWORDS:environmental modeling, environmental perturbation, ODE45, CO2 concentration

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